Roughly 3,500 kilometres (2,175 mi) of the Canada–United States border was designated to follow the 49th parallel from British Columbia to Manitoba on the Canada side, and from Washington to Minnesota on the U.S. side, more specifically from the Strait of Georgia to the Lake of the Woods. This international border was specified in the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 and the Oregon Treaty of 1846, though survey markers placed in the 19th century cause the border to deviate from the 49th parallel by up to tens of meters.
From a point on the ground at this latitude, the sun is above the horizon for 16 hours, 12 minutes during the summer solstice and 8 hours, 14 minutes during the winter solstice This latitude also roughly corresponds to the minimum latitude in which astronomical twilight can last all night near the summer solstice. Slightly less than 1/8 of the Earth's surface is north of the 49th parallel.
Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 49° north passes through:
|Co-ordinates||Country, territory or sea||Notes|
Île-de-France - crossing a runway of Charles de Gaulle Airport
Baden-Württemberg (passing through Karlsruhe city centre)
|Austria||For about 4.8 km (3 mi)|
|Czech Republic||For about 5 km (3 mi)|
|Austria||For about 120 m|
|Slovakia||Prešov Region (passing through Prešov city centre)|
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast — passing through Bolekhiv and Kolomyia
Ternopil Oblast — passing just south of Chortkiv
Vinnytsia Oblast — passing just south of Zhmerynka
Cherkassy Oblast — passing through Shpola
Poltava Oblast — passing just through Kremenchuk and Horishni Plavni
Donetsk Oblast — passing just through Lyman
Luhanska Oblast — passing through Rubizhne
|People's Republic of China||Xinjiang|
|People's Republic of China||Inner Mongolia|
Jewish Autonomous Oblast
|Strait of Tartary|
|Russia||Island of Sakhalin|
|Sea of Okhotsk||Gulf of Patience|
|Russia||Island of Sakhalin|
|Sea of Okhotsk||Passing between the islands of Kharimkotan and Ekarma in Russia's Kuril Island chain|
|Canada||British Columbia - Vancouver Island, Thetis Island and Galiano Island|
|Strait of Georgia|
|United States||Washington (Point Roberts)|
|Boundary Bay||Semiahmoo Bay|
|United States||Idaho, Montana|
|Canada||British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan|
|United States||North Dakota, Minnesota|
|Lake of the Woods||Passing just south of Big Island and Bigsby Island, Ontario, Canada|
|St. Lawrence River|
|Canada||Quebec - Gaspé Peninsula|
|Gulf of St. Lawrence||Passing just south of Anticosti Island, Quebec, Canada|
|Canada||Newfoundland and Labrador - island of Newfoundland|
|English Channel||Gulf of Saint-Malo - passing just south of the island of Jersey|
In 1714, the Hudson's Bay Company proposed the 49th parallel as the western portion of the boundary between the company's land and French territory. At the time, Britain and France had agreed, in the Treaty of Utrecht, to negotiate a boundary, but negotiations ultimately failed.
Following the Louisiana Purchase by the United States in 1803, it was generally agreed that the boundary between the new territory and British North America was along the watershed between the Missouri River and Mississippi River basins on one side and the Hudson Bay basin on the other. However, it is often difficult to precisely determine the location of a watershed in a region of level plains, such as in central North America. The British and American committees that met after the War of 1812 to resolve boundary disputes recognized there would be much animosity in surveying the watershed boundary, and agreed on a simpler border solution in the Treaty of 1818: the 49th parallel. Both sides gained and lost some territory by this convention, but the United States gained more than it lost, in particular securing title to the Red River Basin. This treaty established the boundary only between the line of longitude of the northwesternmost point of Lake of the Woods, on the east, and the Rocky Mountains, on the west. West of the Rockies, the treaty established joint occupation of the Oregon Country by both parties; east of Lake of the Woods, the boundary established in the Treaty of Paris would be retained.
Although the Convention of 1818 settled the boundary, neither country was immediately able to control over the territories on its side of the line: effective control still rested with local Indian tribes, mainly the Métis, Assiniboine, Lakota and Blackfoot. Their power was gradually ceded by conquest and treaty during the several decades that followed. Among these peoples, the 49th parallel was nicknamed the Medicine Line because of its seemingly magical ability to prevent U.S. soldiers from crossing it.
In the 1844 U.S. presidential election, the Democratic Party asserted that the northern border of the Oregon Territory should be 54°40′, later reflected in the 1846 slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!" However, the Oregon boundary dispute was settled diplomatically in the 1846 Oregon Treaty. This agreement divided the Oregon Country between British North America and the United States by extending the 49th parallel boundary to the west coast, ending in the Strait of Georgia; it then circumvents Vancouver Island through Boundary Pass, Haro Strait, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This had the side effect of isolating Point Roberts, Washington.
Although parts of Vancouver Island and parts of Eastern Canada are south of the 49th parallel, and parts of the United States (Alaska, Northwest Angle) are north of it, the term 49th parallel is sometimes used metonymically to refer to the entire Canada-U.S. border. Actually, many of Canada's most populated regions (and about 72% of the population) are south of the 49th parallel, including the two largest cities Toronto (43°42′ north) and Montreal (45°30′ north), the federal capital Ottawa (45°25′ north) and the capitals of all provinces except the Prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba), these being the only provinces entirely north of the 49th parallel. The three Maritime provinces are each entirely south of the parallel, but the vast majority of Canadian territory lies north of it.
Parts of the 49th parallel were originally surveyed using astronomical techniques that did not take into account slight departures of the Earth's shape from a simple ellipsoid, or the deflection of the plumb-bob by differences in terrestrial mass. The surveys were subject to the limitations of early to mid-19th century technology, but accurate results were obtained. However, in some places the surveyed 49th parallel is several hundred feet from the geographical 49th parallel for the currently adopted datum, the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83). The Digital Chart of the World (DCW), which uses the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid, reports the border on average at latitude 48° 59′ 51″ north, roughly 270 metres (886 ft) south of the modern 49th parallel. It ranges between 48° 59′ 25″ and 49° 0′ 10″ north, 810 metres (2,657 ft) and 590 metres (1,936 ft) on either side of the average. In any case, the Earth's North Pole moves around slightly, notionally moving the 49th and other parallels with it; see polar motion.
The Northwest Angle is the only part of the contiguous 48 states that goes north of the 49th parallel. The Treaty of Paris called for the boundary between the US and British territory to pass through the most northwesterly point of Lake of the Woods, and this was retained even after an 1818 treaty set the boundary west of that point to follow the 49th parallel.
At the time that the United States and Great Britain agreed on the 49th parallel as the boundary, much of the North American continent had not yet been mapped. After the boundary was established, British surveyors discovered that Point Roberts lay south of the 49th parallel. The British requested that the United States cede the territory to Great Britain, but no action was ever taken.
In 1909 the United States, United Kingdom and Canada signed and ratified a treaty confirming the original survey lines as the official and permanent international border. Nevertheless, in 2002 the difference of the survey from the geographical 49th parallel was argued in front of the Washington Supreme Court in the case of State of Washington v. Norman, under the premise that Washington did not properly incorporate the portions of land north of the geographical 49th parallel, as laid out by detailed GPS surveying. The court decided against the premise, ruling that the internationally surveyed boundary also served as the state boundary, regardless of its actual position.
The 49th Parallel Cup was an annual Australian rules football match between the USA and Canada.49th parallel
49th parallel may refer to:
49th parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere
49th parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere
49th Parallel (film), a 1941 Canadian and British film
Canada–United States border, sometimes referred to as the "49th parallel" due to much of it following the 49th parallel north
Hymns of the 49th Parallel, a music album by K.D. Lang50th parallel north
The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.
At this latitude the sun is visible for 16 hours, 22 minutes during the summer solstice and 8 hours, 4 minutes during the winter solstice.
The maximum altitude of the sun on the summer solstice is 63.5 degrees and on the winter solstice it is 16.5 degrees.At this latitude, the average sea surface temperature between 1982 and 2011 was about 8.5°C (47.3°F).Area code 403
Area code 403 is a telephone area code in the Canadian province of Alberta, encompassing the southern third of the province, including the Calgary area.
The 403 area code was one of the original 89 area codes assigned in 1947 in the contiguous United States and the then nine-province extent of Canada. It originally encompassed the whole province of Alberta, the Yukon and the western half of the Northwest Territories. It was the second-largest numbering plan area in the North American Numbering Plan, spanning more than one-ninth of the circumference of the planet from the 49th parallel north to the North Pole. On October 3, 1997, 403 was cut back to Alberta, when the territories were split off as their own separate area code, 867.
Within only a year, 403 was back to the brink of exhaustion due to Canada's number allocation system. Every local exchange carrier is allocated blocks of 10,000 numbers–corresponding to a single three-digit prefix–for every rate centre where they plan to offer service, even for the smallest hamlets. While most rate centres do not need nearly that many numbers, it is not possible to move a number from one rate centre to another. This resulted in thousands of wasted numbers, and the proliferation of cell phones and pagers–especially in Calgary and Edmonton–only exacerbated this.
On January 25, 1999, the northern two-thirds of Alberta, including Edmonton, was split into the new area code 780. Generally, everything from Red Deer and Lacombe southward stayed in 403. Permissive dialing of 403 continued across the province until May 18, 1999.
This was intended as a long-term solution, but within a decade 403 was close to exhaustion once again. To solve the problem, it was decided to implement area code 587 as a province-wide overlay. Optional provincewide 10-digit dialing began on June 23, 2008, and became mandatory on September 12, 2008. On September 20, 2008, Telus Mobility began assigning 587 numbers to new customers in Calgary and Edmonton.
The incumbent local exchange carrier (LEC) in 403 is Telus; prior to 1997, the larger 403 included EdTel (Edmonton Telephones, now part of Telus) and Northwestel as incumbent LECs. Prior to 1990, Telus was known as Alberta Government Telephones, and was a department of the provincial government.Belly River
Belly River is a river in northwest Montana, United States and southern Alberta, Canada. It is a tributary of the Oldman River, itself a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River.
The name of the river may come from the Blackfoot word "Mokowan" or "Mokoan", meaning stomach (the river was previously referred to as Mokowan River).The river was the scene of the Battle of the Belly River between the Cree and the Blackfoot Confederacy in 1870.
The river gives the name to the Cretaceous age Belly River Formation, which was observed on its banks by George Mercer Dawson in 1883.Borders of Canada
The borders of Canada include the longest shared border in the world, 8,893 km (5,526 mi) with the United States as well as a long maritime boundary with Denmark, at the autonomous island country of Greenland, and a short maritime border with France, at the overseas islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.Cameron Lake (Alberta)
Cameron Lake is at the end of the Akamina Parkway, Waterton Lakes National Park Alberta, Canada. It is named after Donald Roderick Cameron (1834–1921) a British Royal Artillery captain.
The 49th parallel north runs through the southern end of the lake making part of it technically in Glacier County, Montana.Camp Disappointment
Camp Disappointment is the northernmost campsite of the Lewis and Clark expedition, on its return trip from the Pacific Northwest. The site is on private land within the Blackfeet Indian Reservation in Glacier County, Montana. It is located along the south bank of Cut Bank Creek and 12 miles (19 km) northeast of Browning, Montana. Glacier National Park can be seen in the distance. The modern Canada–United States border with Montana is the 49th parallel north.The campsite was used by a detachment of the expedition from July 22–26, 1806. Captain Meriwether Lewis, George Drouillard, the two Fields brothers—Joseph and Reubin—, possibly five more men, along with six horses, were exploring the Marias River in an attempt to show that the Missouri River watershed extended to the 50th parallel north in order to claim more land for the United States under the Louisiana Purchase. However, they discovered that the watershed does not extend to the 50th parallel and consequently named their campsite Camp Disappointment. Lewis called the site which is shaded by cottonwood trees a "beautiful and extensive bottom". Since it was overcast and damp throughout their stay the expedition could not make any astronomical observations. This part of the expedition split off from William Clark's group at the Great Falls of the Missouri on July 16.
On the morning of July 26, 1806 they left the camp to head back and later that day met a party of eight Blackfeet Indians, the first members of that tribe that the expedition had encountered. The Blackfeet seemed friendly towards them, and the two parties agreed to set up and share a camp for the night. Over the course of the evening, the Blackfeet became aware that the expedition party had been trading with as well as brokering peace with any and all tribes that they'd encountered, including many of the Blackfeet's enemies and rivals. Among those goods traded were firearms, which especially aggravated the Blackfeet, as guns were then considered a relatively scarce and extremely valuable military commodity for the tribes of the area, and one which the Blackfeet had been trying to monopolize for themselves up until that point.As a result, after both parties had apparently retired for the night, the Blackfeet men attempted to steal the expedition members' various guns while they slept. One of the party members awoke during the attempted burglary, thereby alerting the others, and the situation rapidly escalated into a violent conflict between the two groups. During the fight, two of the Blackfeet were shot and killed by two of the Lewis party members, in what the latter considered acts of deeply regrettable, yet necessary self-defense. Because the conflict occurred near the Two Medicine River, it subsequently became known as the Two Medicine Fight, and would be the only time throughout the entire Lewis and Clark expedition that an encounter with Native Americans resulted in violence on either side.In 1925 the Great Northern Railway erected a monument similar to the Washington Monument and a sign 4 miles (6.4 km) south of the campsite reached on July 23, 1806. This is near mile marker 233 and several hundred yards north of U.S. Route 2. Access to the campsite is only via a primitive road just west of this marker. It was declared both a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.The site is relatively unchanged since the expedition camped here. Though on private property, one can visit with an admission fee and a 4-wheel drive vehicle. The site includes an ancient Indian buffalo jump. From the National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form:
"At the campsite today wide lowland meadows are watered by the Cut Bank Creek and cottonwood trees line its banks. From the high wind-swept plains that rise above the site on the north and south you can trace the route of the creek into the foot of the mountains in the distance by the dark green foliage of the trees which mark its course.
"Immediately east of the meadow delineated as the probable campsite, and protecting the area from the strong winds, is a large stone cliff -- approximately 300 feet high and 600 feet wide -- of craggy grey stone. This very sheer precipice was an Indian buffalo jump, or pishkin, one of many in Montana, but one in particularly good condition, probably because of its isolated location. The creek which washes directly by the foot of the cliff has exposed many bones of the animals killed during the Indian-instigated buffalo stampedes over the cliff, which provided the people with large supplies of food and hides in the era before the Indians had horses for hunting."Fort Cowlitz
Fort Cowlitz or Cowlitz Farm was an agricultural operation by the British Puget Sound Agricultural Company (PSAC), a subsidiary of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC). It was located on the Cowlitz plains, adjacent to the west bank of the Cowlitz River and several miles northeast of modern Toledo, Washington. The farm was begun during spring of 1839, and its produce soon supplied HBC posts in New Caledonia and Columbia Departments. In the RAC-HBC Agreement, the Russian-American Company received at Novo-Arkhangelsk grain and dairy products from the PSAC along with manufactured goods. Fort Cowlitz produced most of the Company wheat quotas, and its fellow PSAC station Fort Nisqually tended most of the sheep and cattle flocks. By the expiration of the agreement in 1850, Cowlitz Farm wasn't able to meet Russian supply demands.Cowlitz Farm was established during the joint occupation of Oregon Country between the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The border between British North America and the United States was negotiated in 1846, to extend through Oregon Country mostly on the 49th parallel north. Administrative orders were sent from the center of the HBC Columbia Department, located at Fort Vancouver and later Fort Victoria. Agricultural areas established by Fort Cowlitz were increasingly claimed by arriving American immigrants in the 1840s, beginning contentious legal battles. A settlement with the United States for the sale of PSAC property occurred on 10 September 1869, the company to be paid $200,000 in gold coins.Fort Dufferin
Fort Dufferin was a Canadian government post in southern Manitoba near the Canada–United States border at Emerson. The fort was used during the 1870s as a base for the North American Boundary Commission and the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), and as an immigration station.Jervis Inlet
Jervis Inlet locally is one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast, about 95 km (59 mi) northwest of Vancouver, and the third of such inlets north of the 49th parallel north, the first of which is the Burrard Inlet, Vancouver's harbour.
Kingcome Inlet is one of the lesser principal fjords of the British Columbia Coast, north and east of Broughton Island. It is sixth in sequence of the major saltwater fjords north from the 49th parallel north near Vancouver and similar in width (2.5 km avg) to longer inlets such as Knight Inlet and Bute Inlet, but it is only 35 km in length from the mouth of the Kingcome River to Sutlej Channel, which ultimately connects around Broughton Island to the main regional waterway of the Queen Charlotte Strait. Kingcome Inlet has a short side inlet, Wakeman Sound, fed by the Wakeman River.
The Kwakwaka'wakw community and former cannery town of Kingcome is located a few miles up the Kingcome River, while the community of Kingcome Inlet is on the west bank of the mouth of the Kingcome River.Knight Inlet
Knight Inlet or Tsawatti or Tswawadwi is one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast, and the largest of the major inlets in the southern part of the Coast. It is fifth in sequence of the great saltwater inlets north from the 49th parallel north near Vancouver, but it is the first whose outflow points away from the Strait of Georgia, opening into Queen Charlotte Strait at the Kwakwaka'wakw community of Memkumlis (often known by the name of the group who were based there, the Mamalilaculla) on Village Island.
The inlet's opening lies east of Malcolm Island and the fishing town of Port McNeill on Vancouver Island, and just north of the opening of the upper end of Johnstone Strait, which separates Vancouver Island from the archipelago between it and the mainland.
Knight Inlet is one of the longest on the BC Coast at c. 125 kilometres in length; it is about 2.5 km in average width. Its great volume of water causes a major current and severe turbulence at its mouth during tidal changes, and outflow winds from it, which pour out of the BC Interior, are a hazard to small vessels in the Queen Charlotte Strait. It is fed by the Klinaklini River, which begins on the western edge of the Chilcotin Plateau and is fed by the massive Klinaklini Glacier, one of the two main eastern "tongues" of the Ha-Iltzuk Icefield, one of the largest of the icecaps of the southern Coast Mountains and also home to the Silverthrone Caldera volcanic bowl.Ladysmith, British Columbia
Ladysmith, originally Oyster Harbour, is a town located on the 49th parallel north on the east coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. The local economy is based on forestry, tourism, and agriculture. A hillside location adjacent to a sheltered harbour forms the natural characteristics of the community.
As of 2016, the population was 8,537. The area of the town was 11.99 square kilometres. Total private dwellings were 3,754. Population density was 711.9 people per square kilometre.Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana (French: La Louisiane; La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control 1682 to 1762 and 1801 (nominally) to 1803, the area was named in honor of King Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. It originally covered an expansive territory that included most of the drainage basin of the Mississippi River and stretched from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Appalachian Mountains to the Rocky Mountains.
Louisiana included two regions, now known as Upper Louisiana (French: la Haute-Louisiane), which began north of the Arkansas River, and Lower Louisiana (French: la Basse-Louisiane). The U.S. state of Louisiana is named for the historical region, although it is only a small part of the vast lands claimed by France.French exploration of the area began during the reign of Louis XIV, but French Louisiana was not greatly developed, due to a lack of human and financial resources. As a result of its defeat in the Seven Years' War, France was forced to cede the east part of the territory in 1763 to the victorious British, and the west part to Spain as compensation for Spain losing Florida. France regained sovereignty of the western territory in the secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800. But strained by obligations in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte sold the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, ending France's presence in Louisiana.
The United States ceded part of the Louisiana Purchase to the United Kingdom in the Treaty of 1818. This section lies above the 49th parallel north in a part of present-day Alberta and Saskatchewan.Missouri Territory
The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821. In 1819, the Territory of Arkansas was created from a portion of its southern area. In 1821, a southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Missouri, and the rest became unorganized territory for several years.Treaty of 1818
The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was an international treaty signed in 1818 between the above parties. Signed during the presidency of James Monroe, it resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations. The treaty allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister district New Caledonia.
The two nations agreed to a boundary line involving the 49th parallel north, in part because a straight-line boundary would be easier to survey than the pre-existing boundaries based on watersheds. The treaty marked both the United Kingdom's last permanent major loss of territory in what is now the Continental United States and the United States' only permanent significant cession of North American territory to a foreign power. Britain ceded all of Rupert's Land south of the 49th parallel and east of the Continental Divide, including all of the Red River Colony south of that latitude, while the United States ceded the northernmost edge of the Missouri Territory north of the 49th parallel.Waterton Lake
Waterton Lake is a mountain lake in southern Alberta, Canada and northern Montana, United States. The lake is composed of two bodies of water, connected by a shallow channel known locally as the Bosporus. The two parts are referred to as Middle Waterton Lake, and Upper Waterton Lake, the latter of which is divided by the Canada–United States border with Canada having about two thirds of the lake while the United States has the Southern third. The United States Geological Survey gives the geocoordinates of 49°03′00″N 113°54′03″W for Upper Waterton Lake. There is also Lower Waterton Lake which is located located to the North of Middle Waterton Lake, it is separated by a channel known as the Dardanelles.The northern, lower end of the main lake lies in Waterton Lakes National Park while the upper, southern part of the lake is located in Glacier National Park. In 1979, UNESCO established the Waterton Biosphere Reserve to protect the diverse habitats including prairie grasslands, aspen parkland, subalpine forests, alpine tundra and freshwater fens that surround the lake.Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park was created by the US and Canada in 1932, and in 1976 it was designated an International Biosphere Reserve. Later, in 1995, it was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.The upper and middle Waterton Lake system has a surface of 10.1 km2 (3.9 sq mi), while the lower lake, which is in Canada only, has 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi) and lies at an altitude of 1,274 m (4,180 ft). Two soundings of the lake were 210 feet (64 m) and 317 feet (97 m), done in 1910. More recent soundings have revealed a depth of 490 ft (150 m).Highway 5 has its westernmost point on the shores of the lake.Weißwurstäquator
The Weißwurstäquator (German pronunciation: [ˌvaɪsvʊɐ̯stɛˈkvaːtoːɐ̯] (listen), white sausage equator) is a humorous term describing the supposed cultural boundary separating Southern Germany from the North, especially Bavaria from Central Germany.
It is named for the Weißwurst sausage of Bavaria, and has no precise definition. A popular one is the linguistic boundary known as the Speyer line separating Upper German from Central German dialects, roughly following the Main River; another is a line running further south, more or less along the Danube, or between the Main and the Danube, roughly along the 49th parallel north circle of latitude.