480i

480i is a shorthand name for the video mode used for standard-definition analog or digital television in Caribbean, Myanmar, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Laos, Western Sahara, and most of the Americas (with the exception of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay). The 480 identifies a vertical resolution of 480 lines, and the i identifies it as an interlaced resolution. The field rate, which is 60 Hz (or 59.94 Hz when used with NTSC color), is sometimes included when identifying the video mode, i.e. 480i60; another notation, endorsed by both the International Telecommunication Union in BT.601 and SMPTE in SMPTE 259M, includes the frame rate, as in 480i/30. The other common standard, used in the other parts of the world, is 576i.

In analogue contexts, this resolution is often called "525 lines". It is mandated by CCIR Systems M and J, which are usually paired with NTSC color - which led to the "NTSC" name being often inaccurately used to refer to this video mode. Other color encodings have also been used with System M, notably PAL-M in Brazil.

TV-line-count-world
SDTV resolution by nation; countries using 480i are in green.

Technical details

For analog NTSC, there are a total of 525 scanning lines of which originally 483 lines were visible (241.5 visible lines + 21 lines of vertical blanking per field) and later 480 (240 complete lines per field). [For quad video recording systems, the math suggests 15 transverse head passes, each consisting of 16 lines of video, are required to complete one field.] A full frame consists of two fields. One field contains the odd-numbered lines and the other contains the even ones. By convention an NTSC video frame is considered to start with an even field followed by an odd field. The disparity of the line numbering compared to other systems is solved by defining the line numbering to start five equalizing pulses (or 2 and a half lines) earlier than on all other systems (including Systems A and E even though they had no equalizing pulses) on the first equalizing pulse following an active line or half line. This has the effect of placing a half line of video at the end of the even (first) field and the beginning of the odd (second field). Thus the line numbers correspond to the real lines of the video frame. On all other systems, the field was considered to start with the falling edge of the first field pulse which gave the confusing position that the odd field (first) had a half a line of video occupying the latter half of a whole line and ended with a whole line of video but half a scanning line (and vice versa for the even field). The NTSC convention solved this confusion.[1]

For DV-NTSC only 480 lines are used. The digitally transmitted horizontal resolution is usually 720 samples (which includes 16 samples for the horizontal sync and horizontal blanking) or 704 visible pixels with an aspect ratio of 4:3 (with vertically rectangular pixels) and therefore a display resolution of 640 × 480 (VGA); that is standard-definition television (SDTV) with a 4:3 aspect ratio (with square pixels).[2][3][4][5]

The field rate (not the frame rate) is usually (60/1.001) = 59.94 Hertz for color TV and can be rounded up to 60 Hz. There are several conventions for written shorthands for the combination of resolution and rate: 480i60, 480i/30 (EBU/SMPTE always use frame rate to specify interlaced formats) and 480/60i. 480i is usually used in countries that conventionally use NTSC (most of the Americas and Japan), because the 525 transmitted lines at 60 hertz of analogue NTSC contain 480 visible ones.

480i can be transported by all major digital television formats, ATSC, DVB and ISDB, and on DVD.

See also

References

  1. ^ Report 308-2 of the XIIth Planiary of the CCIR - Characteristics of TV systems.
  2. ^ "rpsoft 2000 software". rpsoft2000.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  3. ^ "480i". afterdawn.com. Retrieved 1 June 2015.
  4. ^ Glossary - 480i
  5. ^ "480i" – via The Free Dictionary.
1080i

1080i (also known as Full HD or BT.709) is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen. The "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced"; this indicates that only the odd lines, then the even lines of each frame (each image called a video field) are drawn alternately, so that only half the number of actual image frames are used to produce video. A related display resolution is 1080p, which also has 1080 lines of resolution; the "p" refers to progressive scan, which indicates that the lines of resolution for each frame are "drawn" in on the screen sequence.

The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9 (a rectangular TV that is wider than it is tall), so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels (2.1 million pixels) and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard.

The choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats.

576i

576i is a standard-definition video mode originally used for broadcast television in most countries of the world where the utility frequency for electric power distribution is 50 Hz. Because of its close association with the color encoding system, it is often referred to as simply PAL, PAL/SECAM or SECAM when compared to its 60 Hz (typically, see PAL-M) NTSC-color-encoded counterpart, 480i. In digital applications it is usually referred to as "576i"; in analogue contexts it is often called "625 lines", and the aspect ratio is usually 4:3 in analogue transmission and 16:9 in digital transmission.

The 576 identifies a vertical resolution of 576 lines, and the i identifies it as an interlaced resolution. The field rate, which is 50 Hz, is sometimes included when identifying the video mode, i.e. 576i50; another notation, endorsed by both the International Telecommunication Union in BT.601 and SMPTE in SMPTE 259M, includes the frame rate, as in 576i/25.

Its basic parameters common to both analogue and digital implementations are: 576 scan lines or vertical pixels of picture content, 25 frames (giving 50 fields) per second.

In analogue 49 additional lines without image content are added to the displayed frame of 576 lines to allow time for older cathode ray tube circuits to retrace for the next frame, giving 625 lines per frame. Digital information not to be displayed as part of the image can be transmitted in the non-displayed lines; teletext and other services and test signals are often implemented.

Analogue television signals have no pixels; they are rastered in scan lines, but along each line the signal is continuous. In digital applications, the number of pixels per line is an arbitrary choice as long as it fulfils the sampling theorem. Values above about 500 pixels per line are enough for conventional free-to-air television; DVB-T, DVD and DV allow better values such as 704 or 720.

The video format can be transported by major digital television formats, ATSC, DVB and ISDB, and on DVD, and it supports aspect ratios of standard 4:3 and anamorphic 16:9.

720p

720p (1280×720 px; also called HD Ready or standard HD) is a progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). All major HDTV broadcasting standards (such as SMPTE 292M) include a 720p format, which has a resolution of 1280×720; however, there are other formats, including HDV Playback and AVCHD for camcorders, that use 720p images with the standard HDTV resolution. The frame rate is standards-dependent, and for conventional broadcasting appears in 50 progressive frames per second in former PAL/SECAM countries (Europe, Australia, others), and 59.94 frames per second in former NTSC countries (North America, Japan, Brazil, others).

The number 720 stands for the 720 horizontal scan lines of image display resolution (also known as 720 pixels of vertical resolution). The p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. When broadcast at 60.00 frames/s frames per second, 720p features the highest temporal resolution possible under the ATSC and DVB standards. The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, thus implying a resolution of 1280×720 px (0.9 megapixels).

720i (720 lines interlaced) is an erroneous term found in numerous sources and publications. Typically, it is a typographical error in which the author is referring to the 720p HDTV format. However, in some cases it is incorrectly presented as an actual alternative format to 720p. No proposed or existing broadcast standard permits 720 interlaced lines in a video frame at any frame rate.

Bowling Green, Kentucky

Bowling Green is a home rule-class city and the county seat of Warren County, Kentucky, United States. As of 2017, its population of 67,067 made it the third most-populous city in the state after Louisville and Lexington; its metropolitan area had an estimated population of 165,732; and the combined statistical area it shares with Glasgow has an estimated population of 218,870.Founded by pioneers in 1798, Bowling Green was the provisional capital of Confederate Kentucky during the American Civil War. The city was the subject of the 1967 Everly Brothers song "Bowling Green".

In the 21st century, it is the location of numerous manufacturers, including General Motors and Fruit of the Loom. The Bowling Green Assembly Plant has been the source of all Chevrolet Corvettes built since 1981. Bowling Green is also home to the state's second-largest public university, Western Kentucky University. In 2014, Forbes magazine listed Bowling Green as one of the Top 25 Best Places to Retire in the United States.

Digital subchannel

In broadcasting, digital subchannels are a method of transmitting more than one independent program stream simultaneously from the same digital radio or television station on the same radio frequency channel. This is done by using data compression techniques to reduce the size of each individual program stream, and multiplexing to combine them into a single signal. The practice is sometimes called "multicasting".

Enhanced-definition television

Enhanced-definition television, or extended-definition television (EDTV) is an American Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) marketing shorthand term for certain digital television (DTV) formats and devices. Specifically, this term defines formats that deliver a picture superior to that of standard-definition television (SDTV) but not as detailed as high-definition television (HDTV).

The term refers to devices capable of displaying 480-line or 576-line signals in progressive scan, commonly referred to as 480p (NTSC-HQ) and 576p (PAL) respectively, as opposed to interlaced scanning, commonly referred to as 480i (NTSC) or 576i (PAL). High-motion is optional for EDTV.In other countries definitions may vary.

Justice Network

Justice Network is an American digital multicast television network that is operated by Justice Network, LLC, a limited liability company, which is owned by Cooper Media. The network specializes in true crime, investigation and forensic science documentary programming aimed at adults – with a skew toward females – between the ages of 25 and 54.

The network, which broadcasts in 480i standard definition, is available in several large and mid-sized markets via digital subchannel affiliations with broadcast television stations, along with carriage of Justice Network-affiliated subchannels on cable television providers in most of its market coverage via existing carriage agreements for local broadcast stations.

KFPB-LD

KFPB-LD is a television station licensed to Globe, Arizona.

Longview, Texas

Longview is the forty-fifth largest city in the state of Texas. The city is mostly located in Gregg County, of which it is the county seat; a small part of Longview extends into the western part of neighboring Harrison County. Longview is located in East Texas, where Interstate 20 and U.S. Highways 80 and 259 converge just north of the Sabine River. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the city had a population of 80,455. The estimated population in 2017 was 81,522. Longview is the principal city of the Longview metropolitan statistical area, comprising Gregg, Upshur, and Rusk counties. The population of the metropolitan area as of 2017 census estimates is 217,481.Longview was established in the 1870s and became a railroad route in East Texas; the city was also the first incorporated town in Gregg County. Today, Longview is considered a major hub city for the region, as is the nearby city of Tyler. In 2014, Forbes magazine ranked Longview as the sixth fastest-growing small city in the United States. Companies with significant presence in Longview are Eastman Chemical and Trinity Rail Group; communities stimulating the city and metro area are LeTourneau University, Kilgore College, and the University of Texas at Tyler's Longview University Center.

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Media in Atlanta

As of 2011, metro Atlanta was the ninth-largest media market in the United States. Due to apparent over-estimates of population growth in the 2000s by the U.S. Census Bureau, this rank is a decrease from two years prior as a result of the 2010 U.S. Census.

In 2009, metro Atlanta was the eighth- or seventh-largest market, with over 2.3 million TV households and 4.3 million people aged 12+. According to the 2016 Nielsen Media Research, it ranked ninth in television broadcasting, behind the [Boston, Ma. metropolitan area]. According to 2016 Arbitron, it ranked eighth in radio broadcasting, now just ahead of the Philadelphia metropolitan area and not far behind the greater Washington, D.C.metropolitan area.Cox Enterprises, a privately held company controlled by siblings Barbara Cox Anthony and Anne Cox Chambers, has substantial media holdings in and beyond Atlanta. Its Cox Communications division is the nation's third largest cable television service provider; the company also publishes over a dozen daily newspapers in the United States, including The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. WSB AM, the flagship station of Cox Radio, was the first broadcast station in the South.

Media in Omaha, Nebraska

This is a list of media serving the Omaha metropolitan area in Omaha, Nebraska and Council Bluffs, Iowa.

PlayStation 3 accessories

Various accessories for the PlayStation 3 video game console have been produced by Sony. These include controllers, audio and video input devices like microphones, video cameras, and cables for better sound and picture quality.

Quest (U.S. TV network)

Quest is an American digital multicast television network that is co-owned by Cooper Media & Tegna, Inc. The network specializes in travel, historical, science, and adventure-focused documentary and reality series aimed at adults between the ages of 25 and 54.

The network, which broadcasts in 480i standard definition, is available in several large and mid-sized markets via digital subchannel affiliations with broadcast television stations. Stations have the option of placing their Quest-affiliated subchannels on cable television providers serving their market (via existing carriage agreements for local broadcast stations) to provide additional local coverage.

Roku

Roku players, branded simply as Roku ( ROH-koo), are a series of digital media players manufactured by Roku, Inc. Roku partners provide over-the-top content in the form of channels. The name comes from the Japanese word 六 (roku) meaning "six" and was named so because it was the sixth company that Anthony Wood (founder and CEO since 2002) started. A Roku streaming device receives data (the video stream) via a wired or Wi-Fi connection from an Internet router. The data is output via an audio cable, video cable, or an HDMI connector directly on some of the device models.

Programming and content for the devices are available from a wide variety of global providers.

Standard-definition television

Standard-definition television (SDTV or SD) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high or enhanced definition. The two common SDTV signal types are 576i, with 576 interlaced lines of resolution, derived from the European-developed PAL and SECAM systems; 480i based on the American NTSC system. SDTV and high-definition television (HDTV) are the two categories of display formats for digital television (DTV) transmissions.

In North America, digital SDTV is broadcast in the same 4:3 aspect ratio as NTSC signals, with widescreen content being center cut. However, in other parts of the world that used the PAL or SECAM color systems, standard-definition television is now usually shown with a 16:9 aspect ratio, with the transition occurring between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s depending on region. Older programs with a 4:3 aspect ratio are broadcast with a flag that switches the display to 4:3.Standards that support digital SDTV broadcast include DVB, ATSC, and ISDB. The last two were originally developed for HDTV, but are more often used for their ability to deliver multiple SD video and audio streams via multiplexing, than for using the entire bitstream for one HD channel.For SMPTE 259M-C compliance, a SDTV broadcast image is scaled to 720 pixels wide for every 480 NTSC (or 576 PAL) lines of the image with the amount of non-proportional line scaling dependent on either the display or pixel aspect ratio. The display ratio for broadcast widescreen is commonly 16:9, the display ratio for a traditional or letterboxed broadcast is 4:3.An SDTV image outside the constraints of the SMPTE standards requires no non-proportional scaling with 640 pixels for every line of the image. The display and pixel aspect ratio is generally not required with the line height defining the aspect. For widescreen 16:9, 360 lines define a widescreen image and for traditional 4:3, 480 lines define an image.

SDTV refresh rates can be 24, 25, 30, 50 or 60 frames per second with a possible rate multiplier of 1000/1001 for NTSC. 50 and 60 rates are generally frame doubled versions of 25 and 30 rates for jitter issues when using non-interlaced lines.

Digital SDTV in 4:3 aspect ratio has the same appearance as regular analog TV (NTSC, PAL, SECAM) without the ghosting, snowy images and white noise. However, if the reception has interference or is poor, where the error correction cannot compensate one will encounter various other artifacts such as image freezing, stuttering or dropouts from missing intra-frames or blockiness from missing macroblocks. The audio encoding is the last to suffer loss due to the lower bandwidth requirements.

VIETV

VIETV is an American Vietnamese-language broadcast television network based in Houston, Texas. The network began broadcasting over-the-air in Houston in 2011, and has since started affiliates broadcasting in Los Angeles, California, Orange County, California, San Francisco, California, San Jose, California, Dallas, Texas, Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Boston, Massachusetts, and Washington, D.C. The Houston, Dallas, Los Angeles, and San Jose affiliates are also available in live streaming video on the Vietv.com website, and the network has created the UNO IP IPTV set-top box for viewing their content on televisions outside their broadcast area.VIETV has six studios, including their headquarters in Houston and locations in Southern California, Northern California, Boston, and Philadelphia. Original programming on VIETV includes the Evening NEWS and NEWS @ Nite programs, the It's Your Birthday children's show, Cooking with Chef Cam-Yuet, Beauty by Tiffani, World Travel, and The Law & Legal Issues, hosted by VIETV president Robert Pham.

W-VHS

W-VHS (Wide-VHS) is a HDTV analog recording videocassette format created by JVC. The format was originally introduced in 1994 for use with Japan's Hi-Vision, an early analog high-definition television system. In Japan, the letter "W" is often used as shorthand for the English word "double".

The recording medium of W-VHS is a ½-inch double-coated MP tape stored in a cartridge the same size as VHS. The tape can be used to store 1035i (HD) or 480i (SD) and a double channel of 480i (for storing 3D programs) (SD2) analog signals (but not 480p, 720p or 1080i). The video signal is recorded using a method called "time compression integration" which "records separated component video, luminance and color signals are offset by time in alternating parts of the video track". Because video signals are recorded in component form instead of the color under method used by S-VHS, standard definition image quality for W-VHS is typically much higher, due to the lack of noise caused by a chroma sub-carrier. Audio is stored in the VHS Hi-Fi or S-VHS Digital Audio formats.

W-VHS VCRs can record a standard or high definition video signal via an analog Y/Pb/Pr component interface. Very few devices with this capability exist, possibly due to content copyright restrictions. W-VHS has also been used for medical imaging, professional previewing, and broadcasting.

Currently, it is very difficult to find either W-VHS VCRs or tapes. Because of this scarcity, users have turned to the similar Digital-S (D-9) tape which uses the same kind of metal particle coating. While D-9 tapes are still not that easy to find, they are more available than W-VHS tapes in certain regions. JVC Professional even recommends the use of them for W-VHS. The running time between W-VHS and Digital-S is not the same; a Digital-S tape with a length of 64 min is approximately 105 min when used with W-VHS.

WVEN-TV

WVEN-TV, virtual and UHF digital channel 43, is a Univision-owned television station serving Orlando, Florida, United States that is licensed to Melbourne. The station is owned by the Univision Local Media subsidiary of Univision Communications; Entravision Communications, which owns Daytona Beach-licensed UniMás affiliate WOTF-TV (channel 26), operates WVEN under a local marketing agreement. The two stations share studios in Altamonte Springs; WVEN's transmitter is located in Christmas, Florida.

On cable, the station is available in standard definition on channel 18 or 16 on both Charter Spectrum and Comcast Xfinity, and channel 26 on CenturyLink Prism, and in high definition on Spectrum channel 1018 and Prism channel 1026.

WZAW-LD

WZAW-LD is a low-powered, Fox-affiliated television station licensed to Wausau, Wisconsin, United States and serving north-central Wisconsin, including Rhinelander. It broadcasts a 720p high definition digital signal on virtual and UHF channel 33 from a transmitter, northeast of Nutterville, in unincorporated Marathon County. Owned by Gray Television, it is a sister station to CBS affiliate WSAW-TV (channel 7) and the two outlets share studios on Grand Avenue/U.S. 51 in Wausau.

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