The 450s decade ran from January 1, 450, to December 31, 459.
This article concerns the period 459 BC – 450 BC.Bagaudae
In the later Roman Empire, bagaudae (also spelled bacaudae) were groups of peasant insurgents who arose during the Crisis of the Third Century, and persisted until the very end of the western Empire, particularly in the less-Romanised areas of Gallia and Hispania, where they were "exposed to the depredations of the late Roman state, and the great landowners and clerics who were its servants".The invasions, military anarchy and disorders of the third century provided a chaotic and ongoing degradation of the regional power structure within a declining Empire into which the bagaudae achieved some temporary and scattered successes, under the leadership of members of the underclass as well as former members of local ruling elites.Battle of Agrigentum (456)
The Battle of Agrigentum was fought in 456 A.D. at Agrigentum, now Agrigento in modern-day Sicily. An army of the Western Roman Empire, led by the general Ricimer, drove off an invading force from a fleet of sixty ships sent by the Vandal king Gaiseric to raid Sicily. Ricimer then led the Roman fleet against the Vandals and defeated them in a naval battle off the coast of Corsica. The victory gave the Romans only temporary relief from Vandal raids.Battle of Arelate
The Battle of Arelate was fought in 458 near Arelate (Arles) between Western Roman Emperor Majorian and Visigothic king Theodoric II. After the assassination of Flavius Aetius in 454, the Visigoths began to expand their kingdom at the expense of the crumbling Roman administration in Gaul and Hispania. When Majorian became emperor in 457, the Visigoths under king Theodoric II had just recently defeated the Suebic Kingdom in north-west Hispania and were consolidating their hold on the rest of the peninsula.Majorian, a young, capable general in his late thirties, inherited a collapsing empire consisting of only Italy, Dalmatia, and some fractured territories in northern Gaul. He decided the first step towards consolidating the empire would be to confront the Visigoths in Septimania. Traveling with his generals Aegidius and Nepotianus, Majorian encountered the Visigothic king and his army at Arelate, at the mouth of the Rhodanus river (Rhone). The ensuing battle was an overwhelming Gothic defeat. Theodoric II was forced to flee Arelate, abandon Septimania, and conclude a hasty peace treaty. The treaty returned all Visigothic territory in Hispania to the Romans, and the Visigoths were reduced to federate status.The battle allowed Majorian to campaign deeper in Gaul against the Burgundian Kingdom, and later in Hispania against the Suebic Kingdom.Battle of Aylesford
The Battle of Aylesford or Epsford (Old English: Æȝelesford) was a battle between Britons and Anglo-Saxons recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Historia Brittonum. Both sources concur that it involved the Anglo-Saxon leaders Hengist and Horsa on one side and the family of Vortigern on the other, but neither says who won the battle. It was fought near Æglesthrep, presumed to be Aylesford, in Kent.Battle of Guoloph
The Battle of Guoloph took place in the 5th century. Various dates have been put forward: 440 AD by Alfred Anscombe, 437 AD according to John Morris, and 458 by Nikolai Tolstoy. It took place at what is now Nether Wallop, 15 kilometers southeast of Amesbury, in the district of Test Valley, northeastern Hampshire. The battle pitted a Britonnic alliance against invading Jutes and Saxons. The Britons were victorious.Battle of Nedao
The Battle of Nedao was a battle fought in Pannonia in 454 between Huns and their former Germanic vassals. Nedao is believed to be a tributary of the Sava river.After the death of Attila the Hun, allied forces of the subject peoples under the leadership of Ardaric, king of the Gepids, defeated the Hunnic forces of Ellac, the son of Attila, who had struggled with his brothers Ernak and Dengizich for supremacy after Attila's death. Ellac himself was killed in the battle.According to the 6th-century historian Jordanes:
And so the bravest nations tore themselves to pieces. For then, I think, must have occurred a most remarkable spectacle, where one might see the Goths fighting with pikes, the Gepidae raging with the sword, the Rugii breaking off the spears in their own wounds, the Suavi fighting on foot, the Huns with bows, the Alani drawing up a battle-line of heavy-armed and the Heruli of light-armed warriors.
Jordanes claims that, in the battle of Nedao, Ostrogoths fought against the Huns, but this is rejected by modern historians like Herwig Wolfram or Hyun Jin Kim. The latter believes that this is a forged story and that the Ostrogoth king Valamir himself fought alongside the Huns. Alternatively, J.R. Martindale and Franz Altheim accept that the Ostrogoths were among the victors of Nedao, while many others, including Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen, believe that they did not participate at all.Battle of Oenophyta
The Battle of Oenophyta took place between Athens and the Boeotian city-states in 457 BC during the First Peloponnesian War.
In this period between the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War, alliances and leagues sprang up and collapsed, although there was very little prolonged warfare. In 457 Athens, the leader of the Delian League, came into conflict with Corinth and their ally Sparta (leader of the Peloponnesian League) over Megara; two months prior to the Battle of Oenophyta, the Athenians were defeated at the Battle of Tanagra by Sparta, but Sparta had lost so many men that they could not take advantage of their victory.
The Athenians, who had 14,000 men at Tanagra, regrouped after that battle and marched into Boeotia. At Oenophyta, led by Myronides they defeated the Boeotians, and then destroyed the walls of Tanagra and ravaged Locrida and Phocis. Their victory at Oenophyta allowed Athens to defeat Aegina later in the year, and to finish the construction of the Long Walls to the Athenian port of Piraeus (an action opposed by Sparta).
Athens remained in control of Boeotia until 447 BC, when they were defeated at the Battle of Coronea.Byzantine Empire under the Leonid dynasty
The Eastern Roman Empire was ruled by the House of Leo from 457, the accession of Leo I, to 518 AD, the death of Anastasius I. The rule of the Leonid dynasty coincided with the rapid decline, collapse and eventual fall of the Western Roman Empire. Following the end of the Western Empire, Emperor Zeno abolished the position of Western Roman Emperor and declared himself the sole Roman Emperor. The Eastern Roman Empire would come to last for several more centuries, and subsequent dynasties would invest large amounts of resources in attempts to retake the western provinces.
The Leonid dynasty also ruled the Western Roman Empire from 474 to its abolishment in 480 AD.Eutyches
Eutyches (Greek: Εὐτυχής; c. 380 – c. 456) was a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople. He first came to notice in 431 at the First Council of Ephesus, for his vehement opposition to the teachings of Nestorius; his condemnation of Nestorianism as heresy led him to an equally extreme, although opposite view, which precipitated his being denounced as a heretic himself.Hispania Tarraconensis
Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. It encompassed much of the Mediterranean coast of modern Spain along with the central plateau. Southern Spain, the region now called Andalusia, was the province of Hispania Baetica. On the Atlantic west lay the province of Lusitania, partially coincident with modern-day Portugal.Ivchenko-Progress Motor Sich AI-450S
The AI-450S is a turboprop engine designed by Ivchenko-Progress and manufactured by Motor Sich. It is a two-shaft design with one gas generator shaft and one free turbine shaft. The 450 hp AI-450S is used on the Diamond DA50-JP7 and Diamond Dart 450 and the 630 hp AI-450S-2 is used on the Evektor EV-55.Kingdom of Kent
The Kingdom of the Kentish (Old English: Cantaware Rīce; Latin: Regnum Cantuariorum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Kent, was an early medieval kingdom in what is now South East England. It existed from either the fifth or the sixth century CE until it was fully absorbed into the Kingdom of England in the tenth century.
Under the preceding Romano-British administration the area of Kent faced repeated attacks from seafaring raiders during the fourth century CE. It is likely that Germanic-speaking foederati were invited to settle in the area as mercenaries. Following the end of Roman administration, in 410, further linguistically Germanic tribal groups moved into the area, as testified by both archaeological evidence and Late Anglo-Saxon textual sources. The primary ethnic group to settle in the area appears to have been the Jutes: they established their Kingdom in East Kent and may initially have been under the dominion of the Kingdom of Francia. It has been argued that an East Saxon community initially settled in West Kent, but was conquered by the expanding kingdom of East Kent in the sixth century.
The earliest recorded King of Kent was Æthelberht, who, as Bretwalda, wielded significant influence over other Anglo-Saxon kings in the late sixth century. The Christianization of the Anglo-Saxons began in Kent during Æthelberht's reign with the arrival of the monk Augustine of Canterbury and his Gregorian mission in 597.
Kent was one of the seven kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy, but it lost its independence in the 8th century when it became a sub-kingdom of Mercia. In the 9th century it became a sub-kingdom of Wessex, and in the 10th century it became part of the unified Kingdom of England that was created under the leadership of Wessex. Its name has been carried forward ever since as the county of Kent.
Knowledge of Anglo-Saxon Kent comes from scholarly study of Late Anglo-Saxon texts such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Ecclesiastical History of the English People, as well as archaeological evidence such as that left by early medieval cemeteries and settlements, and toponymical (place-name) evidence.Maserati 450S
The Maserati 450S (built 1956–8) is a racing car made by Maserati of Italy, and used in FIA's endurance World Sportscar Championship racing. A total of nine were made.
Their design started in 1954 (thus the internal designation «Tipo 54») led by Vittorio Bellentani and Guido Taddeucci. Their intent was to use larger engines than those then used by Maserati.
One was the 3.5-litre to be used in Maserati 350S, the other to be used in the 450S, had a 4.478-litre short-stroke V8 engine with four Weber carburetor 45 IDM (400 bhp (300 kW) at 7200). The tubular chassis and body was designed by Valerio Colotti, and inherited much from the Maserati 300S, using De Dion (mechanical) and 5-speed ZF gearbox, and a suspension with double wishbones and coil springs.
The 450S was raced in the 1957 World Sports Car Championship where its principal rivals were Ferrari with its 290 MM, 315 S and 335 S models, the Jaguar D-Type and the Aston Martin DBR1.
Chassis #4501 had a 4.2-litre V8, based on the prototype raced at 1956 Mille Miglia and 1956 Swedish Grand Prix. A clutch failure after a very promising start in the Buenos Aires 1000 km by Stirling Moss and Juan Manuel Fangio prevented the car from commencing the season with a win. The car was redesigned as a coupé drawn by Frank Costin of England, constructed by Zagato, and raced once again by Moss at Le Mans where it failed to finish. Later, the car was restored by Medardo Fantuzzi of Maserati (new chassis #4512); and subsequently received another restoration by Faralli & Mazzanti.
Chassis #4503, driven by Fangio and Jean Behra, won the 12 Hours of Sebring. It was then crashed by Behra during practice for the Mille Miglia and didn't start the race. Repaired, it was again crashed by Behra at the Le Mans 24 Hours before it won again in the hands of Behra and Moss in the Swedish Sports Car Grand Prix. In the final race of the 1957 season the Venezuelan Sports Car Grand Prix it was destroyed before being later rebuilt.
Chassis #4505 driven by Moss and Denis Jenkinson raced in the Mille Miglia until the brake pedal fell off. At the Nürburgring 1000km it was driven by Moss and Fangio and recorded another DNF when the wheel dropped off. The car was later sold to Temple Buell, who drilled it to 5.7-litres, and later to Jim Hall.
Chassis #4507 was driven by Moss and Harry Schell at the Venezuelan Sports Car Grand Prix where it was destroyed in a fiery crash that also involved chassis #4503.
Maserati finished the season as runners up to Ferrari in the World Sports Car Championship, its two victories at Sebring and Kristianstad, together with a second place at Buenos Aires and fourth in the Mille Miglia by its sister 300S giving Maserati 25 points. Unfortunately for Maserati this was five behind Ferrari's winning total of 30 points gained from victories at Buenos Aires, the Mille Miglia and Venezuela together with second at the Nürburgring and Sweden.
Other cars were sold: Chassis #4502 to Tony Parravano, #4505 to Jim Kimberley and #4506 to John Edgar. Chassis #4509 and #4510 was sold to the US, some having engine expansions to 5.7-and 6.6-litres and used in SCCA races by Carroll Shelby, Jim Hall, Masten Gregory, Walt Cline and Ebb Rose. Chassis #4512 was originally the #4501 (see above).
Between 1956 and 1962, the 450S had 119 appearances, 31 of these being victories.Maserati Tipo 151
The Maserati Tipo 151 marked a return to more traditional concepts of car design and used a frame comprising a trellis of both round and oval large tubes, an independent front suspension and a De Dion axle which had many similarities to that used on the Type 64 completed a month or so before. The engine was derived from the 450S with a reduced displacement of just under 4.0 Litres. Giulio Alfieri designed the body shape and refined it using a wind tunnel at Milan University. The body was reminiscent of the Frank Costin designed Zagato bodied 450S, but with an accentuated Kamm tail. The mandatory doors opened halfway up the side due to the longitudinal tubes of the frame and the lateral fuel tanks. At Le Mans in 1962 the Johnny Simone car was in the Maserati France colours of red body with a tri-stripe whilst the Cunningham team cars had a white body with two blue stripes. At race end the Cunningham cars went back to the US.
The Maserati France car was sent to the factory for revision for the 1963 Le Mans event. Improvements included a new engine, the standard production 4941 cc motor derived from the 5000GT but with single ignition and Lucas indirect injection, but now producing 430 bhp (321 kW) and now renumbered as 151/2.The Maserati France team car again came back to the factory in preparation for 1964 when there was a massive change to the frame, the mechanicals and the body. Now designated 151/3 and jokingly called the 'racing van' for its unique new body design by Pierre Drogo, the engine was unchanged in size but the frame was modified to mount the engine lower in the chassis - also to increase the wheelbase and track width.For 1965 there was again work on the frame and the body and the displacement of the engine was increased to 5046.8 cc - this version (151/4) is called the Tipo 154 by some. Then driver "Lucky" Casner was killed during practice prior to the race. The engine went on to power the Tipo 65 less than 2 months later.Merovech
Merovech (French: Mérovée, Merowig; Latin: Meroveus; c. 411 – 458) is the semi-legendary founder of the Merovingian dynasty of the Salian Franks (although either Childeric I, his supposed son, or Clovis I, his supposed grandson, can also be considered the founder), which later became the dominant Frankish tribe. He is proposed to be one of several barbarian warlords and kings that joined forces with the Roman general Aetius against the Huns under Attila at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in Gaul.
The family of Childeric and Clovis, the first Frankish large-scale royal dynasty called themselves Merovingians ("descendants of Meroveus") after him, and this was known to historians in the following centuries, but no more contemporary evidence exists. The most important such written source, Gregory of Tours, recorded that Merovech was said to be descended from Chlodio, a roughly contemporary Frankish warlord who pushed from the Silva Carbonaria in modern central Belgium as far south as the Somme, north of Paris in modern-day France.Sack of Aquileia
The Sack of Aquileia occurred in 452, and was carried out by the Huns under the leadership of Attila.A year after Attila's defeat at the Battle of Catalaunian Fields, Attila launched an invasion of Italy, passing through Pannonia into Venetia, where he laid siege to Aquileia. Jordanes states that the city was well defended, to the point where Attila was considering withdrawing. Indeed, Ian Hughes suggests that since Aetius was unable to blockade the Julian Alps, he instead reinforced the city garrison to force Attila into a siege, or otherwise risk Roman forces cutting off his potential retreat. The siege lasted for some time, and Jordanes states that as Attila was considering withdrawing, the city fell in a renewed assault and he razed it to the ground. Attila then proceeded to raid Italy, with Aetius able to do little more than harass Attila at best. It was only when an embassy including Pope Leo I arrived that Attila finally ended his invasion, likely as a result of famine, disease, and an Eastern Roman Army approaching the Hunnic settlements near the Tisza.Before its destruction, Aquileia was a center of government (with an imperial residence), commerce and finance (with a mint), military defense, and Christianity (with a bishop). Its destruction and Attila's subsequent unimpeded ravaging of the province of Venetia (modern Veneto and Friuli) paved the way for the rise of Venice, which within a few centuries replaced and even surpassed it in importance.Sack of Rome (455)
The sack of 455 was the third of four ancient sacks of Rome; it was conducted by the Vandals, who were then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor Petronius Maximus.Temple of Hera Lacinia
The Temple of Hera Lacinia, or Juno Lacinia, otherwise known as Temple D, is a Greek temple in the Valle dei Templi, a section of the ancient city of Agrigentum (ancient Greek Akragas, modern Agrigento) in Sicily.
It was built in the middle of the fifth century BC, about the year 450 BC, and in period and in style belongs to the Archaic Doric period. Signs of a fire which followed the Siege of Akragas of 406 BC have been detected, and long after that the temple was restored at the time of the Roman province of Sicily, with the original terracotta roof being replaced by one of marble, with a more steeply inclined slope on the eastern side. The temple was originally dedicated to the Greek god Hera, Roman Juno. If still in use by the 4th-and 5th century, it would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire.