44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment

The 44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an Air Defense Artillery regiment of the United States Army, first constituted in 1918 in the Regular Army during World War I. During World War II the unit served as the 54th Coast Artillery Regiment (Colored), a segregated unit with mostly African American enlisted men and white officers, one of the few African American artillery units in that war.[1] A preceding unit in World War I was the 54th Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps).[2]

44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment
44 ADA COA
Coat of arms
Active1918
CountryUSA
BranchArmy
TypeAir defense artillery
Motto(s)PER ARDUA (Through Difficulties)
Branch colorScarlet
March"Per Ardua (44th Air Defense Artillery March)", music by Arthur Breur, lyrics by Douglass Hemphill
Mascot(s)Oozlefinch
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia
44ADARegtDUI

Lineage

World War I

44th Coast Artillery

Organized 26 March 1918 in the Regular Army from existing units in France as the Howitzer Regiment, 30th Brigade, Coast Artillery Corps, initially without weapons.[3][4]

Redesignated 7 August 1918 as the 44th Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps) with an authorized strength of 24 British-made 8-inch howitzers; served with the 32nd Brigade and 39th Brigade, including support of the IV Army Corps.[3][5]

Returned to the US February 1919 and moved to Fort Totten, New York.[3]

Inactivated 31 August 1921 at Camp Jackson, South Carolina.

Redesignated 1 July 1924 as the 44th Coast Artillery (Tractor Drawn).[6]

54th Coast Artillery

Nine Maine National Guard and four Regular Army Coast Artillery Corps companies of the Coast Defenses of Portland, Maine were used to form the 54th Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps), a regiment that was sent to France and slated to be armed with 24 6-inch guns. The regiment was organized in January 1918 in Maine and moved to France in March 1918, stationed at an artillery base, Operations and Training Center No. 6 at Mailly-le-Camp and Haussimont. However, on 2 May 1918 the regiment became a replacement training unit, redesignated as the 54th Artillery Replacement Training Regiment. On 20 September 1918 the regiment was reorganized, with its battalions sent to different locations. The 1st Battalion was posted at Angers (Marne-et-Loire) as a training battalion for replacement men. The 2nd Battalion was stationed at Doulevant-le-Château (Haute Marne) and functioned as a replacement battalion for the tractor-drawn artillery regiments. The 3rd Battalion remained at Haussimont and Angers, France and functioned as the training battalion for the railway artillery regiments. In December 1918, after the Armistice that ended the fighting, the regiment was re-formed. In March 1919 the regiment returned to the United States and was inactivated at Camp Devens, Massachusetts.[2][7]

World War II

Redesignated 13 January 1941 as the 54th Coast Artillery Regiment (155 mm gun) (Mobile) (Colored). References indicate this was the only African American coast artillery regiment in World War II that was not an antiaircraft unit.[1]

Activated 10 February 1941 at Camp Wallace, Texas with cadre from 76th and 77th Coast Artillery regiments (Antiaircraft) (Colored); moved to Camp Davis, North Carolina 22 May 1941, garrisoned Temporary Harbor Defenses of Wilmington. 1st Battalion moved to Fort Cronkhite, California 28 February 1942. 2nd Battalion garrisoned Fort Macon, NC in the Temporary Harbor Defenses of Beaufort, NC 31 July 1942 until relieved by 3rd Battalion, 2nd Coast Artillery 3 September 1942.[1][8]

The unit was probably initially armed with 24 155 mm GPF-type guns (eight per battalion), and may have later received the 155 mm gun M1.

1st and 3rd Battalions assigned to the Western Defense Command (WDC) at Fort Cronkhite and Fort Ord, California 22 April 1942.[8] 2nd Battalion deployed to Espiritu Santo 26 October 1942 and Bougainville 7 February 1944 where it saw combat during the Bougainville counterattack in March. The remainder of regiment remained in California until broken up into battalions as part of an Army-wide reorganization.[1]

Regiment relieved from WDC and broken up 28 February – 5 June 1944 with its elements reorganized and redesignated as follows (units at Fort Ord, CA except 2nd Battalion at Bougainville):[1]

Headquarters and Headquarters Battery on 5 June 1944 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 152nd Coast Artillery Group (155 mm gun) (Colored). 1st Battalion on 5 June 1944 as the 606th Coast Artillery Battalion (Colored). 2d Battalion on 28 February 1944 as the 49th Coast Artillery Battalion (Colored) (deployed to New Guinea 18 March 1945, Philippines 27 August 1945).[1] 3d Battalion on 5 June 1944 as the 607th Coast Artillery Battalion (Colored).

After World War II reorganization

After 5 June 1944 the above units underwent changes as follows:

Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 152d Coast Artillery Group, disbanded 3 August 1944 at Camp Livingston, Louisiana[1] Reconstituted 28 June 1950 in the Regular Army as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 54th Field Artillery Group Activated 17 January 1955 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina Redesignated 21 June 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 54th Artillery Group Inactivated 7 November 1969 in Vietnam

606th Coast Artillery Battalion disbanded 3 August 1944 at Camp Livingston, Louisiana[1] Reconstituted 28 June 1950 in the Regular Army; concurrently consolidated with the 54th Armored Field Artillery Battalion (active) (see ANNEX 1) and consolidated unit designated as the 54th Armored Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 3d Armored Division Inactivated 1 October 1957 in Germany and relieved from assignment to the 3d Armored Division

49th Coast Artillery Battalion inactivated 20 January 1946 in the Philippine Islands[1] Consolidated 28 June 1950 with the 49th Field Artillery Battalion (active) (see ANNEX 2) and consolidated unit designated as the 49th Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 7th Infantry Division. Inactivated 1 July 1957 in Korea and relieved from assignment to the 7th Infantry Division

607th Coast Artillery Battalion disbanded 31 July 1944 at Camp Rucker, Alabama[1] Reconstituted 28 June 1950 in the Regular Army; concurrently consolidated with the 44th Field Artillery Battalion (active) (see ANNEX 3) and consolidated unit designated as the 44th Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 4th Infantry Division.

In 1963, the 6th Missile Battalion, 44th Artillery (HAWK), 38th Artillery Brigade was deployed to South Korea. Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 54th Artillery Group; 54th Armored Field Artillery Battalion; and the 49th and 44th Field Artillery Battalions consolidated, reorganized, and redesignated 7 November 1969 as the 44th Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System.

Redesignated 1 September 1971 as the 44th Air Defense Artillery.

Withdrawn 16 March 1988 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System. 16 March 1988 is when the Battalion was activated at Fort Campbell, KY.

The 2nd Battalion, 44th Air Defense Artillery, was for a long period the divisional air defense battalion for the 101st Airborne Division, but now appears to have taken up the C-RAM role.

As of 2018, at least two battalions of the regiment are active:[9]

History

Pershing missile

OR 10.596B 07
Lt. Col. Patrick W. Powers receives the 2nd/44th's colors from Dr. Finn J. Larsen during an organization ceremony at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma.

The 2nd Missile Battalion, 44th Artillery Regiment was the first Pershing I missile battalion in June 1962 under the 1st Field Artillery Missile Brigade at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.[10] Lt. Col. Patrick W. Powers took command on 13 October 1962, receiving the colors from Dr. Finn J. Larsen, assistant secretary of the Army.[11] On 1 September 1971 the 2/44th was deactivated and reformed as the 3rd Battalion, 9th Field Artillery Regiment.

Commanders

  • September 1952: Lt. Col. Patrick William Powers
  • Col. James E. Convey

Distinctive unit insignia

  • Description

A gold color metal and enamel device 1 18 inches (2.9 cm) consisting shield, crest and motto of the coat of arms.

  • Symbolism

The shield is red for Artillery with a gold bend from the arms of Lorraine, cottised potenté counterpotenté as in the arms of Champagne. The units of this organization changed designation five times from 1917 to 1918. They were part of the 6th and 7th Provisional Regiment, C.A.C.; part of the 51st and 52nd Artillery, C.A.C.; and were organized as a unit called the Howitzer Regiment, 30th Artillery Brigade, C.A.C.; later designated the 81st Artillery, C.A.C.; and changed to the 44th Artillery, C.A.C. The variegated chameleon alludes to this fact. The double quatrefoil with the chameleon is an anagram of the figures "44" and "81"; the chameleon divides the figures into two fours and the full number of projections with the chameleon gives eight-one.

  • Background

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 44th Coast Artillery Regiment on 1 February 1937. It was redesignated for the 54th Coast Artillery Regiment on 13 March 1941. The insignia was redesignated for the 54th Armored Field Artillery Battalion on 22 July 1954. It was redesignated for the 44th Artillery Regiment on 31 December 1958. Effective 1 September 1971, the insignia was redesignated for the 44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment.

Coat of arms

Blazon

  • Shield

Gules, a bend double cottised potenté counterpotenté Or.

  • Crest

On a wreath of the colors Or and Gules, a double quatrefoil Or charged with a chameleon displayed paleways barry of four Gules and Vert. Motto PER ARDUA (Through Adversity).

Symbolism

  • Shield

The shield is red for Artillery with a gold bend from the arms of Lorraine, cottised potenté counterpotenté as in the arms of Champagne.

  • Crest

The units of this organization changed designation five times from 1917 to 1918. They were part of the 6th and 7th Provisional Regiment, C.A.C.; part of the 51st and 52nd Artillery, C.A.C.; and were organized as a unit called the Howitzer Regiment, 30th Artillery Brigade, C.A.C.; later designated the 81st Artillery, C.A.C.; and changed to the 44th Artillery, C.A.C. The variegated chameleon alludes to this fact. The double quatrefoil with the chameleon is an anagram of the figures "44" and "81"; the chameleon divides the figures into two fours and the full number of projections with the chameleon gives eight-one.

Background

The coat of arms was originally approved for the 44th Coast Artillery Regiment on 2 March 1929. It was amended to correct the blazon of the shield on 23 May 1936. It was redesignated for the 54th Coast Artillery Regiment on 11 March 1941. The insignia was redesignated for the 54th Armored Field Artillery Battalion on 22 July 1954. It was redesignated for the 44th Artillery Regiment on 31 December 1958. Effective 1 September 1971, the insignia was redesignated for the 44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment.

Campaign streamers

World War II

  • Pacific theater without inscription[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Stanton, Shelby L. (1991). World War II Order of Battle. Galahad Books. pp. 450, 460, 485, 505. ISBN 0-88365-775-9.
  2. ^ a b Rinaldi, p. 162
  3. ^ a b c Rinaldi, Richard A. (2004). The U. S. Army in World War I: Orders of Battle. General Data LLC. p. 161. ISBN 0-9720296-4-8.
  4. ^ Howitzer Regt, 30th Arty Brigade, CAC at rootsweb.com
  5. ^ 44th Artillery, CAC at rootsweb.com
  6. ^ Gaines, William C., Coast Artillery Organizational History, 1917-1950, Coast Defense Journal, vol. 23, issue 2, p. 21
  7. ^ 54th Artillery, CAC at rootsweb.com
  8. ^ a b Gaines, p. 29
  9. ^ Air Defense Artillery unit websites, accessed 6 April 2018.
  10. ^ Training Pershing Crews (PDF). Interavia. December 1962.
  11. ^ Hull, Larry (1973). Pershing: A Decade of Service (PDF). The Martin Company. OR 10.596B.

Further reading

External links

101st Airborne Division

The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is a specialized modular light infantry division of the US Army trained for air assault operations. The Screaming Eagles has been referred to as "the tip of the spear" by former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and the most potent and tactically mobile of the U.S. Army's divisions by former Chief of Staff of the Army GEN Edward C. Meyer (ret). The 101st Airborne is able to plan, coordinate, and execute brigade-size air assault operations capable of seizing key terrain in support of operational objectives, and is capable of working in austere environments with limited or degraded infrastructure. These particular operations are conducted by highly mobile teams covering extensive distances and engaging enemy forces behind enemy lines. According to the author of Screaming Eagles: 101st Airborne Division, its unique battlefield mobility and high level of training have kept it in the vanguard of US land combat forces in recent conflicts. More recently, the 101st Airborne has been performing foreign internal defense and counterterrorism operations within Iraq and Afghanistan.The 101st Airborne Division has a history that is nearly a century long. During World War II, it was renowned for its role in Operation Overlord (the D-Day landings and airborne landings on 6 June 1944, in Normandy, France), Operation Market Garden, the liberation of the Netherlands and its action during the Battle of the Bulge around the city of Bastogne, Belgium. During the Vietnam War, the 101st Airborne Division fought in several major campaigns and battles, including the Battle of Hamburger Hill in May 1969.

In mid-1968, it was reorganized and redesignated as an airmobile division and then in 1974 as an air assault division. The titles reflect the division's shift from airplanes to helicopters as the primary method of delivering troops into combat. Many current members of the 101st are graduates of the US Army Air Assault School. It is known as the ten toughest days in the US Army, and its dropout rate is around 50 percent. Division headquarters is at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. In recent years, the division has served in Iraq and Afghanistan.

At the height of the War on Terror, the 101st Airborne Division had over 200 aircraft. The division now has slightly over 100 aircraft. As of December 2017, the division had about 29,000 soldiers, down from 35,000 soldiers just three years prior because of budget restraints.

101st Sustainment Brigade

The 101st Sustainment Brigade is a sustainment brigade of the United States Army based at Fort Campbell providing logistical support to the 101st Airborne Division. Formerly a separate unit under the command of United States Army Forces Command, it became a division sustainment unit in 2015 and adopted the wear of the division SSI.

108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)

The 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade is an air defense artillery brigade of the United States Army. The mission of the brigade is to train and maintain a strategic crisis response air defense artillery brigade capable of deploying worldwide, on short notice, to provide air defense force protection from air-breathing threats and tactical ballistic missiles, as well as allow freedom of maneuver for XVIII Airborne Corps operations.

44th Regiment

44th Regiment may refer to:

British Army44th (East Essex) Regiment of Foot

Essex Regiment, amalgamation of the 44th and the 56th (West Essex) Regiment of Foot

3rd East Anglian Regiment (16th/44th Foot), formed from the Essex regiment

Royal Anglian Regiment formed from the 3rD East Anglian Regiment. The 3rd battalion is known as the "3rd (16th/44th Foot) Battalion"

44th Searchlight Regiment

44th Royal Tank RegimentBritish Indian Army44th Merwara InfantryUnited States44th Infantry Regiment (United States)

44th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment

44th Indiana Infantry Regiment

44th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment

44th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment

44th Ohio Infantry

44th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment

44th United States Colored Infantry

44th Air Defense Artillery RegimentConfederate States44th Alabama Infantry Regiment

44th Arkansas Infantry (Mounted)

44th Georgia Volunteer Infantry

44th North Carolina Infantry

44th Tennessee Infantry Regiment

44th Virginia InfantrySouth Africa44 Parachute Regiment (South Africa)

44 Parachute Anti-Aircraft Regiment

4th Infantry Division (United States)

The 4th Infantry Division is a division of the United States Army based at Fort Carson, Colorado. It is composed of a Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion, three brigade combat teams (1st Stryker BCT, 2nd Infantry BCT, and 3rd Armored BCT), a Combat Aviation Brigade, the 4th Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade, and a Division Artillery.

The 4th Infantry Division's official nickname, "Ivy", is a play on words of the Roman numeral IV or 4. Ivy leaves symbolize tenacity and fidelity which is the basis of the division's motto: "Steadfast and Loyal". The second nickname, "Iron Horse", has been adopted to underscore the speed and power of the division and its soldiers.

Counter Rocket, Artillery, and Mortar

Counter Rocket, Artillery, and Mortar, abbreviated C-RAM or Counter-RAM, is a set of systems used to detect and/or destroy incoming: rockets, artillery, and mortar rounds in the air before they hit their ground targets, or simply provide early warning.

The intercept capability of C-RAM is effectively a land version of weapons such as the Phalanx CIWS radar-controlled rapid-fire gun for close in protection of vessels from missiles; the weapon system also contains a Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera to allow a Soldier to visually identify these target threats before engaging the targets. One major difference, however between the land- and sea-based variants is the choice of ammunition. Whereas naval Phalanx systems fire tungsten armor-piercing rounds, the C-RAM uses the 20 mm HEIT-SD (High-Explosive Incendiary Tracer, Self-Destruct) ammunition, originally developed for the M163 Vulcan Air Defense System. These rounds explode on impact with the target, or on tracer burnout, thereby greatly reducing the risk of collateral damage from rounds that fail to hit their target.

Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force

Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force (4 ATAF) was a NATO military formation under Allied Air Forces Central Europe tasked with providing air support to NATO's Central Army Group (CENTAG). 4 ATAF commanded all flying units based within its sector and all reinforcements flying into its sector, as well as ground-based radar systems and stations, air defense units and the airfields in its sector.

Kara Soar Base

Kara Soar Base was an American fire support base in northern Iraq.

Kunsan Air Base

Kunsan K-8 Air Base is a United States Air Force base located at Gunsan Airport, which is on the west coast of the South Korean peninsula bordered by the Yellow Sea. It is at the town of Gunsan about 150 miles (240 km) south of Seoul. The town (군산시, 群山市 in Korean) can be romanized as both Gunsan and Kunsan. The United States Air Force uses Gunsan to refer to the town, and Kunsan to refer to the base.

Kunsan Air Base is the home of the 8th Fighter Wing, "The Wolf Pack," assigned to the Pacific Air Forces Seventh Air Force and the 38th Fighter Group of the Republic of Korea Air Force. About 45 F-16 aircraft are stationed at the base. It is one of two major Air Force installations operated by the United States Forces Korea, the other being Osan Air Base.

List of coalition military operations of the Iraq War

This is a list of coalition (Multi-National Force – Iraq) military operations of the Iraq War. The list covers operations from 2003 until December 2011. For later operations, see American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present).

MIM-104 Patriot

The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile (SAM) system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the U.S. defense contractor Raytheon and derives its name from the radar component of the weapon system. The AN/MPQ-53 at the heart of the system is known as the "Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target" which is a backronym for PATRIOT. The Patriot System replaced the Nike Hercules system as the U.S. Army's primary High to Medium Air Defense (HIMAD) system, and replaced the MIM-23 Hawk system as the U.S. Army's medium tactical air defense system. In addition to these roles, Patriot has been given the function of the U.S. Army's anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system, which is now Patriot's primary mission. The system is expected to stay fielded until at least 2040.Patriot uses an advanced aerial interceptor missile and high-performance radar systems. Patriot was developed at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, which had previously developed the Safeguard ABM system and its component Spartan and hypersonic speed Sprint missiles. The symbol for Patriot is a drawing of a Revolutionary War-era Minuteman.

Patriot systems have been sold to the Netherlands, Poland, Germany, Japan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Republic of China (Taiwan), Greece, Spain, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Romania. South Korea purchased several second-hand Patriot systems from Germany after North Korea test-launched ballistic missiles to the Sea of Japan and proceeded with underground nuclear testing in 2006. Jordan also purchased several second-hand Patriot systems from Germany.

Poland hosts training rotations of a battery of U.S. Patriot launchers. This started in the town of Morąg in May 2010 but was later moved further from the Russian border to Toruń and Ustka due to Russian objections.

On December 4, 2012, NATO authorized the deployment of Patriot missile launchers in Turkey to protect the country from missiles fired in the civil war in neighboring Syria. Patriot was one of the first tactical systems in the U.S. Department of Defense’s (DoD) to employ lethal autonomy in combat.The Patriot system gained notoriety during the Persian Gulf War of 1991 with the claimed engagement of over 40 Iraqi Scud missiles, those claims became a source of controversy. The system was highly successfully used against Iraqi missiles in 2003 Iraq War, and has been also used by Saudi and Emirati forces in the Yemen conflict against Houthi missile attacks. The Patriot system achieved its first undisputed shootdowns of enemy aircraft in the service of the Israeli Air Defense Command. Israeli MIM-104D batteries shot down two Hamas UAVs during Operation Protective Edge in 2014 and later, on September 23, 2014, an Israeli Patriot battery shot down a Syrian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 which had penetrated Israeli airspace, achieving the first shootdown of a manned enemy aircraft in the world for the system.

Operation Lancaster II

Operation Lancaster II was a U.S. Marine Corps security operation that took place in northern Quảng Trị Province from 20 January to 23 November 1968 during the Vietnam War. The operation followed on directly from Operation Lancaster. The Marines patrolled aggressively. The response of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) was mixed; Prolonged lulls alternated with fierce fighting. Broadly the Marines felt that they were successful in maintaining the supply route to Ca Lu, at the terminus of Route 9, and in, at least intermittently, disrupting PAVN communications.

The operation ended with the Lancaster operational area being absorbed into the Scotland II and Kentucky operational areas. By the close of the operation the Marines had lost 359 killed; they calculated that PAVN fatalities were in excess of 1,800.

U.S. Army Regimental System

The United States Army Regimental System (USARS) was established in 1981 to replace the Combat Arms Regimental System, to provide each soldier with continuous identification with a single regiment, and to increase a soldier's probability of serving recurring assignments with his or her regiment. The USARS was intended to enhance combat effectiveness by providing the opportunity for a regimental affiliation, thus obtaining some of the benefits of the traditional regimental system.

Pershing missile
Systems
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59th Ordnance Brigade
German Air Force
214th Field Artillery Brigade
1st Field Artillery Missile Brigade
United States Army Missile Command
United States Army Europe
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Johns Hopkins University
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Other
Artillery formations of the United States
Misc. formations
Air Defense Artillery
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