43rd United States Congress

The Forty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1873, to March 4, 1875, during the fifth and sixth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency . The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

43rd United States Congress
42nd ←
→ 44th
USCapitol1877
March 4, 1873 – March 4, 1875
Senate PresidentHenry Wilson (R)
Senate President pro temMatthew H. Carpenter (R)
Henry B. Anthony (R)
House SpeakerJames G. Blaine (R)
Members74 senators
292 members of the House
10 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1873 – March 26, 1873
1st: December 1, 1873 – June 23, 1874
2nd: December 7, 1874 – March 4, 1875

Major events

Major legislation

Treaties

  • March 18, 1874: Hawaii signed a treaty with the United States granting exclusive trading rights.

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Senators - 43rd US Congress
Senators of the 43rd United States Congress
Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Anti-
Monopoly

(AM)
Liberal
Republican

(LR)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 17 0 1 54 72 2
Begin 19 0 3 50 72 2
End 20 2 51 731
Final voting share 27.4% 0.0% 2.7% 69.9%
Beginning of the next congress 28 1 0 43 72 2

House of Representatives

Before this Congress, the 1870 United States Census and resulting reapportionment changed the size of the House to 292 members.

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Independent
Democratic

(ID)
Independent
(I)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Liberal
Republican

(LR)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 97 0 0 1 3 141 242 1
Begin 91 6 0 0 4 189 290 2
End 95 7 199 305
Final voting share 31.1% 2.3% 0.0% 0.0% 1.3% 65.2%
Beginning of the next congress 177 1 4 3 0 101 286 5

Leadership

Henry Wilson, VP of the United States
President of the Senate
Henry Wilson

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1874; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1876; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1878.

Matthew H. Carpenter - Brady-Handy
President pro tempore Matthew H. Carpenter
Henry B. Anthony - Brady-Handy
President pro tempore Henry B. Anthony

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

43 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 5
  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 3
  • interim appointments: 1
  • vacancy: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 7
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Massachusetts (2) Vacant Henry Wilson resigned in previous congress after becoming Vice President of the United States.
Successor elected March 17, 1873.
George S. Boutwell (R) March 17, 1873
Mississippi (1) Adelbert Ames (R) Resigned March 17, 1873, after being elected Governor of Mississippi.
Successor elected February 3, 1874.
Henry R. Pease (R) February 3, 1874
Kansas (2) Alexander Caldwell (R) Resigned March 24, 1873.
Successor appointed November 24, 1873.
Robert Crozier (R) November 24, 1873
California (1) Eugene Casserly (D) Resigned November 29, 1873.
Successor elected December 23, 1873.
John S. Hager (D) December 23, 1873
Kansas (2) Robert Crozier (R) Interim appointee retired when successor elected February 2, 1874. James M. Harvey (R) February 2, 1874
Massachusetts (1) Charles Sumner (LR) Died March 11, 1874.
Successor elected April 17, 1874.
William B. Washburn (R) April 17, 1874
Connecticut (1) William A. Buckingham (R) Died February 5, 1875.
Successor appointed February 5, 1875, having already been elected to the next tern.
William W. Eaton (D) February 5, 1875

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Louisiana 4th Vacant Rep-elect Samuel Peters died before taking seat George L. Smith (R) November 24, 1873
Georgia 8th Vacant Rep-elect Ambrose R. Wright died before taking seat Alexander H. Stephens (D) December 1, 1873
New York 6th James Brooks (D) Died April 30, 1873 Samuel S. Cox (D) November 4, 1873
Massachusetts 3rd William Whiting (R) Died June 29, 1873 Henry L. Pierce (R) December 1, 1873
Oregon At-large Joseph G. Wilson (R) Died July 2, 1873 James Nesmith (D) December 1, 1873
Michigan 5th Wilder D. Foster (R) Died September 20, 1873 William B. Williams (R) December 1, 1873
Virginia 5th Alexander Davis (D) Lost contested election March 5, 1874 Christopher Thomas (R) March 5, 1874
Georgia 1st Morgan Rawls (D) Lost contested election March 24, 1874 Andrew Sloan (R) March 24, 1874
New York 9th David B. Mellish (R) Died May 23, 1874 Richard Schell (D) December 7, 1874
Arkansas 3rd William W. Wilshire (R) Lost contested election June 16, 1874 Thomas M. Gunter (D) June 16, 1874
Ohio 12th Hugh J. Jewett (D) Resigned June 23, 1874, after becoming President of the Erie Railroad William E. Finck (D) December 7, 1874
New York 3rd Stewart L. Woodford (R) Resigned July 1, 1874 Simeon B. Chittenden (IR) November 3, 1874
South Carolina 3rd Robert B. Elliott (R) Resigned November 1, 1874 Lewis C. Carpenter (R) November 3, 1874
Illinois 1st John B. Rice (R) Died December 17, 1874 Bernard G. Caulfield (D) February 1, 1875
Massachusetts 10th Alvah Crocker (R) Died December 26, 1874 Charles A. Stevens (R) January 27, 1875
Pennsylvania 23rd Ebenezer McJunkin (R) Resigned January 1, 1875 John M. Thompson (R) January 5, 1875
Florida At-large William J. Purman (R) Resigned January 25, 1875 Vacant Not filled this term
Maine 4th Samuel F. Hersey (R) Died February 3, 1875 Vacant Not filled this term
Louisiana 1st J. Hale Sypher (R) Lost contested election March 3, 1875 Effingham Lawrence (D) March 3, 1875

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Enrolled Bills
  • Inquire into the Affairs of the District of Columbia

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

1872 United States House of Representatives elections in California

The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1872 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 5, 1872. California gained one seat as a result of the 1870 Census, which the Republicans won. The Democrats, however, gained a Republican-held district. (Note: The Democratic candidates here ran under the label "Liberal Republican".)

1872 United States elections

The 1872 United States elections were held on November 5, electing the members of the 43rd United States Congress. The election took place during the Third Party System. The election took place during the Reconstruction Era, and many Southerners were barred from voting. Despite a split in the party, the Republicans retained control of the presidency and both houses of Congress.

In the presidential election, Republican president Ulysses S. Grant easily defeated Liberal Republican newspaper editor Horace Greeley. Greeley's Liberal Republicans campaigned on civil service reform and an end to Reconstruction. Eager to defeat Grant, the Democratic Party also nominated Greeley. Greeley died after the election but prior to the meeting of the electoral college, so most of Greeley's electoral votes went to his running mate, Missouri Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown, as well as former senator Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana.

Following the 1870 census, 49 seats were added to the House. Republicans made major gains in the House, picking up new seats while also winning seats from the Democrats.In the Senate, Republicans continued to control a commanding majority, but lost multiple seats to the Democrats and Liberal Republicans.

1873 United States Senate election in New York

The 1873 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 21, 1873, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

51st United States Congress

The Fifty-first United States Congress, referred to by some critics as the Billion Dollar Congress, was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C., from March 4, 1889, to March 4, 1891, during the first two years of the administration of U.S. President Benjamin Harrison.

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Tenth Census of the United States in 1880. Both chambers had a Republican majority. This marked the first time since the 43rd United States Congress that both chambers were controlled by the president's party.

Allen Potter

Allen Potter (October 2, 1818 – May 8, 1885) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Potter was born in Galloway (now Galway, New York) and attended the common schools. He moved to Adrian, Michigan in 1830 and to Jonesville, Michigan in 1838 where he learned the trade of tinsmith. He moved to Kalamazoo in 1845 and engaged in the retail hardware business until 1858, when he engaged in banking and in the manufacture of gas.

Potter was a member of the Michigan House of Representatives in 1857. He also served as president of the village council in 1859, 1863, 1870, and again in 1872. He was elected a member of the board of education in 1867, 1869, and 1871, serving as president in 1869. He was also a member of the board of water commissioners in 1872 and an unsuccessful Liberal Republican candidate for election to the 43rd United States Congress that same year.

Potter was elected as a Democrat from Michigan's 4th congressional district to the 44th Congress, serving from March 4, 1875 to March 3, 1877. He was not a candidate for reelection in 1876 and resumed banking activities as well as being financially interested in railroads and Colorado mining enterprises.

Allen Potter served as member of the sewer commission from 1880 to 1883 and was elected as the first mayor of Kalamazoo in 1884. He also served as treasurer of the State asylum for the insane. He died in Kalamazoo and is interred there in the City Cemetery.

Asa Hodges

Asa Hodges (January 22, 1822 – June 6, 1900) was a one-term U.S. Representative for Arkansas's 1st congressional district, with service from 1873 to 1875.

Born near Moulton in Lawrence County in northern Alabama, Hodges moved to Marion in Crittenden County in northeastern Arkansas. He attended La Grange Male and Female College in LaGrange, Missouri, now part of Hannibal-LaGrange University in Hannibal, Missouri. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1848, and practiced until 1860. Prior to the American Civil War, Hodges owned a large number of slaves near Memphis, Tennessee.

He served as delegate to the Arkansas constitutional convention in 1867. He was a member of the Arkansas House of Representatives for a partial term in 1868 and the Arkansas Senate from 1870 to 1873.

Hodges was elected as a Republican to the 43rd United States Congress (March 4, 1873 – March 3, 1875) to Arkansas' First District. He did not seek reelection in 1874 to the Forty-fourth Congress and was succeeded by the Democrat Lucien C. Gause. Thereafter, he engaged in farming.

Benjamin Wilson (congressman)

Benjamin Wilson (April 30, 1825 – April 26, 1901) was a Democratic politician who served as a United States Representative from West Virginia. He was born in Wilsonburg, Virginia (now West Virginia) in Harrison County. Wilson was elected from West Virginia's 1st District to the 44th United States Congress and to the next three Congresses (March 4, 1875 – March 3, 1883).

Wilson attended the Northwestern Virginia Academy in Clarksburg, Virginia (now West Virginia) and the law school in Staunton, Virginia. He was admitted to the bar in 1848 and commenced practice in Clarksburg. He served as commonwealth attorney for Harrison County from 1852 to 1860. He was member of the State Virginia Secession Convention in 1861 and a member of the State constitutional convention of West Virginia in 1871. He served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1872. He made an unsuccessful bid for election in 1872 to the 43rd United States Congress. He was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and to the three succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1875 - March 3, 1883). He served as Assistant Attorney General of the United States from 1885 to 1893. Congressman Wilson died on April 26, 1901 in Clarksburg and was buried in the Odd Fellows Cemetery there. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.

Civil Rights Act of 1875

The Civil Rights Act of 1875 (18 Stat. 335–337), sometimes called Enforcement Act or Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction Era in response to civil rights violations to African Americans, "to protect all citizens in their civil and legal rights", giving them equal treatment in public accommodations, public transportation, and to prohibit exclusion from jury service. The bill was passed by the 43rd United States Congress and signed into law by U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1875. The law was generally opposed by public opinion, but African Americans favored it. It was not effectively enforced and historian William Gillette says the passage of the law was an "insignificant victory." Eight years later, the Supreme Court ruled in Civil Rights Cases (1883) that the public accommodation sections of the act were unconstitutional, saying Congress was not afforded control over private persons or corporations.

Harrison E. Havens

Harrison Eugene Havens (December 15, 1837 – August 16, 1916) was an American lawyer and politician. He was born in Franklin County, Ohio and was the Republican Party Representative from Missouri for the 4th District in the 42nd United States Congress between 1871 and 1873, and for the 6th District in the 43rd United States Congress from 1873 to 1875.

Henry Otis Pratt

Henry Otis Pratt (February 11, 1838 – May 22, 1931) was a lawyer, Methodist Episcopal minister, and two-term Republican U.S. Representative from Iowa's 4th congressional district.

Born in Foxcroft, Maine, Pratt attended the common schools and Foxcroft Academy.

He graduated from Harvard Law School.

He moved to Charles City, Iowa, in 1862 and taught school.

He was admitted to the bar in Mason City, Iowa, in 1862, but his commencement of practice was delayed by the Civil War.

He enlisted in the Union Army in August 1862 and served in Company B of the 37th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment, until March 1863, when he was discharged at Fort Pillow in Henning, Tennessee. He commenced the practice of law in Charles City, Iowa, in 1864.

He was the County superintendent of public schools of Floyd County, Iowa in 1868 and 1869.

He served one term as a member of the Iowa House of Representatives from 1870 to 1872.

In 1872, Pratt was elected as a Republican to represent Iowa's 4th congressional district in the 43rd United States Congress. He was re-elected two years later, and served in the 44th United States Congress. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1876. He served in Congress from March 4, 1873 to March 3, 1877.

Returning to Iowa, he served as president of the 1877 Republican State Convention.

After studying for the ministry, he was ordained and entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church in October 1877. He continued his ministerial duties until retired on account of age in October 1918.

He died in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on May 22, 1931. He was interred in Oak Hill Cemetery.

Horace F. Page

Horace Francis Page (October 20, 1833 – August 23, 1890) was an American politician that represented a Californian district in the United States House of Representatives. He is perhaps best known for the Page Act of 1875 which began the racial prohibitions against Asian, primarily Chinese, immigration. Page was among a faction of congressmen who openly used racist ideas to defend their positions. When arguing for a ban on the immigration of Chinese laborers, he sought to win support from those who believed in white racial superiority, telling his fellow members that "there is not a member upon this floor . . . who believes that the coming of the African race . . . was a blessing to us."Page was born near Medina, Orleans County, New York. He attended public schools and Millville Academy and then taught school in La Porte County, Indiana until 1854. Then, he moved to California and engaged in the sawmill business near Colfax. He moved to Placerville and engaged in the livery-stable business. He became engaged in mining, as a mail contractor, and as a stage proprietor.

Horace Page studied law, was admitted to the bar, and commenced practice in California. He was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for state senate in 1869. He served as a major in the California Militia. He was elected as a Republican to the 43rd United States Congress and the four succeeding Congresses. He served from March 4, 1873 to March 3, 1883. During the 47th United States Congress, he was the chairman of the Committee on Commerce. In 1882, he was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election to the 48th United States Congress.

In 1884, Horace Page was a delegate to the Republican National Convention. He resumed the practice of law in Washington, D.C. He died in San Francisco, California and was interred in Mountain View Cemetery, Oakland, California.

Hugh J. Jewett

Hugh Judge Jewett (July 1, 1817 – March 6, 1898) was an American railroader and politician. He served as United States Representative from Ohio's 12th congressional district in the 43rd United States Congress.

Jackson Orr

Jackson Orr (September 21, 1832 – March 15, 1926) was a lawyer, Civil War officer, businessman, and two-term Republican U.S. Representative from western Iowa. Continuing westward, he spent the last five decades of his life in Colorado.

Born at Washington Court House, Ohio, Orr moved with his parents to Benton, Indiana, in 1836.

He attended the common schools and Indiana University at Bloomington.

He moved to Jefferson, Iowa, in 1856. He studied law and was admitted to the bar.

From 1861 to 1863, he served in the Union Army as captain of Company H, 10th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment .

He engaged in mercantile pursuits in the City of Montana (now Boone), Iowa, and served as member of the Iowa House of Representatives in 1868. That year, (when Iowa had six seats in the U.S. House), he fell two votes short of winning the Republican nomination to represent Iowa's 6th congressional district.In 1870 Orr won the Republican nomination, and was elected to represent the 6th district in the 42nd United States Congress. Based on the 1870 census, Iowa received three more seats in the House, and Orr's home county was then included in Iowa's new 9th congressional district. Running in the new district, Orr won election to the 43rd United States Congress, where he chaired the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of the Interior. He served in Congress from March 4, 1871 to March 3, 1875.

Orr was not a candidate for renomination in 1874, but instead moved to Silverton, a mining town in a newly opened area of southwestern Colorado Territory, in 1875.

In Colorado, Orr was elected county judge and served for three years. He moved to Denver, Colorado, and engaged in the practice of his profession and also in the real estate business. In 1882, President Chester A. Arthur appointed him as one of three commissioners to implement a treaty between the United States and the Ute tribe. He was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination for Colorado's at-large Congressional seat in 1884. He served as president of the Denver Fire and Police Board in 1893 and 1894.

He died in Denver on March 15, 1926. He was interred in Fairmount Cemetery in Denver.

Leonard Myers

Leonard Myers (November 13, 1827 – February 11, 1905) was a Jewish Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania during the American Civil War and the early years of Reconstruction.

List of United States Senators in the 43rd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 43rd United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1873, to March 3, 1875.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1874 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of United States federal legislation, 1789–1901

This is a chronological, but incomplete, list of United States federal legislation passed by the 1st through 56th United States Congresses, between 1789 and 1901. For the main article on this subject, see List of United States federal legislation. Additional lists can be found at List of United States federal legislation: Congress of the Confederation, List of United States federal legislation, 1901–2001 and List of United States federal legislation, 2001–present.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 43rd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 43rd United States Congress listed by seniority.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 43rd Congress (March 4, 1873 – March 3, 1875). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

Revised Statutes of the United States

The Revised Statutes of the United States (in citations, Rev. Stat.) was the first official codification of the Acts of Congress. It was the precursor to the United States Code.

Thomas J. Creamer

Thomas James Creamer (May 26, 1843 – August 4, 1914) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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