The Forty-second United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1871, to March 4, 1873, during the third and fourth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.
|42nd United States Congress|
United States Capitol (1877)
|March 4, 1871 – March 4, 1873|
|Senate President||Schuyler Colfax (R)|
|Senate President pro tem||Henry B. Anthony (R)|
|House Speaker||James G. Blaine (R)|
243 members of the House
10 non-voting delegates
|1st: March 4, 1871 – April 20, 1871|
2nd: December 4, 1871 – June 10, 1872
3rd: December 2, 1872 – March 4, 1873
The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||12||0||62||74||0|
|Final voting share||23.6%||1.4%||75.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||19||3||50||72||2|
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||67||0||0||169|| (Conservative)
|Final voting share||40.1%||0.4%||1.2%||58.3%||0.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||91||0||4||189||
This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.
Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1874; Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1876; and Class 3 meant their term ended in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1872.
The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Virginia (2)||Vacant||Legislature had failed to elect.
Previous incumbent re-elected March 15, 1871.
|John W. Johnston (D)||March 15, 1871|
|Georgia (2)||Vacant||Foster Blodgett presented credentials as Senator-elect, but the Senate declared him not elected.
Successor elected November 14, 1871.
|Thomas M. Norwood (D)||November 14, 1871|
|Mississippi (2)||Vacant||Delayed taking seat in order to serve as Governor of Mississippi||James L. Alcorn (R)||December 1, 1871|
|North Carolina (2)||Vacant||Legislature had failed to elect.
Successor elected January 30, 1872.
|Matt W. Ransom (D)||January 30, 1872|
|Kentucky (3)||Garrett Davis (D)||Died September 22, 1872.
Successor appointed September 27, 1872.
Appointee was later elected January 21, 1873, to finish the term.
|Willis B. Machen (D)||September 27, 1872|
|Louisiana (3)||William P. Kellogg (R)||Resigned November 1, 1872, after being elected Governor of Louisiana||Vacant||Not filled this Congress|
|Massachusetts (2)||Henry Wilson (R)||Resigned March 3, 1873, after being elected U.S. Vice President||Vacant||Not filled this Congress|
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|District of Columbia At-large||New seat||District of Columbia's At-large district created March 4, 1871, and remained vacant until April 21, 1871||Norton P. Chipman (R)||April 21, 1871|
|Illinois At-large||Vacant||Rep. John A. Logan resigned at the end of the previous congress after being elected to the US Senate||John L. Beveridge (R)||November 7, 1871|
|Michigan 4th||Vacant||Rep. Thomas W. Ferry resigned at the end of the previous congress after being elected to the US Senate||Wilder D. Foster (R)||December 4, 1871|
|Illinois 6th||Burton C. Cook (R)||Resigned August 26, 1871||Henry Snapp (R)||December 4, 1871|
|Louisiana 4th||James McCleery (R)||Died November 5, 1871||Alexander Boarman (LR)||December 3, 1872|
|Massachusetts 9th||William B. Washburn (R)||Resigned December 5, 1871, after being elected Governor of Massachusetts||Alvah Crocker (R)||January 2, 1872|
|Arkansas 3rd||John Edwards (LR)||Lost contested election February 9, 1872||Thomas Boles (R)||February 9, 1872|
|Massachusetts 7th||George M. Brooks (R)||Resigned May 13, 1872, after becoming judge of probate for Middlesex County||Constantine C. Esty (R)||December 2, 1872|
|Texas 3rd||William T. Clark (R)||Lost contested election May 13, 1872||Dewitt C. Giddings (D)||December 13, 1872|
|Ohio 1st||Aaron F. Perry (R)||Resigned July 14, 1872||Ozro J. Dodds (D)||October 9, 1872|
|Georgia 4th||Thomas J. Speer (R)||Died August 18, 1872||Erasmus W. Beck (D)||December 2, 1872|
|Connecticut 1st||Julius L. Strong (R)||Died September 7, 1872||Joseph R. Hawley (R)||December 2, 1872|
|Pennsylvania 13th||Ulysses Mercur (R)||Resigned December 2, 1872, after becoming an assoc. justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania||Frank C. Bunnell (R)||December 24, 1872|
|Illinois At-large||John L. Beveridge (R)||Resigned January 4, 1873, after being elected Lieutenant Governor of Illinois||Vacant||Not filled this term|
|South Carolina 2nd||Robert C. De Large (R)||Seat declared vacant January 24, 1873, after election was contested by Christopher C. Bowen||Vacant||Not filled this term|
|Florida At-large||Josiah T. Walls (R)||Lost contested election January 29, 1873||Silas L. Niblack (D)||January 29, 1873|
Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.