41st United States Congress

The Forty-first United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1871, during the first two years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

41st United States Congress
40th ←
→ 42nd
USCapitol1877
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1871
Senate PresidentSchuyler Colfax (R)
Senate President pro temHenry B. Anthony (R)
House SpeakerJames G. Blaine (R)
Members74 senators
243 members of the House
9 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
Sessions
1st: March 4, 1869 – April 10, 1869
2nd: December 6, 1869 – July 15, 1870
3rd: December 5, 1870 – March 4, 1871

Major events

Major legislation

Constitutional amendments

  • February 3, 1870: Fifteenth Amendment was ratified by the requisite number of states (then 28) to become part of the Constitution[2]

States readmitted

  • January 26, 1870: Virginia rejoined the Union
  • February 23, 1870: Mississippi rejoined the Union
  • March 30, 1870: Texas rejoined the Union
  • July 15, 1870: Georgia rejoined the Union, the last former Confederate state to be readmitted

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

During this Congress, Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia were readmitted to representation.

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Other
End of the previous congress 9 57 0 66 8
Begin 9 57 0 66 8
End 12 62 740
Final voting share 16.2% 83.8% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 16 55 1
(Liberal Republican)
72 2

House of Representatives

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Conservative
(C)
Other
End of the previous congress 45 170 2 (Independent Republican,
& Conservative Republican)

3
220 23
Begin 65 150 0 0 215 28
End 67 169 5 2411
Final voting share 27.8% 70.1% 2.1% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 93 144 0 2
(Liberal Republican &
Independent Republican)
239 2

Leadership

Schuyler Colfax portrait
President of the Senate
Schuyler Colfax

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed then by class and Representatives are listed then by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, "Class 1" meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1874; "Class 2" meant their term ended in this Congress, facing re-election in 1870; and "Class 3" meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1872.

Henry B. Anthony - Brady-Handy
Senate President pro tempore
Henry B. Anthony

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

41 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Blaine, James G
Speaker of the House, James G. Blaine

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 6
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations:2
  • interim appointments: 2
  • seats of newly re-admitted states: 8
  • Total seats with changes: 14
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Virginia (1) Vacant Virginia re-admitted to the Union John F. Lewis (R) January 26, 1870
Virginia (2) John W. Johnston (D)
Mississippi (1) Vacant Mississippi re-admitted to the Union Adelbert Ames (R) February 23, 1870
Mississippi (2) Hiram R Revels (R)
Texas (1) Vacant Texas re-admitted to the Union James W. Flanagan (R) March 30, 1870
Texas (2) Morgan C. Hamilton (R) March 31, 1870
Georgia (3) Vacant Georgia re-admitted to the Union Joshua Hill (R) February 1, 1871
Georgia (2) Homer V. M. Miller (D) February 28, 1871
Maine (2) William P. Fessenden (R) Died September 8, 1869.
Successor appointed October 30, 1869.
Successor was subsequently elected January 19, 1870 to finish the term.
Lot M. Morrill (R) October 30, 1869
Iowa (2) James W. Grimes (R) Resigned December 6, 1869, because of failing health.
Successor elected January 18, 1870.
James B. Howell (R) January 18, 1870
Minnesota (2) Daniel S. Norton (R) Died July 13, 1870.
Successor appointed July 15, 1870.
William Windom (R) July 15, 1870
Missouri (3) Charles D. Drake (R) Resigned December 19, 1870, after being appointed chief justice of the United States Court of Claims.
Successor appointed December 19, 1870.
Daniel T. Jewett (R) December 19, 1870
Missouri (3) Daniel T. Jewett (R) Interim appointee retired.
Successor elected January 20, 1871.
Francis P. Blair, Jr. (D) January 20, 1871
Minnesota (2) William Windom (R) Successor elected January 22, 1871. Ozora P. Stearns (R) January 22, 1871

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
South Carolina 3rd Vacant Contested election with J.P. Reed. Reed was never seated. House declared Hoge entitled to seat. Solomon L. Hoge (R) April 8, 1869
Wyoming Territory At-large Vacant Territory organized in previous congress and remained vacant until December 6, 1869 Stephen F. Nuckolls (D) December 6, 1869
Virginia 2nd Vacant Virginia re-admitted into the Union James H. Platt, Jr. (R) January 26, 1870
Virginia 3rd Charles H. Porter (R)
Virginia 4th George Booker (C)
Virginia 5th Robert Ridgway (C) January 27, 1870
Virginia 6th William Milnes, Jr. (C)
Virginia 8th James K. Gibson (C) January 28, 1870
Virginia 1st Richard S. Ayer (R) January 31, 1870
Virginia 7th Lewis McKenzie (C)
Pennsylvania 21st Vacant Contested election with Henry D. Foster. House declared neither was entitled to seat. House then declared Covode duly elected February 9, 1870 John Covode (R) February 9, 1870
Mississippi 1st Vacant Mississippi re-admitted into the Union George E. Harris (R) February 23, 1870
Mississippi 2nd Joseph L. Morphis (R)
Mississippi 3rd Henry W. Barry (R)
Mississippi 5th Legrand W. Perce (R)
Texas 1st Vacant Texas re-admitted into the Union George W. Whitmore (R) March 30, 1870
Texas 2nd John C. Conner (D) March 31, 1870
Texas 3rd William T. Clark (R)
Texas 4th Edward Degener (R)
Louisiana 4th Vacant Contested election with Michael Ryan. House declared neither was entitled to seat. Elected to seat thus caused Joseph P. Newsham (R) May 23, 1870
South Carolina 4th Vacant Contested election with William D. Simpson. Simpson was never seated. House declared Wallace entitled to seat. Alexander S. Wallace (R) May 27, 1870
Louisiana 1st Vacant Contested election with Louis St. Martin. House declared neither was entitled to seat. Elected to seat thus caused J. Hale Sypher (R) November 7, 1870
Georgia 1st Vacant Vacancy caused by House declaring Joseph W. Clift not entitled to seat William W. Paine (D) December 22, 1870
Georgia 2nd Vacancy caused by House declaring Nelson Tift not entitled to seat Richard H. Whiteley (R)
Georgia 3rd Vacancy caused by House declaring William P. Edwards not entitled to seat Marion Bethune (R)
Georgia 4th Vacancy caused by House declaring Samuel F. Gove not entitled to seat Jefferson F. Long (R)
Georgia 5th Vacancy caused by House declaring Charles H. Prince not entitled to seat Stephen A. Corker (D)
Georgia 6th Failure to elect William P. Price (D)
Georgia 7th Vacancy caused by House declaring Pierce M. B. Young not entitled to seat. He was subsequently elected to fill the vacancy thus caused Pierce M. B. Young (D)
Illinois 3rd Elihu B. Washburne (R) Resigned March 6, 1869, after being appointed United States Secretary of State Horatio C. Burchard (R) December 6, 1869
Massachusetts 7th George S. Boutwell (R) Resigned March 12, 1869, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury George M. Brooks (R) November 2, 1869
Pennsylvania 3rd John Moffet (D) Lost contested election April 9, 1869 Leonard Myers (R) April 9, 1869
Wisconsin 2nd Benjamin F. Hopkins (R) Died January 1, 1870 David Atwood (R) February 23, 1870
Ohio 10th Truman H. Hoag (D) Died February 5, 1870 Erasmus D. Peck (R) April 23, 1870
New York 11th George W. Greene (D) Lost contested election February 17, 1870 Charles Van Wyck (R) February 17, 1870
South Carolina 1st Benjamin F. Whittemore (R) Resigned February 24, 1870, pending an investigation of certain appointments to the US Military and Naval Academies Joseph Rainey (R) December 12, 1870
Kentucky 3rd Jacob Golladay (D) Resigned February 28, 1870 Joseph H. Lewis (D) May 10, 1870
North Carolina 4th John T. Deweese (R) Resigned February 28, 1870, pending an investigation of certain appointments to the US Military and Naval Academies John Manning, Jr. (D) December 7, 1870
Pennsylvania 5th John R. Reading (D) Lost contested election April 13, 1870 Caleb N. Taylor (R) April 13, 1870
North Carolina 2nd David Heaton (R) Died June 25, 1870 Joseph Dixon (R) December 5, 1870
New York 28th Noah Davis (R) Resigned July 15, 1870, before being appointed U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York Charles H. Holmes (R) December 6, 1870
Iowa 2nd William Smyth (R) Died September 30, 1870 William P. Wolf (R) December 6, 1870
Virginia 5th Robert Ridgway (C) Died October 16, 1870 Richard T. W. Duke (C) November 8, 1870
Ohio 3rd Robert C. Schenck (R) Resigned January 5, 1871, after being appointed U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom Vacant Not filled this Congress
Pennsylvania 21st John Covode (R) Died January 11, 1871 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Illinois At-large John A. Logan (R) Resigned at end of congress March 3, 1871, after being elected to the US Senate for the following term Vacant Not filled this Congress
Michigan 4th Thomas W. Ferry (R) Resigned at end of congress March 3, 1871, after being elected to the US Senate for the following term Vacant Not filled this Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ceremony at "Wedding of the Rails," May 10, 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah". World Digital Library. 1869-05-10. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  2. ^ Huckabee, David C. (September 30, 1997). "Ratification of Amendments to the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). Congressional Research Service reports. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress.

Bibliography

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

1868 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1868 to elect Representatives to the 41st United States Congress. The election coincided with the presidential election of 1868, which was won by Ulysses S. Grant.

The Democrats gained 20 seats, but Grant's Republican Party retained a commanding majority in the Reconstruction era following the American Civil War, holding onto a firm legitimacy through an association with victory. As more Southern states exited Reconstruction, more Democratic seats appeared in the South. However, Democratic gains in the South were limited, as the Republican power-brokers of Reconstruction held a great deal of influence. The small Conservative Party of Virginia also picked up several seats in Virginia, as it had support among wealthy Southern leaders who wanted to increase the region's power.

1868 United States House of Representatives elections in California

The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1868 were elections for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 3, 1868. California's delegation remained at two Democrats and one Republican.

1868 United States elections

The 1868 United States elections was held on November 3, electing the members of the 41st United States Congress. The election took place during the Reconstruction Era, and many Southerners were barred from voting. This was the first election after the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment, which protected the voting rights of all citizens regardless of race or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. After this election but before the next election, delegations from Texas, Virginia, Mississippi, and Georgia were readmitted to Congress.

In the presidential election, Republican General Ulysses S. Grant defeated Democratic former governor Horatio Seymour of New York. Incumbent President Andrew Johnson sought the 1868 Democratic nomination, but Seymour took the nomination after twenty two ballots.

Democrats gained several seats in the House elections, but Republicans continued to maintain a commanding majority.In the Senate elections, Republicans and Democrats both won seats, but Republicans maintained a huge majority in the chamber.

1869 United States Senate election in New York

The 1869 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 19, 1869, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 1) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

Charles Knapp (congressman)

Charles Knapp (October 8, 1797 – May 14, 1880) was a U.S. Representative from New York. He was the father of Charles J. Knapp, who also served in Congress.

Born in Colchester, New York, Charles Knapp was educated at home and later attended the common schools. He farmed and worked as a school teacher before starting a career as a merchant in 1825. Knapp was later active in several other ventures, including a lumber mill and a tannery.

Knapp was elected Colchester's Town Supervisor and a member of the Delaware County Board of Supervisors in 1830, 1835 and 1836. Originally a Democrat affiliated with the Martin Van Buren organization, Knapp served in the New York State Assembly in 1841.

He moved to Deposit, New York, in 1848. In 1854 he organized a privately owned bank, the Knapp Bank, of which he served as president. He changed his political affiliation to the Republican Party when the party was organized in the mid-1850s.

Knapp was elected as a Republican to the 41st United States Congress, (March 4, 1869 – March 3, 1871), representing New York's 19th congressional district.He was not a candidate for renomination in 1870 and resumed his banking and business interests.

Knapp died in Deposit on May 14, 1880. He was interred in Laurel Bank Cemetery.

David Heaton

David Heaton (March 10, 1823 – June 25, 1870) was an American attorney and politician, a US Representative from North Carolina. He earlier was elected to the state senates of Ohio and Minnesota.

Enforcement Act of 1870

The Enforcement Act of 1869, also known as the Civil Rights Act of 1870 or First Ku Klux Klan Act, or Force Act was a United States federal law written to empower the President with the legal authority to enforce the first section of the Fifteenth Amendment throughout the United States. The act was the first of three Enforcement Acts passed by the United States Congress from 1870 to 1871 during the Reconstruction Era to combat attacks on the suffrage rights of African Americans from state officials or violent groups like the Ku Klux Klan.The act would develop from separate legislative actions in the House and Senate. H.R. 1293 was introduced by House Republican John Bingham from Ohio on February 21, 1870, and discussed on May 16, 1870. S. 810 grew from several bills from several Senators. Senator George F. Edmunds from Vermont submitted the first bill, followed by Sen. Oliver P. Morton from Indiana, Sen. Charles Sumner from Massachusetts, and Sen. William Stewart from Nevada. After three months of debate in the Committee on the Judiciary, the final Senate version of the bill was introduced to the Senate on April 19, 1870. The act was passed by Congress in May 1870 and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on May 31, 1870.

The Enforcement Act of 1870 prohibited discrimination by state officials in voter registration on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. It established penalties for interfering with a person's right to vote and gave federal courts the power to enforce the act. The act also authorized the President to employ the use of the army to uphold the act and the use of federal marshals to bring charges against offenders for election fraud, the bribery or intimidation of voters, and conspiracies to prevent citizens from exercising their constitutional rights.

Isaac H. Duval

Isaac Harding Duval (September 1, 1824 – July 10, 1902) was an adventurer and businessman prior to becoming a brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was a postbellum U.S. Representative from West Virginia in the 41st United States Congress.

Joseph W. Clift

Joseph Wales Clift (September 30, 1837 – May 2, 1908) was a U.S. Representative from Georgia.

Born in North Marshfield, Massachusetts, Clift attended the common schools and Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts.

He was graduated from the medical school of Harvard University in 1862.

He entered the Union Army and was acting surgeon from July 13, 1862, to August 7, 1865.

He served in the Army of the Potomac until November 18, 1866.

Practiced medicine in Savannah, Georgia.

He was appointed registrar of the city of Savannah by Major General Pope under the reconstruction acts.

Upon the readmission of Georgia to representation was elected as a Republican to the 40th United States Congress and served from July 25, 1868, to March 3, 1869.

Presented credentials as a Member-elect to the 41st United States Congress, but was not permitted to qualify.

He died in Rock City Falls, New York, May 2, 1908.

He was interred in the cemetery adjoining the Clift estate, North Marshfield, Massachusetts.

Judiciary Act of 1869

The Judiciary Act of 1869, sometimes called the Circuit Judges Act of 1869, a United States statute, provided that the Supreme Court of the United States would consist of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, established separate judgeships for the U.S. circuit courts, and for the first time included a provision allowing federal judges to retire without losing their salary. This is the most recent legislation altering the size of the Supreme Court.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Supreme Court of the United States shall hereafter consist of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, any six of whom shall constitute a quorum; and for the purposes of this act there shall be appointed an additional associate justice of said court.

In addition, it stipulated that each of the nine circuit courts of the United States would have a circuit judge appointed who would reside in that locale and have the same power and jurisdiction as the Supreme Court justice assigned to the circuit. It was stipulated that the Chief Justice and each of the associate justices had the duty to sit at least one term in the circuit every two years. The circuit court could be held by the circuit judge, the Supreme Court justice, or the two could hold the court together, in which case the Supreme Court justice would preside. Up until this time, circuit courts were normally only staffed by district judges and Supreme Court justices "riding circuit."

The salary of the circuit court judgeships created was set at $5,000 a year. In addition, the act stipulated that federal judges (including Supreme Court justices) who had served for ten years or more would receive a pension upon their retirement. The pension was set at the salary of the judge at the time of retirement. A judge had to be at least seventy years old at the time of retirement.

There were eight justices serving on the Supreme Court at the time the act was enacted. The Judicial Circuits Act of 1866 had provided that the Court be reduced in size from ten to seven justices upon its next three vacancies, but the reduction was to occur only when the serving justices created such vacancies either through death or retirement. As only two seats were vacated between 1866 and 1869, only one new seat was implemented with the creation of the Act. Joseph P. Bradley was the first Justice appointed to this newly created seat.

An earlier version of this legislation had been approved by the 40th Congress at the close of the session in March 1869, but fell victim to a pocket veto from outgoing President Andrew Johnson. The act was the third time that Congress had created circuit judgeships. The first time was the soon-repealed Judiciary Act of 1801, and the second was a single circuit judgeship in the frontier state of California which only lasted from 1855 to 1863.

Though the law did not abolish circuit riding by the justices of the Supreme Court, it significantly reduced the burden by requiring each justice to attend circuit court in each district within his circuit only once every two years. Circuit court riding would later be abolished by the Judiciary Act of 1891. The circuit courts themselves were abolished by the Judicial Code of 1911, which transferred their trial jurisdiction to the U.S. district courts.

Levi A. Mackey

Levi Augustus Mackey (November 25, 1819 – February 8, 1889) was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania.

Mackey was born in White Deer Township, Union County, Pennsylvania. In 1837, he graduated from Union College in Schenectady, New York, with Phi Beta Kappa honors and membership in The Kappa Alpha Society, before studying law at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

From 1841 until 1855, Mackey practiced law in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania. He then served as the president of Lock Haven Bank and as president of the Bald Eagle Valley Railroad.

Mackey served as a delegate to the 1852 Whig National Convention and to the 1872 Democratic National Convention. He campaigned, unsuccessfully, for a seat in the 41st United States Congress in 1868 but was elected mayor of Lock Haven in 1870. From March 4, 1875 to March 3, 1879 he served as a Democratic U.S. Representative to the Forty-fourth and 45th United States Congresses, representing the 20th District of Pennsylvania.

He died in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania, February 8, 1889, and was interred at Highland Cemetery in Lock Haven.

List of United States Senators in the 41st Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 41st United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1869, to March 3, 1871.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1870 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of United States federal legislation, 1789–1901

This is a chronological, but incomplete, list of United States federal legislation passed by the 1st through 56th United States Congresses, between 1789 and 1901. For the main article on this subject, see List of United States federal legislation. Additional lists can be found at List of United States federal legislation: Congress of the Confederation, List of United States federal legislation, 1901–2001 and List of United States federal legislation, 2001–present.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 41st Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 41st United States Congress listed by seniority.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 41st Congress (March 4, 1869 – March 3, 1871). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

Nathaniel Boyden

Nathaniel Boyden (August 16, 1796 – November 20, 1873) was a U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1847 and 1849 and later between 1868 and 1869.

Born in Conway, Massachusetts in 1796, Boyden attended the common schools and then served in the War of 1812. He graduated from Union College in Schenectady, New York, in 1821 and moved to Stokes County, North Carolina in 1822.

After teaching school for several years in North Carolina, Boyden studied law and was admitted to the bar and practiced. In 1838 and 1840, he was elected to terms in the North Carolina House of Commons. In 1842, Boyden moved to Salisbury, North Carolina and continued to practice law. In 1844 he was elected to the North Carolina Senate, and in 1846, voted to a single term in the 30th United States Congress (March 4, 1847 – March 3, 1849) as a Whig.

Declining to stand for re-election in 1848, Boyden returned to the practice of law. After the American Civil War, he was a delegate to the 1865 North Carolina Constitutional Convention, and, upon the readmission to North Carolina to the union, he was elected as a Conservative (as some North Carolina members of the Democratic Party were calling themselves) to the 40th United States Congress and served from July 13, 1868 to March 3, 1869.

He unsuccessfully contested the election of Francis E. Shober to the 41st United States Congress, and afterwards resumed the practice of law until elected associate justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1872. He served in that post until his death in Salisbury, on November 20, 1873; he is buried in the Lutheran Cemetery in Salisbury.

He was married to Jane Caroline Henderson, daughter of Congressman and North Carolina politician Archibald Henderson (1768-1822).

Naturalization Act of 1870

The Naturalization Act of 1870 (16 Stat. 254) was a United States federal law that created a system of controls for the naturalization process and penalties for fraudulent practices. It is also noted for extending the naturalization process to "aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent."

Noah Davis

Noah Davis (September 10, 1818 Haverhill, Grafton County, New Hampshire – March 20, 1902 New York City) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.

Omar D. Conger

Omar Dwight Conger (April 1, 1818 – July 11, 1898) was a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Conger was born in Cooperstown, New York and moved with his father, the Rev. E. Conger, to Huron County, Ohio in 1824. He pursued academic studies at the Huron Institute in Milan, Ohio, and graduated from Western Reserve College (now Case Western Reserve University) in Hudson, Ohio in 1841. He engaged in mineral explorations of the Lake Superior copper and iron regions in connection with the Michigan State Geological Survey 1845-1847. He engaged in the practice of law in Port Huron, Michigan in 1848 and was elected judge of the St. Clair County Court in 1850. He was a member of the Michigan State Senate 1855-1859, and served as President pro tempore in 1859. He was a member of the State military board during the Civil War, holding the rank of colonel. He was a Presidential Elector for Michigan in 1864 and a member of the State constitutional convention in 1866.

He was elected as a Republican to the United States House of Representatives for the 41st United States Congress and to the five succeeding Congresses, serving from March 4, 1869, until March 4, 1881. He represented Michigan's 5th congressional district from 1869 to 1873 and became the first person to represent the 7th district from 1873 to 1881.

Conger was re-elected to the House for the 47th Congress in the general election on November 2, 1880. He was subsequently elected by the Michigan Legislature to the United States Senate on January 18, 1881. Conger served the remainder of his term in the House for 46th Congress and resigned from the House for the next term to serve in the Senate. John T. Rich was elected in a special election April 4, 1881, to fill the vacancy in the House.

While in the House, Conger served as chairman, Committee on Expenditures in the State Department in the 42nd Congress, and the Committee on Patents in the 43rd Congress.

Conger was elected in 1880 as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1881 to March 4, 1887. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1886. He served as chairman, Committee on Manufactures in the 47th Congress, the Committee on the Revision of the Laws in the 48th Congress, and the Committee on Post Office and Post Roads in the 49th Congress.

After leaving Congress, he engaged in the practice of law in Washington, D.C. and died in Ocean City, Maryland. He is interred in Lakeside Cemetery, Port Huron, Michigan.

Conger also played an important role in the establishment of the American Red Cross. On May 12, 1881, Clara Barton, who became the first president of the organization, organized a meeting at Sen. Conger's home. The 15 people present at this meeting include Barton, Conger, and Rep. William Lawrence (R, OH).

Senator Conger is the namesake for Fort Conger, the pioneering Arctic outpost established by Augustus Greeley's 1881 expedition and named by the explorer in gratitude for the senator's support.

Conger's legacy can also be seen in the street names in Port Huron, Michigan. The two streets closest to the lake are named Omar Street and Conger Avenue, and are just a few blocks away from Lakeside Cemetery where he is interred. Additionally, there was a short-lived settlement established in the Thumb called "Omard", which was named in honor of the senator using his first name "Omar" and his middle initial "D". The Library of Congress lists a single published work by Conger in its catalog. This is the 15 page pamphlet titled A Plain Review, published in Washington, DC in 1892. Its subject is French spoliation claims. The call number there is E321 .C74.

Second Enforcement Act

The Enforcement Act of 1871, sometimes called the Civil Rights Act of 1871 or the Second Ku Klux Klan Act, was a United States federal law. The act was the second of three Enforcement Acts passed by the United States Congress from 1870 to 1871 during the Reconstruction Era to combat attacks on the suffrage rights of African Americans from groups like the Ku Klux Klan.

Republican Representative John C. Churchill from New York introduced his bill H.R. 2634 in the 41st United States Congress. The bill was passed by Congress in February 1871 and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on February 28, 1871.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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