40th parallel north

The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 15 hours, 1 minute during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 20 minutes during the winter solstice.[1] On 21 June, the maximum altitude of the sun is 73.83 degrees and 26.17 degrees on 21 December.

Line across the Earth
40th parallel north

Around the world

Starting in Spain at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 40° north passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
40°0′N 0°0′E / 40.000°N 0.000°E  Spain Valencian Community
40°0′N 0°2′E / 40.000°N 0.033°E Mediterranean Sea Passing just north of the island of Majorca,  Spain
40°0′N 3°48′E / 40.000°N 3.800°E  Spain Island of Menorca
40°0′N 4°13′E / 40.000°N 4.217°E Mediterranean Sea
40°0′N 8°24′E / 40.000°N 8.400°E  Italy Island of Sardinia
40°0′N 9°42′E / 40.000°N 9.700°E Mediterranean Sea Tyrrhenian Sea
40°0′N 15°20′E / 40.000°N 15.333°E  Italy Campania
40°0′N 15°26′E / 40.000°N 15.433°E Mediterranean Sea Gulf of Policastro
40°0′N 15°41′E / 40.000°N 15.683°E  Italy Basilicata, Calabria
40°0′N 16°37′E / 40.000°N 16.617°E Mediterranean Sea Gulf of Taranto
40°0′N 18°0′E / 40.000°N 18.000°E  Italy Apulia
40°0′N 18°25′E / 40.000°N 18.417°E Mediterranean Sea Strait of Otranto
40°0′N 19°53′E / 40.000°N 19.883°E  Albania Passing just north of Sarandë and just south of Gjirokastër
40°0′N 20°23′E / 40.000°N 20.383°E  Greece
40°0′N 22°37′E / 40.000°N 22.617°E Mediterranean Sea Aegean Sea
40°0′N 23°23′E / 40.000°N 23.383°E  Greece Kassandra and Sithonia
40°0′N 24°0′E / 40.000°N 24.000°E Mediterranean Sea Aegean Sea
40°0′N 25°6′E / 40.000°N 25.100°E  Greece Island of Lemnos
40°0′N 25°26′E / 40.000°N 25.433°E Mediterranean Sea Aegean Sea
40°0′N 26°11′E / 40.000°N 26.183°E  Turkey Passing just north of Ankara
40°0′N 44°24′E / 40.000°N 44.400°E  Armenia
40°0′N 45°36′E / 40.000°N 45.600°E  Azerbaijan Passing through Nagorno-Karabakh
40°0′N 49°27′E / 40.000°N 49.450°E Caspian Sea
40°0′N 52°46′E / 40.000°N 52.767°E  Turkmenistan
40°0′N 62°26′E / 40.000°N 62.433°E  Uzbekistan
40°0′N 68°48′E / 40.000°N 68.800°E  Tajikistan
40°0′N 69°31′E / 40.000°N 69.517°E  Kyrgyzstan
40°0′N 70°32′E / 40.000°N 70.533°E  Tajikistan For about 9 km
40°0′N 70°39′E / 40.000°N 70.650°E  Kyrgyzstan
40°0′N 71°5′E / 40.000°N 71.083°E  Uzbekistan Sokh exclave - for about 7 km
40°0′N 71°10′E / 40.000°N 71.167°E  Kyrgyzstan
40°0′N 71°48′E / 40.000°N 71.800°E  Uzbekistan Shohimardon exclave - for about 4 km
40°0′N 71°50′E / 40.000°N 71.833°E  Kyrgyzstan
40°0′N 73°58′E / 40.000°N 73.967°E  People's Republic of China Xinjiang
Inner Mongolia
Beijing (passing just north of the city centre)
Liaoning (for about 8 km)
40°0′N 119°54′E / 40.000°N 119.900°E Pacific Ocean Liaodong Bay, Yellow Sea
40°0′N 121°53′E / 40.000°N 121.883°E  People's Republic of China Liaoning (Liaodong Peninsula)
40°0′N 124°21′E / 40.000°N 124.350°E  North Korea North Pyeongan Province - Passing through Sinuiju
Jagang Province
South Hamgyeong Province - Passing just north of Hamheung
40°0′N 127°57′E / 40.000°N 127.950°E Pacific Ocean Sea of Japan
40°0′N 128°10′E / 40.000°N 128.167°E  North Korea Mayang Island
40°0′N 128°13′E / 40.000°N 128.217°E Pacific Ocean Sea of Japan
40°0′N 139°54′E / 40.000°N 139.900°E  Japan Island of Honshū
Akita Prefecture
Iwate Prefecture
40°0′N 141°57′E / 40.000°N 141.950°E Pacific Ocean
40°0′N 124°1′W / 40.000°N 124.017°W  United States California
Nebraska / Kansas border
Ohio - passing just north of Columbus
West Virginia
Pennsylvania - passing through Philadelphia
New Jersey
40°0′N 31°7′W / 40.000°N 31.117°W Atlantic Ocean Passing just north of Corvo Island, Azores,  Portugal
40°0′N 8°55′W / 40.000°N 8.917°W  Portugal Passing near Pombal and Covilhã
40°0′N 6°51′W / 40.000°N 6.850°W  Spain Extremadura
Castile-La Mancha
Community of Madrid - for about 10 km
Castile-La Mancha
Valencian Community - Rincón de Ademuz exclave, for about 4 km
Castile-La Mancha - for about 5 km
Valencian Community

United States

40th parallel US
The 40th parallel defines the border between Nebraska and Kansas
Survey monument RH00-062 from SW 3
Survey marker on the Kansas/Nebraska state line

The parallel 40° north forms the boundary between the states of Kansas and Nebraska. On 30 May 1854, the Kansas–Nebraska Act created the Territory of Kansas and the Territory of Nebraska divided by the parallel 40° north. Both territories were required to determine for themselves whether to permit slavery. Open conflict between free-state and pro-slavery forces in the Kansas Territory was one of the root causes of the American Civil War.

The parallel 40° north formed the original northern boundary of the British Colony of Maryland. A subsequent royal grant gave the Colony of Pennsylvania land north of the 40th parallel but mistakenly assumed it would intersect the Twelve Mile Circle, which it does not. Pennsylvania's border was thus unclear and the colony pushed for a border far south of the 40th parallel. The Mason–Dixon Line was drawn between 1763 and 1767 as the compromise boundary between the overlapping claims of these two colonies.

40th parallel marker at The Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio)
40th parallel marker at The Ohio State University (Columbus, Ohio)

The parallel 40° north passes through the cities of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Columbus, Ohio; as well as northern suburbs of Indianapolis, Indiana and Denver, Colorado The parallel goes directly through the John Glenn Columbus International Airport, with runway 10L-28R lying immediately north of the line, runway 10R-28L lying slightly south of it, and the line going through the northernmost edges of the terminal. It also passes through the main campus of The Ohio State University; specifically, it cuts directly across the Oval greenspace, between University Hall and the William Oxley Thompson Memorial Library. Ohio Stadium, one of the largest stadiums in the world, barely misses the parallel 40° north (6 seconds above 40° north).

Baseline Road in Boulder, Colorado, traces the parallel 40° north.

Thistle, Utah, a ghost town since 1983, is slightly (30 seconds) below 40° north.

See also


  1. ^ "Duration of Daylight/Darkness Table for One Year". aa.usno.navy.mil.
39th parallel north

The 39th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 39 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 54 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 26 minutes during the winter solstice.Daylight along the 39th parallel north falls under 10 hours a day starting on 18 November and returns to over ten hours a day beginning 24 January. Crops and other plant growth is considerably slowed during this period of reduced sunlight.In the United States, the eastern boundary of the state of California was defined as following the 120th meridian west south from the 42nd parallel north to its intersection with the 39th parallel north, beyond which it follows a diagonal line to where the Colorado River crosses the 35th parallel north.

40th parallel

40th parallel may refer to:

40th parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere

40th parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere

40th parallel south

The 40th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific Ocean and South America. Its long oceanic stretches are the northern domain of the Roaring Forties.

On 21 June 2018, the sun is at 26.17° in the sky and at 73.83° on 21 December, in King Island, Tasmania, which is near the 40th parallel.

41st parallel north

The 41st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 15 hours, 8 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 13 minutes during the winter solstice.

Adriaen Block

Adriaen (Aerjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch private trader, privateer, and ship's captain who is best known for exploring the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voyages from 1611 to 1614, following the 1609 expedition by Henry Hudson. He is noted for possibly having named Block Island, Rhode Island, and establishing early trade with the Native Americans, and for the 1614 map of his last voyage on which many features of the mid-Atlantic region appear for the first time, and on which the term New Netherland is first applied to the region. He is credited with being the first European to enter Long Island Sound and the Connecticut River, and to determine that Manhattan and Long Island are islands.

American Campaign Medal

The American Campaign Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces which was first created on November 6, 1942 by Executive Order 9265 issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The medal was intended to recognize those military members who had performed military service in the American Theater of Operations during World War II. A similar medal, known as the American Defense Service Medal was awarded for active duty service before the United States entry into World War II.

Armenia–Azerbaijan border

The Armenia–Azerbaijan border is an international border running from north to south and from northwest to southeast across the Lesser Caucasus. The border spans 1007.1 km (625.78 mi), with Armenia mainly to the west and Azerbaijan to the east. The Azerbaijani exclave of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic borders Armenia at the north and east. The northernmost inhabited places of the Armenia–Azerbaijan border are Kamarli on Azerbaijani side and Berdavan on Armenian side. The southernmost inhabited places are Ganza and Agarak, respectively. European routes E002 and E117 cross the border.

The modern Armenia–Azerbaijan border largely follows that of the Armenian SSR and Azerbaijan SSR, but is now closed due to the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs said it may consider reopening its border with Armenia in case of a breakthrough in the conflict.

Baseline (surveying)

In surveying, a baseline is a line between two points on the earth's surface and the direction and distance between them. In a triangulation network, at least one baseline needs to be measured to calculate the size of the triangles by trigonometry.

In the United States Public Land Survey System, a baseline is the principal east-west line (i.e., a parallel) upon which all rectangular surveys in a defined area are based. The baseline meets its corresponding principal meridian at the point of origin, or initial point, for the land survey. For example, the baseline for Nebraska and Kansas is shared as the border for both states, at the 40th parallel north.

More specifically a baseline may be the line that divides a survey township between north and south.

Baseline Road (Colorado)

Baseline Road is a major east-west street in Boulder, Colorado that extends east of the city through parts of four counties. The western terminus of Baseline Road is at Flagstaff Mountain in the City of Boulder Mountain Parks. The eastern terminus is at 16800 Watkins Road, about 6 miles (9.7 km) east of Lochbuie on the boundary between Adams and Weld Counties. The total length of Baseline Road is approximately 38 miles (61 km), all of which is within the Denver-Aurora-Boulder Combined Statistical Area in Colorado. Baseline Road runs almost exactly along the 40th line of latitude.

European–African–Middle Eastern Campaign Medal

The European–African–Middle Eastern Campaign Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces which was first created on November 6, 1942 by Executive Order 9265 issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt

The medal was intended to recognize those military service members who had performed military duty in the European Theater (to include North Africa and the Middle East) during the years of the Second World War.

Front Range

The Front Range is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America located in the central portion of the U.S. State of Colorado, and southeastern portion of the U.S. State of Wyoming. It is the first mountain range encountered as one goes westbound along the 40th parallel north across the Great Plains of North America.

The Front Range runs north-south between Casper, Wyoming and Pueblo, Colorado and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains. Longs Peak, Mount Evans, and Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor. The area is a popular destination for mountain biking, hiking, climbing, and camping during the warmer months and for skiing and snowboarding during winter. Millions of years ago, the present-day Front Range was home to ancient mountain ranges, deserts, beaches, and even oceans.The name "Front Range" is also applied to the Front Range Urban Corridor, the populated region of Colorado and Wyoming just east of the mountain range and extending from Cheyenne, Wyoming south to Pueblo, Colorado. This urban corridor benefits from the weather-moderating effect of the Front Range mountains, which help block prevailing storms.

Hominid dispersals in Europe

Hominid dispersals in Europe refers to the colonisation of the European continent by various species of hominid, including hominins and archaic and modern humans.

Short and repetitive migrations of archaic humans before 1 million years ago suggest that their residence in Europe was not permanent at the time. Colonisation of Europe in prehistory was not achieved in one immigrating wave, but instead through multiple dispersal events. Most of these instances in Eurasia were limited to 40th parallel north. Besides the findings from East Anglia, the first constant presence of humans in Europe begins 500,000–600,000 years ago. However, this presence was limited to western Europe, not reaching places like the Russian plains, until 200,000–300,000 years ago. The exception to this was discovered in East Anglia, England, where hominids briefly inhabited 700,000 years ago. Prior to arriving in Europe, the source of hominids appeared to be East Africa, where stone tools and hominid fossils are the most abundant and recorded. Arising in Europe at least 400,000 years ago, the Neanderthals would become more stable residents of the continent, until they were displaced by a more recent migration of African hominids, in their new home are referred to as European early modern humans (historically called Cro-Magnon Man), leading to the extinction of Neanderthals about 40,000 years ago.

Index of California-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of California.

Kansas Territory

The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas.

The territory extended from the Missouri border west to the summit of the Rocky Mountains and from the 37th parallel north to the 40th parallel north. Originally part of Missouri Territory, it was unorganized from 1821 to 1854. Much of the eastern region of what is now the State of Colorado was part of Kansas Territory. The Territory of Colorado was created to govern this western region of the former Kansas Territory on February 28, 1861.

Mentha × gracilis

The mint hybrid Mentha × gracilis (syn. Mentha x gentilis L.; syn. Mentha cardiaca (S.F. Gray) Bak.) is known by the common names of gingermint, redmint and Scotchmint in Europe, in North America it is known as Scotch spearmint and is cultivated for its essential oil, used to flavour spearmint chewing gum. It is a mint species within the genus Mentha, a sterile hybrid between Mentha arvensis (cornmint) and Mentha spicata (native spearmint).

Nebraska in the American Civil War

The present-day state of Nebraska was still a territory of the United States during the American Civil War. It did not achieve statehood until March 1867, two years after the war ended. Nevertheless, Nebraska contributed significantly to the Union war effort.

Site No. JF00-072

Site No. JF00-072 is a survey monument located at the quadripoint of Republic and Washington counties in Kansas and Jefferson and Thayer counties in Nebraska. The monument marks the intersection of the sixth principal meridian and its baseline, the 40th parallel north; it serves as the initial point of all land surveys in Kansas and Nebraska, as well as most of Wyoming and Colorado, and part of South Dakota. The original sandstone monument was 6 feet (1.8 m) tall. U.S. Deputy Surveyor Charles A. Manners set the monument in 1856. The monument was later buried under a county roadbed; it was unearthed and reburied twice before being dug up for good in 1986, though its middle section is now missing.The monument was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 19, 1987.

Site No. RH00-062

Site No. RH00-062 is a survey monument located at the tripoint of Richardson County, Nebraska, and Brown and Doniphan counties in Kansas. The cast iron monument is 6 feet (1.8 m) tall and 16 inches (410 mm) square at its base. The monument marks the starting point of the land survey of the Kansas-Nebraska border along the 40th parallel north, which intersects the top of the Missouri River's western bluff at this spot. U.S. Deputy Surveyor Charles A. Manners erected the monument in 1855 at the beginning of the survey. In 1924, the monument was displaced and reset at the wrong location before Leo M. Petersen reset it in a sturdier base.The monument was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 19, 1987.

Timeline of Kansas history

For a detailed description of the events in the Kansas area, see History of Kansas.The timeline of Kansas details past events that happened in what is present day Kansas. Located on the eastern edge of the Great Plains, the U.S. state of Kansas was the home of sedentary agrarian and hunter-gatherer Native American societies, many of whom hunted American bison. The region first appears in western history in the 16th century at the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Spanish conquistadores explored the unknown land now known as Kansas. It was later explored by French fur trappers who traded with the Native Americans. It became part of the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In the 19th century, the first American explorers designated the area as the "Great American Desert."

When the area was opened to Euro-American settlement in the 1850s, Kansas became the first battlefield in the conflict in the American Civil War. After the war, Kansas was home to Wild West towns servicing the cattle trade. With the railroads came heavy immigration from the East, from Europe, and from Freedmen called "Exodusters". For much of its history, Kansas has had a rural economy based on wheat and other crops, supplemented by oil and railroads. Since 1945 the farm population has sharply declined and manufacturing has become more important, typified by the aircraft industry of Wichita.

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