3G

3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology. It is the upgrade for 2G and 2.5G GPRS networks, for faster internet speed. This is based on a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. 3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.

3G telecommunication networks support services that provide an information transfer rate of at least 0.2 Mbit/s. Later 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers. This ensures it can be applied to wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV technologies.

A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were introduced in 1979 and the early to mid-1980s. Each generation is characterized by new frequency bands, higher data rates and non–backward-compatible transmission technology. The first 3G networks were introduced in 1998 and 4G networks in 2008.

Overview

Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G, indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.

The following standards are typically branded 3G:

  • the UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service) system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regions predominated by GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:
    • The original and most widespread radio interface is called W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access).
    • The TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialized in 2009 and is only offered in China.
    • The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, can provide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.
  • the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2, used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstream.

The above systems and radio interfaces are based on spread spectrum radio transmission technology. While the GSM EDGE standard ("2.9G"), DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G, and are based on completely different technologies.

The following common standards comply with the IMT2000/3G standard:

  • EDGE, a revision by the 3GPP organization to the older 2G GSM based transmission methods, utilizing the same switching nodes, base station sites and frequencies as GPRS, but new base station and cellphone RF circuits. It is based on the three times as efficient 8PSK modulation scheme as supplement to the original GMSK modulation scheme. EDGE is still used extensively due to its ease of upgrade from existing 2G GSM infrastructure and cell-phones.
    • EDGE combined with the GPRS 2.5G technology is called EGPRS, and allows peak data rates in the order of 200 kbit/s, just as the original UMTS WCDMA versions, and thus formally fulfills the IMT2000 requirements on 3G systems. However, in practice EDGE is seldom marketed as a 3G system, but a 2.9G system. EDGE shows slightly better system spectral efficiency than the original UMTS and CDMA2000 systems, but it is difficult to reach much higher peak data rates due to the limited GSM spectral bandwidth of 200 kHz, and it is thus a dead end.
    • EDGE was also a mode in the IS-136 TDMA system, today ceased.
    • Evolved EDGE, the latest revision, has peaks of 1 Mbit/s downstream and 400 kbit/s upstream, but is not commercially used.
  • The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, created and revised by the 3GPP. The family is a full revision from GSM in terms of encoding methods and hardware, although some GSM sites can be retrofitted to broadcast in the UMTS/W-CDMA format.
    • W-CDMA is the most common deployment, commonly operated on the 2,100 MHz band. A few others use the 850, 900 and 1,900 MHz bands.
      • HSPA is an amalgamation of several upgrades to the original W-CDMA standard and offers speeds of 14.4 Mbit/s down and 5.76 Mbit/s up. HSPA is backward-compatible with and uses the same frequencies as W-CDMA.
      • HSPA+, a further revision and upgrade of HSPA, can provide theoretical peak data rates up to 168 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink, using a combination of air interface improvements as well as multi-carrier HSPA and MIMO. Technically though, MIMO and DC-HSPA can be used without the "+" enhancements of HSPA+
  • The CDMA2000 system, or IS-2000, including CDMA2000 1x and CDMA2000 High Rate Packet Data (or EVDO), standardized by 3GPP2 (differing from the 3GPP), evolving from the original IS-95 CDMA system, is used especially in North America, China, India, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa.
    • CDMA2000 1x Rev. E has an increased voice capacity (in excess of three times) compared to Rev. 0 EVDO Rev. B offers downstream peak rates of 14.7 Mbit/s while Rev. C enhanced existing and new terminal user experience.

While DECT cordless phones and Mobile WiMAX standards formally also fulfill the IMT-2000 requirements, they are not usually considered due to their rarity and unsuitability for usage with mobile phones.

Break-up of 3G systems

The 3G (UMTS and CDMA2000) research and development projects started in 1992. In 1999, ITU approved five radio interfaces for IMT-2000 as a part of the ITU-R M.1457 Recommendation; WiMAX was added in 2007.[1]

There are evolutionary standards (EDGE and CDMA) that are backward-compatible extensions to pre-existing 2G networks as well as revolutionary standards that require all-new network hardware and frequency allocations. The cell phones use UMTS in combination with 2G GSM standards and bandwidths, but do not support EDGE. The latter group is the UMTS family, which consists of standards developed for IMT-2000, as well as the independently developed standards DECT and WiMAX, which were included because they fit the IMT-2000 definition.

While EDGE fulfills the 3G specifications, most GSM/UMTS phones report EDGE ("2.75G") and UMTS ("3G") functionality.

History

3G technology was the result of research and development work carried out by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in the early 1980s. 3G specifications and standards were developed in fifteen years. The technical specifications were made available to the public under the name IMT-2000. The communication spectrum between 400 MHz to 3 GHz was allocated for 3G. Both the government and communication companies approved the 3G standard. The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1998,[2] branded as FOMA. It was first available in May 2001 as a pre-release (test) of W-CDMA technology. The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on 1 October 2001, although it was initially somewhat limited in scope;[3][4] broader availability of the system was delayed by apparent concerns over its reliability.[5]

The first European pre-commercial network was an UMTS network on the Isle of Man by Manx Telecom, the operator then owned by British Telecom, and the first commercial network (also UMTS based W-CDMA) in Europe was opened for business by Telenor in December 2001 with no commercial handsets and thus no paying customers.

The first network to go commercially live was by SK Telecom in South Korea on the CDMA-based 1xEV-DO technology in January 2002. By May 2002 the second South Korean 3G network was by KT on EV-DO and thus the South Koreans were the first to see competition among 3G operators.

The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks, on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology, but this network provider later shut down operations. The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless in July 2002 also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO. AT&T Mobility was also a true 3G UMTS network, having completed its upgrade of the 3G network to HSUPA.

The first commercial United Kingdom 3G network was started by Hutchison Telecom which was originally behind Orange S.A..[6] In 2003, it announced first commercial third generation or 3G mobile phone network in the UK.

The first pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern hemisphere was built in Adelaide, South Australia by m.Net Corporation in February 2002 using UMTS on 2,100 MHz. This was a demonstration network for the 2002 IT World Congress. The first commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunications branded as Three or "3" in June 2003.[7]

Emtel launched the first 3G network in Africa.[8]

Adoption

Nepal Telecom adopted 3G Service for the first time in Asia. However its 3G was relatively slow to be adopted in Nepal. In some instances, 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies, especially so to achieve high data transmission rates. Other countries' delays were due to the expenses of upgrading transmission hardware, especially for UMTS, whose deployment required the replacement of most broadcast towers. Due to these issues and difficulties with deployment, many carriers were not able to or delayed acquisition of these updated capabilities.

In December 2007, 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 HSDPA networks were operating in 71 countries, according to the Global Mobile Suppliers Association (GSA). In Asia, Europe, Canada and the USA, telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology with the support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks.

Roll-out of 3G networks was delayed in some countries by the enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees. The license fees in some European countries were particularly high, bolstered by government auctions of a limited number of licenses and sealed bid auctions, and initial excitement over 3G's potential. This led to a telecoms crash that ran concurrently with similar crashes in the fibre-optic and dot.com fields.

The 3G standard is perhaps well known because of a massive expansion of the mobile communications market post-2G and advances of the consumer mobile phone. An especially notable development during this time is the smartphone (for example, the iPhone, and the Android family), combining the abilities of a PDA with a mobile phone, leading to widespread demand for mobile internet connectivity. 3G has also introduced the term "mobile broadband" because its speed and capability make it a viable alternative for internet browsing, and USB Modems connecting to 3G networks are becoming increasingly common.

Market penetration

By June 2007, the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected of which 10 million were in Nepal and 8.2 million in India. This 200 millionth is only 6.7% of the 3 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide. (When counting CDMA2000 1x RTT customers—max bitrate 72% of the 200kbit/s which defines 3G—the total size of the nearly-3G subscriber base was 475 million as of June 2007, which was 15.8% of all subscribers worldwide.) In the countries where 3G was launched first – Japan and South Korea – 3G penetration is over 70%.[9] In Europe the leading country for 3G penetration is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G. Other leading countries for 3G use include Nepal, UK, Austria, Australia and Singapore at the 32% migration level.

According to ITU estimates,[10] as of Q4 2012 there were 2096 million active mobile-broadband subscribers worldwide out of a total of 6835 million subscribers—this is just over 30%. About half the mobile-broadband subscriptions are for subscribers in developed nations, 934 million out of 1600 million total, well over 50%. Note however that there is a distinction between a phone with mobile-broadband connectivity and a smart phone with a large display and so on—although according[11] to the ITU and informatandm.com the USA has 321 million mobile subscriptions, including 256 million that are 3G or 4G, which is both 80% of the subscriber base and 80% of the USA population, according[10] to ComScore just a year earlier in Q4 2011 only about 42% of people surveyed in the USA reported they owned a smart phone. In Japan, 3G penetration was similar at about 81%, but smart phone ownership was lower at about 17%.[10] In China, there were 486.5 million 3G subscribers in June 2014,[12] in a population of 1,385,566,537 (2013 UN estimate).

Patents

It has been estimated that there are almost 8,000 patents declared essential (FRAND) related to the 483 technical specifications which form the 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards.[13][14] Twelve companies accounted in 2004 for 90% of the patents (Qualcomm, Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, Philips, NTT DoCoMo, Siemens, Mitsubishi, Fujitsu, Hitachi, InterDigital, and Matsushita).

Even then, some patents essential to 3G might have not been declared by their patent holders. It is believed that Nortel and Lucent have undisclosed patents essential to these standards.[14]

Furthermore, the existing 3G Patent Platform Partnership Patent pool has little impact on FRAND protection, because it excludes the four largest patent owners for 3G.[15][16]

Features

Data rates

ITU has not provided a clear definition of the data rate that users can expect from 3G equipment or providers. Thus users sold 3G service may not be able to point to a standard and say that the rates it specifies are not being met. While stating in commentary that "it is expected that IMT-2000 will provide higher transmission rates: a minimum data rate of 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 348 kbit/s in a moving vehicle,"[17] the ITU does not actually clearly specify minimum required rates, nor required average rates, nor what modes of the interfaces qualify as 3G, so various data rates are sold as '3G' in the market.

In market implementation, 3G downlink data speeds defined by telecom service providers vary depending on the underlying technology deployed; up to 384kbit/s for WCDMA, up to 7.2Mbit/sec for HSPA and a theoretical maximum of 21.6 Mbit/s for HSPA+ (technically 3.5G, but usually clubbed under the tradename of 3G).

Compare data speeds with 3.5G and 4G.

Security

3G networks offer greater security than their 2G predecessors. By allowing the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. 3G networks use the KASUMI block cipher instead of the older A5/1 stream cipher. However, a number of serious weaknesses in the KASUMI cipher have been identified.[18]

In addition to the 3G network infrastructure security, end-to-end security is offered when application frameworks such as IMS are accessed, although this is not strictly a 3G property.

Applications of 3G

The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are:

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • Location-based services
  • Mobile TV
  • Telemedicine
  • Video Conferencing
  • Video on demand.

Evolution

Both 3GPP and 3GPP2 are working on the extensions to 3G standards that are based on an all-IP network infrastructure and using advanced wireless technologies such as MIMO. These specifications already display features characteristic for IMT-Advanced (4G), the successor of 3G. However, falling short of the bandwidth requirements for 4G (which is 1 Gbit/s for stationary and 100 Mbit/s for mobile operation), these standards are classified as 3.9G or Pre-4G.

3GPP plans to meet the 4G goals with LTE Advanced, whereas Qualcomm has halted development of UMB in favour of the LTE family.[19]

On 14 December 2009, Telia Sonera announced in an official press release that "We are very proud to be the first operator in the world to offer our customers 4G services."[20] With the launch of their LTE network, initially they are offering pre-4G (or beyond 3G) services in Stockholm, Sweden and Oslo, Norway.

See also

References

  1. ^ ITU. "ITU Radiocommunication Assembly approves new developments for its 3G standards". press release. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  2. ^ "A Brand New Mobile Millennium Ericsson/CATT/DoCoMo jointly demonstrate pioneering W-CDMA technology at PT/Wireless | Press Center | NTT DOCOMO Global". Nttdocomo.com. 9 November 1999. Retrieved 30 October 2012.
  3. ^ "World's first 3G launch on 1 October severely restricted (hktdc.com)".
  4. ^ "broadbandmag.co.uk/3G grinds to a start". Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
  5. ^ "DoCoMo Delays 3G Launch". Wired. 24 April 2001.
  6. ^ "3G in UK". 3g.co.uk.
  7. ^ "About Hutchison". Hutchison Telecommunications (Australia) Limited. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
  8. ^ "Emtel | Africa Outlook Magazine". Africa Outlook Magazine. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  9. ^ "Plus 8 Star presentation, "Is 3G a Dog or a Demon – Hints from 7 years of 3G Hype in Asia"". Plus8star.com. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 2010-09-06.
  10. ^ a b c "Global mobile statistics 2013 Part A: Mobile subscribers; handset market share; mobile operators". mobiThinking. May 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
  11. ^ "The 100 million club: the top 10 mobile markets by number of mobile subscriptions". mobiThinking. 2012-12-13. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
  12. ^ Steven Millward (2014-07-29). "China now has 486.5 million 3G subscribers, but only 14 million on new 4G network". Tech In Asia. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  13. ^ "3G CELLULAR STANDARDS AND PATENTS". engpaper.com. 13 June 2005. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
  14. ^ a b David J. Goodman (13 June 2005). "3G CELLULAR STANDARDS AND PATENTS" (PDF). IEEE Wireless com. Polytechnic Institute of New York University. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
  15. ^ "Study on the Interplay between Standards and Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)" (PDF). European Commission. 18 July 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012. Pools that cover only a fraction of the actual IPR for a standard are not very useful. It is essential that the large licensees sign up. Examples of pools that have little impact are the 3G Licensing pool (which excludes the four largest IPR owners for 3G) and the 802.11 pool by ViaLicensing.
  16. ^ "Possible 'showstoppers' shadow 3G patent pool". eetimes.com. 21 May 1999. Retrieved 2012-06-24. Even so, Qualcomm (San Diego) is still a wild card in the patent-pooling effort. Qualcomm was a member of the UMTS group when it was formed in February 1998, but deactivated its membership last September.
  17. ^ "Cellular Standards for the Third Generation". ITU. 1 December 2005. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008.
  18. ^ "Security for the Third Generation (3G) Mobile System" (PDF). Network Systems & Security Technologies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-09-12.
  19. ^ Qualcomm halts UMB project, Reuters, 13 November 2008
  20. ^ "first in the world with 4G services". TeliaSonera. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-06.

External links

Preceded by
2nd Generation (2G)
Mobile Telephony Generations Succeeded by
4th Generation (4G)
2G

2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation cellular technology. Second-generation 2G cellular networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum enabling far greater wireless penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages. 2G technologies enabled the various networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages, and MMS (multimedia messages). All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it.

After 2G was launched, the previous mobile wireless network systems were retroactively dubbed 1G. While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. Both systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers (which listen to the devices) to the rest of the mobile system.

With General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), 2G offers a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 50 kbit/s (40 kbit/s in practice). With EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution), there is a theoretical maximum transfer speed of 1 Mbit/s (500 kbit/s in practice).The most common 2G technology was the time division multiple access (TDMA)-based GSM, originally from Europe but used in most of the world outside North America. Over 60 GSM operators were also using CDMA2000 in the 450 MHz frequency band (CDMA450) by 2010.

3GPP

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications standards associations, known as the Organizational Partners. The initial scope of 3GPP was to make a globally applicable third-generation (3G) mobile phone system specification based on evolved Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) specifications within the scope of the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 project of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The scope was later enlarged to include the development and maintenance of:

GSM and related 2G and 2.5G standards, including GPRS and EDGE

UMTS and related 3G standards, including HSPA

LTE and related 4G standards, including LTE Advanced and LTE Advanced Pro

Next generation and related 5G standards

An evolved IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) developed in an access independent manner3GPP standardization encompasses Radio Access Network, Services and Systems Aspects, and Core Network and Terminals. The project was established in December 1998 and should not be confused with 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2), which specifies standards for another 3G technology based on IS-95 (CDMA), commonly known as CDMA2000.

The 3GPP support team (also known as the "Mobile Competence Centre") is located at the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) headquarters in the Sophia Antipolis technology park in France.

3 (telecommunications)

3 (or Three) is a global brand name under which several UMTS-based mobile phone networks and Broadband Internet Providers operate in Hong Kong, Macau, Austria, Denmark, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The brand was founded in 2002 in Hong Kong. As of 2018, registered Three customers worldwide numbered over 130 million.All 3-branded network companies are wholly owned subsidiaries of CK Hutchison but the ownership structure varies. CK Hutchison Holdings (formerly Hutchison Whampoa) owns direct majority interests of six networks through 3 Group Europe, including Austria, Denmark, Italy, Ireland, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Hutchison Telecommunications Hong Kong Holdings operates the networks in Hong Kong and Macau, while Hutchison Asia Telecom Group operates the network in Indonesia. All 3-branded networks provide 4G (LTE) and 3G (WCDMA) service; some also run 2G networks and some provide 4.5G service.Hutchison Whampoa no longer holds a 3G licence in Israel which was formerly operated under the brand Orange (now Partner Communications Company), and in Norway where an unused licence was previously held by 3 Scandinavia.

4G

4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G. A 4G system must provide capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, and 3D television.

The first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard was commercially deployed in Oslo, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden in 2009, and has since been deployed throughout most parts of the world. It has, however, been debated whether first-release versions should be considered 4G LTE, as discussed in the technical understanding section below.

Amazon Kindle

The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store. The hardware platform, developed by Amazon subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device in 2007 and now comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. All Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content, and as of March 2018, the store has over six million e-books available in the United States.

HTC Magic

HTC Magic (marketed as T-Mobile myTouch 3G in the United States, and as NTT DoCoMo HT-03A in Japan) is an Android smartphone designed and manufactured by HTC. It is HTC's second Android phone after HTC Dream, HTC's first touch-only flagship Android device and the second Android phone commercially released, as well as the first touchscreen-only Android phone.

High Speed Packet Access

High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of existing 3G mobile telecommunication networks using the WCDMA protocols. A further improved 3GPP standard, Evolved High Speed Packet Access (also known as HSPA+), was released late in 2008 with subsequent worldwide adoption beginning in 2010. The newer standard allows bit-rates to reach as high as 337 Mbit/s in the downlink and 34 Mbit/s in the uplink. However, these speeds are rarely achieved in practice.

History of mobile phones

The history of mobile phones covers mobile communication devices that connect wirelessly to the public switched telephone network.

While the transmission of speech by radio has a long history, the first devices that were wireless, mobile, and also capable of connecting to the standard telephone network are much more recent. The first such devices were barely portable compared to today's compact hand-held devices, and their use was clumsy.

Along with the process of developing a more portable technology, and a better interconnections system, drastic changes have taken place in both the networking of wireless communication and the prevalence of its use, with smartphones becoming common globally and a growing proportion of Internet access now done via mobile broadband.

IOS 4

iOS 4 is the fourth major release of the iOS mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc., being the successor to iPhone OS 3. It was announced at the company's Worldwide Developers Conference on June 7, 2010, and was released on June 21, 2010. iOS 4 is the first iOS version issued under the "iOS" rebranding, dropping the "iPhone OS" naming convention of previous versions. It was succeeded by iOS 5 on October 12, 2011.iOS 4 introduced folders on the home screen, significantly increasing the number of apps that can be displayed. Support for custom wallpapers was also added, although limited to newer devices due to animation performance requirements. The operating system also added a multitasking feature, letting apps dealing with Internet calling, location and audio playback function in the background, whereas a similar but more restricted "Fast App Switching" technology enabled any app to be left inactive in the background while users switch to other apps. iOS 4 also added a system-wide spell checking feature, enabled iBooks on iPhone, unified the Mail inbox to combine content from different email providers, and introduced both Game Center for social gaming and FaceTime for video calling.

The iOS 4 update introduced performance and battery problems on iPhone 3G devices, with Apple investigating the matter and promising then-upcoming updates. However, the company became the subject of a lawsuit from an unsatisfied customer over the issues. Around the same time, the release of iPhone 4 and its subsequent antenna problems made Apple focus on unsuccessfully attempting to patch the issues with software updates.

IPhone

iPhone ( EYE-fone) is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software. The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, and multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since.

The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard. The iPhone has Wi-Fi and can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video (though this was not a standard feature until the iPhone 3GS), take photos, play music, send and receive email, browse the web, send and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, and receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, and social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps. As of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone.

Apple has released eleven generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the eleven major releases of the iOS operating system. The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, and was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, and the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri. The iPhone 5 featured a taller, 4-inch display and Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, and the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal. They were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch (120 and 140 mm) displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, and new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models. The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, and therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X.

The original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have also garnered praise. The iPhone is one of the most widely used smartphones in the world, and its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies.

IPhone 3G

The iPhone 3G is a smartphone designed and marketed by Apple Inc.; it is the second generation of iPhone, successor to the original iPhone, and was introduced on June 9, 2008, at the WWDC 2008 at the Moscone Center in San Francisco, United States.

The iPhone 3G is internally similar to its predecessor, but included several new hardware features, such as GPS, 3G data and tri-band UMTS/HSDPA. The device was originally loaded with the concurrently launched iPhone OS 2.0. In addition to other features (including push email and turn-by-turn navigation), this new operating system introduced the App Store—Apple's new distribution platform for third-party applications.

IPhone 3GS

The iPhone 3GS (originally styled iPhone 3G S) is a smartphone that was designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the third generation iPhone, successor to the iPhone 3G. It was introduced on June 8, 2009, at the WWDC 2009 which took place at the Moscone Center, San Francisco.

This iPhone is named "3GS" where "S" stood for Speed (Phil Schiller had mentioned it in the launch keynote). Improvements include performance, a 3-megapixel camera with higher resolution and video ability, voice control, and support for 7.2 Mbit/s HSDPA downloading (but remains limited to 384 kbps uploading as Apple had not implemented the HSUPA protocol). It was released in the United States, Canada, and six European countries on June 19, 2009, in Australia and Japan on June 26, and internationally in July and August 2009.

The iPhone 3GS runs Apple's iOS operating system. It was succeeded as Apple's flagship smartphone in 2010 by the iPhone 4; however, the 3GS continued in production until September 2012 when the iPhone 5 was announced.

Nokia 3310 (2017)

Nokia 3310 (2017) is a Nokia-branded mobile phone developed by HMD Global. It was announced on 26 February 2017 at Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2017 in Barcelona, Spain, as a revival of the original Nokia 3310 that was produced from early-to-mid-2000s. An improved model with 3G support was released on 29 October 2017.

Nokia Booklet 3G

The Nokia Booklet 3G was a netbook produced by the Finnish company Nokia. It was announced on 24 August 2009.

Samsung Galaxy

Samsung Galaxy (stylized as SAMSUNG Galaxy since 2015, previously stylized as Samsung GALAXY) is a series of mobile computing devices designed, manufactured and marketed by Samsung Electronics. The product line includes the Galaxy S series of high-end smartphones, the Galaxy Tab series of tablets, the Galaxy Note series of tablets and phablets with the added functionality of a stylus, and smartwatches including the first version of the Galaxy Gear, with later versions dropping the Galaxy branding, until the release of the Galaxy Watch in 2018.

Samsung Galaxy devices use the Android operating system produced by Google, usually with a custom user interface called Samsung Experience (formerly known as TouchWiz). However, the Galaxy TabPro S is the first Galaxy-branded Windows 10 device that was announced in CES 2016. The Galaxy Watch is the first Galaxy-branded smartwatch since the release of later iterations of the Gear smartwatch from 2014 to 2017.

All Galaxy devices starting from the S2 up to present come with a file transfer app (Called Smart Switch) pre-loaded, with no app icon.

Sprite (drink)

Sprite is a colorless, caffeine-free, lemon and lime-flavored soft drink created by The Coca-Cola Company. It was first developed in West Germany in 1959 as Fanta Klare Zitrone (“Clear Lemon Fanta”) and was introduced in the United States under the current brand name Sprite in 1961 as a competitor to 7 Up.

T-Mobile myTouch 3G Slide

The T-Mobile myTouch 3G Slide is a smartphone designed and manufactured by HTC, and sold by T-Mobile USA. HTC's name for the device during development was Espresso. The 3G Slide was unveiled by T-Mobile USA on May 4, 2010, pre-orders began May 23, 2010 and the device went on sale June 2, 2010.

Tata Docomo

TATA DOCOMO Ltd is an Indian mobile network operator, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Tata Teleservices, founded on November 2008.In October 2017 Tata Docomo have boosted network by collaborating and Tata Docomo had been successfully tie-up with Airtel for all circles for 2G and 3G networks and now you can now enjoy better 2G&3G network in across towns and villages of all India. and your charges will be the same as Tata Docomo. Hence, your network showing roaming sign.As of December 2018, it is the country's fifth largest operator with 1.62 % market share and 19.005 million subscribers.Possibilites of Launch TATA DOCOMO GSM services in Jammu & Kashmir, Delhi, Assam & North East States after fully merged with airtel & Chances for re-launch new plans in Rest of Bengal circle as currently it offering services but without any Special Plans/Offers/FRC, except Top-Ups & Smart Recharges.

UMTS

The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA2000 standard set for networks based on the competing cdmaOne technology. UMTS uses wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators.

UMTS specifies a complete network system, which includes the radio access network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN), the core network (Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the authentication of users via SIM (subscriber identity module) cards.

The technology described in UMTS is sometimes also referred to as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA) or 3GSM.

Unlike EDGE (IMT Single-Carrier, based on GSM) and CDMA2000 (IMT Multi-Carrier), UMTS requires new base stations and new frequency allocations.

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