38th parallel north

The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean. The 38th parallel north formed the border between North and South Korea prior to the Korean War.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 48 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 32 minutes during the winter solstice.[1]

Line across the Earth
38°
38th parallel north
38th parallel north
Hangul
삼팔선
Hanja
三八線
Revised RomanizationSampalseon
McCune–ReischauerSamp'alsŏn

Around the world

Starting at the Prime Meridian heading eastwards, the 38th parallel north passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
38°0′N 0°0′E / 38.000°N 0.000°E Mediterranean Sea Passing just north of the island of Marettimo,  Italy (at 37°59′43″N 12°1′47″E / 37.99528°N 12.02972°E)
38°0′N 12°19′E / 38.000°N 12.317°E  Italy Islands of Levanzo and Sicily
38°0′N 15°25′E / 38.000°N 15.417°E Mediterranean Sea Strait of Messina
38°0′N 15°38′E / 38.000°N 15.633°E  Italy Passing through Reggio di Calabria (southern suburbs)
38°0′N 16°8′E / 38.000°N 16.133°E Mediterranean Sea Ionian Sea - passing between the islands of Kefalonia (at 38°4′N 20°43′E / 38.067°N 20.717°E) and Zakynthos (at 37°56′N 20°42′E / 37.933°N 20.700°E),  Greece
38°0′N 21°16′E / 38.000°N 21.267°E  Greece Passing through Athens (northern suburbs)
38°0′N 24°2′E / 38.000°N 24.033°E Aegean Sea
38°0′N 24°14′E / 38.000°N 24.233°E  Greece Islands of Petalioi and Euboea
38°0′N 24°34′E / 38.000°N 24.567°E Aegean Sea Passing just north of the island of Andros (at 37°59′57″N 24°47′23″E / 37.99917°N 24.78972°E),  Greece
38°0′N 27°7′E / 38.000°N 27.117°E  Turkey
38°0′N 44°17′E / 38.000°N 44.283°E  Iran
38°0′N 48°55′E / 38.000°N 48.917°E Caspian Sea
38°0′N 53°49′E / 38.000°N 53.817°E  Turkmenistan
38°0′N 55°17′E / 38.000°N 55.283°E  Iran
38°0′N 57°22′E / 38.000°N 57.367°E  Turkmenistan Passing just north of Ashgabat
38°0′N 66°38′E / 38.000°N 66.633°E  Uzbekistan
38°0′N 68°17′E / 38.000°N 68.283°E  Tajikistan
38°0′N 70°19′E / 38.000°N 70.317°E  Afghanistan
38°0′N 71°16′E / 38.000°N 71.267°E  Tajikistan
38°0′N 74°54′E / 38.000°N 74.900°E  People's Republic of China Xinjiang
Qinghai
Gansu
Inner Mongolia
Ningxia
Inner Mongolia
Shaanxi − for around 5 km
Inner Mongolia − for around 14 km
Shaanxi
Shanxi — passing just north of Taiyuan
Hebei — passing just south of Shijiazhuang
Shandong
38°0′N 118°58′E / 38.000°N 118.967°E Yellow Sea Passing just north of Baengnyeong Island (at 37°59′N 124°41′E / 37.983°N 124.683°E),  South Korea
38°0′N 125°7′E / 38.000°N 125.117°E  North Korea Ongjin PeninsulaSouth Hwanghae Province
38°0′N 125°35′E / 38.000°N 125.583°E Yellow Sea Ongjin Bay
38°0′N 125°46′E / 38.000°N 125.767°E  North Korea South Hwanghae Province
North Hwanghae Province
passing just north of Kaesong
38°0′N 126°49′E / 38.000°N 126.817°E  South Korea Gyeonggi Province- Passing through Paju, Yeoncheon County, Pocheon, Gapyeong County
Gangwon Province - Passing through Hwacheon County, Chuncheon, Inje County, Yangyang County
38°0′N 128°44′E / 38.000°N 128.733°E Sea of Japan
38°0′N 138°14′E / 38.000°N 138.233°E  Japan Island of Sado:
Niigata Prefecture
38°0′N 138°33′E / 38.000°N 138.550°E Sea of Japan
38°0′N 139°14′E / 38.000°N 139.233°E  Japan Island of Honshū:
— Niigata Prefecture
Yamagata Prefecture
Miyagi Prefecture
38°0′N 140°55′E / 38.000°N 140.917°E Pacific Ocean
38°0′N 123°1′W / 38.000°N 123.017°W  United States California (passing through Stockton)
Nevada
Utah
Colorado
Kansas
Missouri
Illinois
Indiana (passing through Evansville)
Kentucky
West Virginia
Virginia
38°0′N 76°28′W / 38.000°N 76.467°W Chesapeake Bay
38°0′N 75°53′W / 38.000°N 75.883°W  United States Maryland
Virginia
38°0′N 75°16′W / 38.000°N 75.267°W Atlantic Ocean Passing between Pico (at 38°23′N 28°14′W / 38.383°N 28.233°W) and São Miguel (at 37°55′N 25°47′W / 37.917°N 25.783°W) islands, Azores,  Portugal
38°0′N 8°51′W / 38.000°N 8.850°W  Portugal Setúbal District
Beja District - passing just south of Beja
38°0′N 7°12′W / 38.000°N 7.200°W  Spain Andalusia
Extremadura
Andalusia
Region of Murcia - passing just north of Murcia
Valencian Community
38°0′N 0°39′W / 38.000°N 0.650°W Mediterranean Sea

Korea

1950 sign denoting the 38th parallel line in Korea.jpeg
UN Forces crossing the 38th parallel line in Korea during the Korean War
Korea DMZ
The Korean Peninsula first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line

Japan had occupied the Korean peninsula between 1910 and 1945. When Japan surrendered in August 1945, the 38th parallel was established as the boundary between Soviet and American occupation zones. This parallel divided the Korean peninsula roughly in the middle. In 1948, this parallel became the boundary between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), both of which claim to be the government of the whole of Korea. On 25 June 1950, after a series of cross-border raids and gunfire from both the Northern and the Southern sides, the North Korean Army crossed the parallel and invaded South Korea. This sparked a United Nations resolution against the aggression and the Korean War, with United Nations troops (mostly Americans) helping to defend South Korea.[2]

After the Armistice agreement was signed on July 27, 1953, a new line was established to separate North Korea and South Korea. This Military Demarcation Line is surrounded by a Demilitarized Zone. It crosses the 38th parallel, from the southwest to the northeast. The Demarcation Line is often confused with 38th parallel, but as can be seen in the image of the map, the two are not the same.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Duration of Daylight/Darkness Table for One Year". aa.usno.navy.mil.
  2. ^ Nash, Gary B., The American People (6th edition), Pearson Longman (New York), 2008.

Further reading

23rd Air Division (United States)

The 23rd Air Division is an inactive United States Air Force intermediate echelon command and control organization. It was last assigned to First Air Force, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC). It was inactivated on 1 July 1987 at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida.

38 (number)

38 (thirty-eight) is the natural number following 37 and preceding 39.

38th Parallel (band)

38th Parallel was a Christian rock band formed in Ames, Iowa. Before being signed they received extensive airplay in Iowa markets alongside other CCM Artists. Unknown to them, they were entered into a talent search contest for Christian music giant Word Records created by former A&R Alvin V. Williams. Alvin Williams signed the group to Word Records, but they soon signed and released their first project on, Squint Entertainment.

Their name is a play on the 38th parallel north, which divides North Korea from South Korea. Their first album, Turn the Tides, was released in 2002, following the band's nationwide tour with artists Skillet and The Benjamin Gate. The album received a Dove Award nomination in 2003 for Rock Album of the Year.

Following the disbandment of 38th Parallel, vocalist Mark Jennings, guitarist Jason Munday, and drummer Aaron Nordyke formed the Harry Potter-themed electronica band Ministry of Magic.

In 2005, 38th Parallel made available the demo tracks for their second album that were never finished or released.

On August 2, 2006, band member Mark Jennings announced, via the band's MySpace blog, that it is unlikely that 38th Parallel will release another album. The decision was influenced by shifting priorities in the personal lives of the members such as marriage.

On June 16, 2007, 4 out of the 5 members of 38th Parallel played 5 songs at Bash on the Farm in Garner, IA.

Currently, Mark Jennings, Jason Munday, and Aaron Nordyke are all still involved with the wizard rock band called Ministry of Magic, along with Luke Conard, Ryan Seiler, and Jeremy Jennings. They currently have four albums (The Tri Wizard LP, Goodbye Privet Drive, Onward and Upward, Magic is Might, and "Songs from Gringott's Vault") and perform when possible.

38th parallel

38th parallel may refer to:

38th parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere

This line of latitude was used as the pre-Korean War boundary between North Korea and South Korea

The term may also refer to the current border between the Koreas, the Korean Demilitarized Zone

38th parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere

38th parallel structures, a series of circular depressions roughly on the 38th parallel north

38th Parallel (band), a short-lived Christian rap-rock band that formed in 2000

39th parallel north

The 39th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 39 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 54 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 26 minutes during the winter solstice.Daylight along the 39th parallel north falls under 10 hours a day starting on 18 November and returns to over ten hours a day beginning 24 January. Crops and other plant growth is considerably slowed during this period of reduced sunlight.In the United States, the eastern boundary of the state of California was defined as following the 120th meridian west south from the 42nd parallel north to its intersection with the 39th parallel north, beyond which it follows a diagonal line to where the Colorado River crosses the 35th parallel north.

Battle of Bloody Ridge

The Battle of Bloody Ridge was a ground combat battle that took place during the Korean War from August 18 to September 5, 1951.

Located in hills north of the 38th parallel north in the central Korean mountain range, the battle was fought between the communist North Korean forces of the Korean People's Army (KPA) and capitalist United Nations forces consisting of Republic of Korea Army (ROK) units and the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division.

Gangwon Province, South Korea

Gangwon-do (Korean pronunciation: [kaŋ.wʌn.do]) is a province of South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon. It is bounded on the east part by the Sea of Japan (East Sea), and borders Gyeonggi Province to its west, and North Gyeongsang Province and North Chungcheong Province to its south. Its northern boundary is the Military Demarcation Line, separating it from North Korea's Kangwŏn Province. Before the division of Korea in 1945 Gangwon and Kangwŏn formed a single province. Pyeongchang County hosted the 2018 Winter Olympics and 2018 Winter Paralympics.

III Corps (South Korea)

The III Corps was a corps of the Republic of Korea Army that was formed on October 16, 1950. and initially consisted of 2nd, 5th and 8th Infantry Division. It was Command by Major General Yu Jae Hung.

Index of California-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of California.

Index of Colorado-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of Colorado.

Kangwon Province (North Korea)

For the province in South Korea that bears the same name but different romanisation, see Gangwon Province, South Korea.Kangwon Province (Kangwŏndo; Korean pronunciation: [kaŋ.wʌn.do]) is a province of North Korea, with its capital at Wŏnsan. Before the division of Korea in 1945, Kangwŏn Province and its South Korean neighbour Gangwon Province (also spelled Kangwon Province sometimes) formed a single province that excluded Wŏnsan.

Korean name

A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea. In the Korean language, ireum or seongmyeong usually refers to the family name (seong) and given name (ireum in a narrow sense) together.

Traditional Korean family names typically consist of only one syllable. There is no middle name in the English language sense. Many Koreans have their given names made of a generational name syllable and an individually distinct syllable, though this practice is declining in the younger generations. The generational name syllable is shared by siblings in North Korea, and by all members of the same generation of an extended family in South Korea. Married men and women keep their full personal names, and children inherit the father's family name unless otherwise settled when registering the marriage.

The family names are subdivided into bon-gwan (clans), i.e. extended families which originate in the lineage system used in previous historical periods. Each clan is identified by a specific place, and traces its origin to a common patrilineal ancestor.

Early names based on the Korean language were recorded in the Three Kingdoms period (57 BCE – 668 CE), but with the growing adoption of the Chinese writing system, these were gradually replaced by names based on Chinese characters (hanja). During periods of Mongol influence, the ruling class supplemented their Korean names with Mongolian names.

Because of the many changes in Korean romanization practices over the years, modern Koreans, when using languages written in Latin script, romanize their names in various ways, most often approximating the pronunciation in English orthography. Some keep the original order of names, while others reverse the names to match the usual Western pattern.

According to the population and housing census of 2000 conducted by the South Korean government, there are a total of 286 surnames and 4,179 clans.

Mobile Warfare

Mobile Warfare is the English phrase for Mao Zedong's main military methods. For the general topic of military mobility, see maneuver warfare.

The achievements of Mao and the Communists in the Chinese Civil War are normally referred to as guerrilla warfare, though he himself made a distinction between Mobile Warfare (运动战; yùndòngzhàn), Positional Warfare (阵地战; zhèndìzhàn) and guerrilla warfare (游击战; yóujīzhàn).

Mao had a regular army that was far too big to hide, but made a point of conceding territory and avoiding battle until he was ready to fight.

The most notable example was the Long March, a massive military retreat in which Mao marched in circles in Guizhou until he had confused the vastly larger armies pursuing him, and was then able to slip through Yunnan and Sichuan, although the retreat was completed by only one-tenth of the force that left for the Long March at Jiangxi. A sensible comparison would be Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House, though he was never outnumbered to the degree Mao regularly was.

These military methods were part of the military-political strategy of people's war, which aims to win the support of the local population.

The Chinese People's Volunteer Army's first five campaigns in the Korean War were Mobile Warfare, in which the PVA encircled the enemy through maneuvers and sought to annihilate the enemy. Then it entered a stage of Positional Warfare, when both the PVA and UN forces fought to a stalemate along the 38th parallel north.

Operation Blacklist Forty

Operation Blacklist Forty was the codename for the United States occupation of Korea between 1945 and 1948. Following the end of World War II, U.S. forces landed within the present-day South Korea to accept the surrender of the Japanese, and help create an independent and unified Korean government with the help of the Soviet Union, which occupied the present-day North Korea. However, when this effort proved unsuccessful, the United States and the Soviet Union both established their own friendly governments, resulting in the current division of the Korean Peninsula.

Operation Pokpoong

Operation Pokpoong (폭풍 작전; Korean for Storm) was an offensive operation of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) against the Republic of Korea (ROK) that marked the start of the Korean War. The operation began at 04:00 KST on 25 June 1950 along the 38th parallel north without a declaration of war.

The operation was planned by both the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). In addition, the USSR supplied weapons such as tanks and aircraft to its communist ally. With the support from the USSR, the DPRK was able to take control of the ROK capital Seoul within a few days.The original goal for the operation was to occupy the entire Korean Peninsula by 15 August 1950 ― 50 days, with an average 10 km advance each day ― in commemoration of the 5th anniversary of the Gwangbokjeol. However, heavy losses incurred by the DPRK II Corps, which was in charge of the eastern front, at the hands of the ROK 6th Infantry Division, enabled the ROK to delay the DPRK advance. Soon, the United States joined the war on June 27, and the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 84 on July 7.

Parallel structures

Parallel structures may refer to:

38th parallel structures, a series of carboniferous craters of the United States, approximately lying on the 38th parallel north

Parallel structure, a balance of two or more similar words, phrases, or clauses

Parallelism (grammar), a way to organize parts of a sentence.

USS Navasota (AO-106)

USS Navasota (AO-106) was an Ashtabula-class replenishment oiler that served in the U.S. Navy from 1946 to 1973, then transferred to the Military Sealift Command to continue service as United States Naval Ship USNS Navasota (T-AO-106) until taken out of service in 1992. Navasota was sold for scrapping in 1995. She was the only U.S. Navy ship to bear the name Navasota.

Wildlife of South Korea

The wildlife of South Korea comprises many animals, fungus and plants. Wildlife refers to animal and plant species that live in the wild or natural state such as mountains or rivers. According to the South Korean Ministry of Environment, the rich diversity of South Korea's wildlife includes 8,271 species of plants, 18,117 species of animals and 3,528 species of others. 30,000 species are known to exist in South Korea, but it is expected that there are more than 100,000 species.

Wonsan

Wŏnsan (Korean pronunciation: [wʌn.san]), previously known as Wŏnsanjin (元山津), Port Lazarev, and Gensan (元山), is a port city and naval base located in Kangwŏn Province, North Korea, along the eastern side of the Korean Peninsula, on Sea of Japan and the provincial capital. The port was opened by occupying Japanese forces in 1880. Before the 1950–1953 Korean War, it fell within the jurisdiction of the then South Hamgyŏng province, and during the war it was the location of the Blockade of Wŏnsan. The population of the city was estimated at 329,207 in 2013. Notable people from Wŏnsan include Kim Ki Nam, diplomat and Secretary of the Korean Workers' Party.

In 2013, it was announced that Wŏnsan would be converted into a summer destination with resorts and entertainment. Having spent his childhood years there, Kim Jong Un has expressed significant interest in further developing the region, with the construction of new infrastructure such as Kalma Airport, a dual-use civilian international airport and military proving ground. A state corporation, the Wonsan Zone Development Corporation, has been established with feasibility studies for a wide variety of hotels and commercial and industrial development.

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