380s

The 380s decade ran from January 1, 380, to December 31, 389.

Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
Categories:
  • Births
  • Deaths
  • Establishments
  • Disestablishments

Events

380

By place

  • Easter Island, in the south Pacific Ocean, has been occupied by Neolithic seafarers under Hotu Matu'a ("supreme chief"), who about this time begin to fortify the island.

By topic

  • Important works on mathematics and astronomy are written in Sanskrit.

381

By place

  • The Visigothic chieftain Athanaric becomes the first foreign king to visit the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople. He negotiates a peace treaty with emperor Theodosius I that makes his people foederati in a state within a state. Athanaric dies 2 weeks later after an 18-year reign in which he has been undisputed king of all the Goths for just 1 year. The peace will continue until Theodosius's death in 395.
  • The Scirii ally themselves with the Huns.

By topic

382

By place

By topic

383

By place

By topic

  • Council of Constantinople (383), was held as a local council of mainly eastern bishops. The Council discussed various doctrinal issues, examining several issues regarding Arianism, and rejected teachings of Eunomius of Cyzicus.
  • By the order of Emperor Theodosius I, Eunomius of Cyzicus is banished to Moesia.

384

By place

  • The Battle of Fei River - Former Qin forces are defeated by the numerically inferior Eastern Jin army, preserving the Jin state in the south and precipitating the destruction of Former Qin in the north.

By topic

385

By place

By topic

386

By place

By topic

387

By place

By topic

  • Oribase, Greek doctor, publishes a treatise on paralysis and bleedings.

388

By place

By topic

389

By place

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Illustrated Dictionary of Irish History. Mac Annaidh, S (ed). Gill and Macmillan, Dublin. 2001
  2. ^ David L. Vagi (2001). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. Chicago, Ill: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 590. ISBN 1-57958-316-4.
  3. ^ Harbus, A. (2002). Helena of Britain in medieval legend. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: D.S. Brewer. p. 55. ISBN 0-85991-625-1.
  4. ^ Peterson, Barbara (2000). Notable women of China: Shang dynasty to the early twentieth century. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe. p. 148. ISBN 0-7656-0504-X.
  5. ^ Percy Molesworth Sykes (2003). A History of Persia. London: Routledge/Curzon. p. 427. ISBN 0-415-32678-8.
  6. ^ Ford, Marcia (2006). Traditions of the Ancients. Broadman Holman Publishers.
  7. ^ Cain, Andrew (2009). The Letters of Jerome: Asceticism, Biblical Exegesis, and the Construction of Christian Authority in Late Antiquity. Oxford, New York: OUP Oxford. pp. 124–128. ISBN 9780191568411.
  8. ^ Injae, Lee; Miller, Owen; Jinhoon, Park; Hyun-Hae, Yi (2014). Korean History in Maps. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 37. ISBN 9781107098466.
  9. ^ Norman, Jeremy (6 May 2014). "The Last Major Surviving Historical Account of the Late Roman Empire : HistoryofInformation.com". www.historyofinformation.com. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  10. ^ Driver, Ruth Elizabeth (December 2014). Temple conversion and cultural, ritual and topographic memory in Alexandria, Cyrene and Carthage (Master of Philosophy thesis). University of Birmingham.
  11. ^ Banev, Krastu (2015). Theophilus of Alexandria and the First Origenist Controversy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198727545.
  12. ^ Eichbauer, Melodie H.; Summerlin, Danica (2018). The Use of Canon Law in Ecclesiastical Administration, 1000–1234. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 143. doi:10.1163/9789004387249_002. ISBN 9789004387249.
  13. ^ Coulton, George Gordon (1949) [1938]. Medieval Panorama: The English Scene from Conquest to Reformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 470.
  14. ^ Scanlon, Thomas Francis (2002). Eros and Greek Athletics. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780195149852.
380s BC

This article concerns the period 389 BC – 380 BC.

== Events ==

=== 389 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

A Spartan expeditionary force under King Agesilaus II crosses the Gulf of Corinth to attack Acarnania, an ally of the anti-Spartan coalition. Agesilaus is eventually able to draw them into a pitched battle, in which the Acarnanians are routed.

The Athenian general, Thrasybulus, leads a force of triremes to levy tribute from cities around the Aegean and support Rhodes, where a democratic government is struggling against Sparta. On this campaign, Thrasybulus captures Byzantium, imposes a duty on ships passing through the Hellespont, and collects tribute from many of the islands of the Aegean.

Magna Grecia

Battle of the Elleporus and the capture of Kroton by Dionysius I of Syracuse

====== China ======

Wu Qi, the Prime Minister of the State of Chu, enacts his first series of political, municipal, and martial reforms. Wu Qi gains the ire and distrust of Chu officials and aristocratic elite who are against his crusades to sweep up corruption in the state and limit their power. He is eventually assassinated in 381 BC at the funeral of King Diao of Chu, although his assassins are executed shortly after by the newly enthroned King Su of Chu.

This is the latest possible date for the compilation of the historical text Zuo Zhuan, attributed to a blind historian known as Zuo Qiuming.

=== 388 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

King Agesipolis I leads a Spartan army against Argos. Since no Argive army challenges him, he plunders the countryside for a time, and then, after receiving several unfavorable omens, returns to Sparta.

The Athenian general, Thrasybulus, sails to Lesbos, where, with the support of the Mytileneans, he defeats the Spartan forces on the island and wins over a number of cities. While still on Lesbos, however, Thrasybulus is killed by raiders from the city of Aspendus where his financial exactions has made him unpopular.

Concerned about the revival of Athenian imperialist ambitions, the Persian King Artaxerxes II and King Agesilaus II of Sparta enter into an alliance. Sparta also seeks and gains the support of Dionysius I of Syracuse.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

Plato, having left Athens on Socrates' death to visit Megara and possibly Egypt, travels to Syracuse at the invitation of Dionysius I's brother-in-law Dion.

Aristophanes' play Plutus is performed.

=== 387 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Antalcidas, commander of the Spartan navy, actively assists Persia against Athens. After escaping from the Athenian blockade at Abydos, he attacks and defeats a small Athenian force, then joins his fleet with a supporting fleet sent from Syracuse. With this force, which is soon further augmented with ships supplied by the Persian satraps of the region, he sails to the Hellespont, where he is in a position to cut off the trade routes that bring grain to Athens.

The Persians, unnerved by some of Athens' actions, including supporting King Evagoras of Cyprus and Pharaoh Hakor of Egypt (both of whom are at war with Persia), decide that their policy of weakening Sparta by supporting its enemies is no longer wise. So Antalcidas enters into negotiations with the Persian satrap Tiribazus and reaches an agreement under which the Persians will enter into the war on the Spartan side if the allies refuse to make peace.

With Antalcidas' Spartan fleet in control of the Hellespont, Sparta deprives Athens of her Bosporus trade and tolls. The Athenians, mindful of being in a similarly serious situation as when defeated in the Peloponnesian War less than two decades before and facing Persian intervention on Sparta's side, are thereby ready to make peace.

With the support of the Persian King Artaxerxes II, King Agesilaus II of Sparta concludes "the King's Peace" (or the Peace of Antalcidas, after the Spartan envoy and commander) with Greek allied forces in a manner favourable to Sparta. Under the Peace, all the Asiatic mainland and Cyprus remain under Persian control, Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros remain Athenian dependencies, and all the other Greek states are to receive autonomy. By the King's Peace, the Persians become key players in Greek politics.

Under the threat of Spartan intervention, Thebes disbands its league, and Argos and Corinth end their shared government. Corinth, deprived of its strong ally, is incorporated back into Sparta's Peloponnesian League. After eight years of fighting, the Corinthian War is at an end.

Plato founded the Platonic Academy in Athens, where he taught Aristotle until 347 BC.

====== Sicily ======

With the aid of the Lucanians, Dionysius I of Syracuse devastates the territories of Thurii, Crotone, and Locri in mainland Italy. When Rhegium falls, Dionysius becomes the chief power in Greek Southern Italy. He then turns his attention to the Adriatic.

Plato is forced by Dionysius to leave Syracuse after having exercised the right of free speech too broadly. Plato returns to Athens, outside which he founds a school.

====== Roman Republic ======

Rome begins to rebuild after being invaded by the Gauls under Brennus.

Marcus Furius Camillus introduces the Capitoline Games (Ludi Capitolini) in honour of Jupiter Capitolinus, and in commemoration of Rome's Capitol not being captured by the Gauls.

=== 386 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

Freed from Spartan attacks by the King's Peace of the previous year, Persia turns to quieting Cyprus and Egypt. Owing to the skill of King Evagoras of Cyprus and of Egypt's Greek mercenary general Chabrias, these wars drag on for the rest of the decade.

====== Sicily ======

Dionysius I of Syracuse extends the influence and trade of Syracuse to the Adriatic, planting a colony as far north as the Etruscan city of Hadria.

====== China ======

The Chinese city of Handan is founded by the State of Zhao.

=== 385 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Jason of Pherae becomes tyrant of Thessaly.

Dionysius I of Syracuse attempts to restore Alcetas I of Epirus to the throne.

Bardyllis becomes king of Illyria and the Dardani and thereby establishes the Bardyllian Dynasty.

==== By topic ====

====== Education ======

Plato forms his Academy, teaching mathematics, astronomy and other sciences as well as philosophy. It is dedicated to the Attic hero Academus. Philanthropists bear all costs; students pay no fees.

====== Astronomy ======

Democritus announces that the Milky Way is composed of many stars.

=== 384 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Lysias, the Athenian orator, on the occasion of the Olympiad, rebukes the Greeks for allowing themselves to be dominated by the Syracusan tyrant Dionysius I and by the barbarian Persians.

The Greeks found the colony of Pharos at the site of today’s Stari Grad on the island of Hvar, defeating Iadasinoi warriors brought in for its defense.

=== 383 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

King Amyntas III of Macedon, forms a temporary alliance with the Chalcidian League. Sparta, whose policy is to keep Greeks disunited, sends an expedition northwards to disrupt the Chalcidian League, a confederation of cities of the Chalcidice peninsula, east of Macedonia.

The Spartan commander Phoebidas, who is passing through Boeotia on campaign, takes advantage of civil strife within Thebes to gain entrance to the city for his troops. Once inside, he seizes the Cadmeia (the citadel of Thebes), and forces the anti-Spartan party to flee the city. The government of Thebes is placed in the hands of the pro-Spartan party, backed by a Spartan garrison based in the Cadmeia. Many of the previous leaders of Thebes are driven into exile. Epaminondas, although associated with the anti-Spartan faction, is allowed to remain.

==== By topic ====

====== Astronomy ======

The 19 year lunar cycle is introduced into the Babylonian calendar.

====== Religion ======

The second Buddhist council is convened by king Kalasoka and held at Vaisali.

=== 382 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Pelopidas, a Theban general and statesman, flees to Athens and takes the lead in attempts to liberate Thebes from Spartan control.

In punishment for his unauthorized action in the previous year of taking over Thebes, Phoebidas is relieved of his command, but the Spartans continue to hold Thebes. The Spartan king Agesilaus II argues against punishing Phoebidas, on the grounds that his actions had benefited Sparta, and this was the only standard against which he ought to be judged.

Evandrus takes over being Archon of Athens from Phanostratus.

=== 381 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

The Persian generals Tiribazus and Orontes invade Cyprus, with an army far larger than any King Evagoras of Cyprus could raise. However, Evagoras manages to cut off this force from being resupplied, and the starving troops rebel. However, the war then turns in the Persians' favour when Evagoras' fleet is destroyed at the Battle of Citium (Larnaca, Cyprus). Evagoras flees to Salamis, where he manages to conclude a peace which allows him to remain nominally king of Salamis, though in reality he is a vassal of the Persian king.

====== Greece ======

Sparta increases its hold on central Greece by reestablishing the city of Plataea, which Sparta has destroyed in 427 BC.

====== Roman Republic ======

The district of Tusculum is pacified after a revolt against Rome and conquered. After an expression of complete submission to Rome, Tusculum becomes the first "municipium cum suffragio", and thenceforth the city continues to hold the rank of a municipium.

=== 380 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian empire ======

Persia forces the Athenians to withdraw their general Chabrias from Egypt. Chabrias has been successfully supporting the Egyptian Pharaohs in maintaining their independence from the Persian Empire.

====== Egypt ======

The Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor dies and is succeeded by his son Nepherites II, but the latter is overthrown by Nectanebo I within the year, ending the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt. Nectanabo (or more properly Nekhtnebef) becomes the first Pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt.

====== Greece ======

Cleombrotus I succeeds his brother Agesipolis I as king of Sparta.

====== Italy ======

The Roman Republic held elections for military tribunes with consular power . Military tribunes were as follows. Lucius Valerius (for the fifth time), Publius Valerius (third time), Gaius Sergius (third time), Licinius Menenius (second time), Publius Papirius and Servius Cornelius Maluginensis. War sprang up with the Praenestines and they soon moved to the territory of the Gabii (east of Rome ), as soon as they heard of civil disputes in Rome. In Rome the enrolment of troops could not start, the tribunes and the commons opposed it. The young men refused to enroll their names and the tribunes would not allow those bound over to be taken away for military service. The Praenstines meanwhile saw that Rome had no army in the field, so they proceeded to destroy all the fields up to Rome and appear near the walls of Rome. Titus Quinctius Cincinnatus was made dictator, and he chose Aulus Sempronius Atratinus as master of the horse. Quinctius defeated the enemy at Allia. Afterwards he captured eight towns subject to Praenste, stormed Velitrae, and accepted the surrender of Praenste. Quinctius held a triumph in which he brought with him a statue of Jupiter from Praenste.

==== By topic ====

====== Art ======

What some historians call the Rich style in Greece comes to an end.

4th century BC

The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.

This century marked the height of Classical Greek civilization in all of its aspects. By the year 400 Greek philosophy, art, literature and architecture had spread far and wide, with the numerous independent Greek colonies that had sprung up throughout the lands of the eastern Mediterranean.

Arguably the most important series of political events in this period were the conquests of Alexander, bringing about the collapse of the once formidable Persian Empire and spreading Greek culture far into the east. Alexander dreamed of an east/west union, but when his short life ended in 323 BC, his vast empire was plunged into civil war as his generals each carved out their own separate kingdoms. Thus began the Hellenistic age, a period characterized by a more absolute approach to rule, with Greek kings taking on royal trappings and setting up hereditary successions. While a degree of democracy still existed in some of the remaining independent Greek cities, many scholars see this age as marking the end of classical Greece.

In India, the Mauryan Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya who rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by the armies of Alexander.

China in the 4th century BC entered an era of constant warfare known as the Warring States period. The period saw the rapid rise of large states (such as Chu) over smaller ones thanks to technological advancement. Though the period has usually been characterized by historians as being excessively violent compared to the Spring and Autumn period, it was also punctured by several cultural and social growths through the expansion of several different sects of Confucianism and Taoism, and the formulation of Legalist thought.

Arcadia Aegypti

Arcadia or Arcadia Aegypti was a Late Roman province in northern Egypt.

Battle of Thessalonica (380)

The Battle of Thessalonica was fought in the summer or autumn of 380 by Fritigern's Goths and a Roman army led by Theodosius I. Reconstituted after Adrianople, the Eastern Roman army suffered another major defeat. Theodosius retreated to Thessalonica and surrendered control of operations to the Western Emperor, Gratian.

Council of Rome

The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, the current bishop of Rome. It was one of the fourth century councils that "gave a complete list of the canonical books of both the Old Testament and the New Testament."The previous year, the Emperor Theodosius I had appointed the "dark horse" candidate Nectarius as Archbishop of Constantinople. The bishops of the West opposed the election result and asked for a common synod of East and West to settle the succession of the see of Constantinople, and so the Emperor Theodosius, soon after the close of the First Council of Constantinople in 381, summoned the Imperial bishops to a fresh synod at Constantinople; nearly all of the same bishops who had attended the earlier second

re assembled again in early summer of 382. On arrival they received a letter from the synod of Milan, inviting them to a great general council at Rome; they indicated that they must remain where they were, because they had not made any preparations for such long a journey; however, they sent three—Syriacus, Eusebius, and Priscian—with a joint synodal letter to Pope Damasus, Ambrose, archbishop of Milan, and the other bishops assembled in the council at Rome.

Darius III

Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, from 336 BC to 330 BC. Artashata adopted Darius as a dynastic name.His empire was unstable, with large portions governed by jealous and unreliable satraps and inhabited by disaffected and rebellious subjects.

In 334 BC, Alexander the Great began his invasion of the Persian Empire and subsequently defeated the Persians in a number of battles before looting and destroying their capital, Persepolis, by fire in 330 BC. With the Persian Empire now effectively under Alexander's control, Alexander then decided to pursue Darius. Before Alexander reached him, however, Darius was killed by his cousin Satrap Bessus.

Demades

Demades (Greek: Δημάδης, c. 380 – c. 318 BC) was an Athenian orator and demagogue.

Diocese of Egypt

The Diocese of Egypt (Latin: Dioecesis Aegypti, Greek: Διοίκηση Αιγύπτου) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire (from 395 the Eastern Roman Empire), incorporating the provinces of Egypt and Cyrenaica. Its capital was at Alexandria, and its governor had the unique title of praefectus augustalis ("Augustal Prefect", of the rank vir spectabilis; previously the governor of the imperial 'crown domain' province Egypt) instead of the ordinary vicarius. The diocese was initially part of the Diocese of the East, but in ca. 380, it became a separate entity, which lasted until its territories were finally overrun by the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the 640s.

Edict of Thessalonica

The Edict of Thessalonica (also known as Cunctos populos), issued on 27 February AD 380 by three reigning Roman Emperors, made Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.

Eutyches

Eutyches (Greek: Εὐτυχής; c. 380 – c. 456) was a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople. He first came to notice in 431 at the First Council of Ephesus, for his vehement opposition to the teachings of Nestorius; his condemnation of Nestorianism as heresy led him to an equally extreme, although opposite view, which precipitated his being denounced as a heretic himself.

Flavius Bauto

Flavius Bauto (died c. 385) was a Romanised Frank who served as a magister militum of the Roman Empire.

When the usurper Magnus Maximus invaded Italy in an attempt to replace Valentinian II, Bauto led the forces of the Emperor Theodosius I and defeated the rebel. He died soon after, likely of natural causes. His daughter, Aelia Eudoxia married Emperor Arcadius in 395, becoming one of the more powerful empresses of Late Antiquity. He was succeeded by his son, Arbogastes.

Bauto opposed Ambrosius when the latter proposed to remove the pagan Altar of Victory from the senate of Rome. He lost the case and the Altar of Victory was removed. After his death, Arbogastes became the leader of a short pagan revival.

Frumentius

Saint Frumentius (Ge'ez: ፍሬምናጦስ Fremnāṭos; born in Tyre, Eastern Roman Empire, in the early fourth century, died circa 383, Kingdom of Aksum) was the first bishop of Axum, and is credited with bringing Christianity to the Kingdom of Aksum. He is sometimes known by other names, such as Abuna ("Our Father") and Aba Salama.He was ethnically a Syro-Phoenician Greek born in Tyre. As a boy, he was captured with his brother, and they became slaves to the King of Axum. He freed them shortly before his death, and they were invited to educate his young heir. They also began to teach Christianity in the region. Later, Frumentius traveled to Alexandria, Egypt, where he appealed to have a bishop appointed and missionary priests sent south to Axum. Thereafter, he was appointed bishop and established the Church in Ethiopia, converting many indigenous people, as well as the king. His appointment began a tradition that the Patriarch of Alexandria appoint the bishops of Ethiopia.

Lupus of Troyes

Saint Lupus (French: Loup, Leu) (c. 383 – c. 478 AD) was an early bishop of Troyes. Around 426, the bishops in Britain requested assistance from the bishops of Gaul in dealing with Pelagianism. Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus were sent.

Peace of Acilisene

The Peace of Acilisene was a treaty between the East Roman Empire and the Sassanid Empire sometime between 384 and 390 (usually dated to 387) which divided Greater Armenia between these two empires. Persia received the greater share. By this treaty the Byzantine Empire/East Roman Empire also finally admitted the loss of Kartli-Iberia to Sassanid Iran. From this point on, Iranian influence grew once again in eastern Georgia, and Zoroastrianism appeared to have become something like the second established religion alongside Christianity.

Philolaus

Philolaus (; Ancient Greek: Φιλόλαος, Philólaos; c. 470 – c. 385 BC) was a Greek Pythagorean and pre-Socratic philosopher. He argued that at the foundation of everything is the part played by the limiting and limitless, which combine together in a harmony. He is also credited with originating the theory that the Earth was not the center of the Universe. According to August Böckh (1819), who cites Nicomachus, Philolaus was the successor of Pythagoras.

Platonic Academy

The Academy (Ancient Greek: Ἀκαδημία) was founded by Plato (428/427 BC – 348/347 BC) in c. 387 BC in Athens. Aristotle (384–322 BC) studied there for twenty years (367–347 BC) before founding his own school, the Lyceum. The Academy persisted throughout the Hellenistic period as a skeptical school, until coming to an end after the death of Philo of Larissa in 83 BC. The Platonic Academy was destroyed by the Roman dictator Sulla in 86 BC.

Struthas

Struthas was a Persian satrap for a brief period during the Corinthian War. In 392 BC, he was dispatched by Artaxerxes II to take command of the satrapy of Sardis, replacing Tiribazus, and to pursue an anti-Spartan policy. Accordingly, Struthas raided territory held by the Spartans and their allies, prompting the Spartans to order their commander in the region, Thibron, to begin aggressive activity against Struthas. Thibron raided successfully for a time, but Struthas eventually succeeded in ambushing one of his raiding expeditions. Struthas slew Thibron in personal combat before his cavalry routed and destroyed the rest of the Spartan army save for a few survivors that escaped to nearby cities and more that were left back at the camp due to not receiving the order in time.

Thibron was then replaced by Diphridas, who rebuilt his army from the remnants of Thibron's and raided Struthas's territory successfully, even capturing his son-in-law, but achieved little remarkable success. Although the specific events of Struthas's removal from office are not known, by the early 380s BC he had been replaced by Tiribazus, and makes no further appearances in the historical record.

Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt

The Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXX, alternatively 30th Dynasty or Dynasty 30) is usually classified as the fifth Dynasty of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. It was founded after the overthrow of Nepherites II in 380 BC by Nectanebo I, and was disestablished upon the invasion of Egypt by the Achaemenid emperor Artaxerxes III in 343 BC. This is the final native dynasty of ancient Egypt; after the deposition of Nectanebo II, Egypt fell under foreign domination.

Wu Qi

Wu Qi (simplified Chinese: 吴起; traditional Chinese: 吳起; pinyin: Wú Qǐ; Wade–Giles: Wu Ch'i, 440-381 BC) was a Chinese military leader, Legalist philosopher, and politician in the Warring States period.

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