37th parallel north

The 37th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 37 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Africa, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 42 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 37 minutes during the winter solstice.[1] This is roughly the northern limit of the visibility of Canopus, the second-brightest star of the night sky.

Line across the Earth
37°
37th parallel north

Around the world

Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 37° north passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
37°0′N 0°0′E / 37.000°N 0.000°E Mediterranean Sea
37°0′N 6°15′E / 37.000°N 6.250°E  Algeria
37°0′N 6°34′E / 37.000°N 6.567°E Mediterranean Sea
37°0′N 7°15′E / 37.000°N 7.250°E  Algeria
37°0′N 7°33′E / 37.000°N 7.550°E Mediterranean Sea
37°0′N 8°52′E / 37.000°N 8.867°E  Tunisia
37°0′N 10°11′E / 37.000°N 10.183°E Mediterranean Sea Gulf of Tunis
37°0′N 10°53′E / 37.000°N 10.883°E  Tunisia Cap Bon
37°0′N 11°4′E / 37.000°N 11.067°E Mediterranean Sea Strait of Sicily, passing just north of the island of Pantelleria,  Italy
37°0′N 14°20′E / 37.000°N 14.333°E  Italy Island of Sicily
Province of Ragusa
Province of Siracusa
37°0′N 15°16′E / 37.000°N 15.267°E Ionian Sea
37°0′N 21°39′E / 37.000°N 21.650°E  Greece Peloponnese (Messenia)
37°0′N 21°57′E / 37.000°N 21.950°E Ionian Sea Messenian Gulf
37°0′N 22°09′E / 37.000°N 22.150°E  Greece Peloponnese
Messenia
Laconia
37°0′N 23°0′E / 37.000°N 23.000°E Aegean Sea Myrtoan Sea
37°0′N 24°40′E / 37.000°N 24.667°E  Greece Island of Sifnos
37°0′N 24°44′E / 37.000°N 24.733°E Aegean Sea
37°0′N 25°1′E / 37.000°N 25.017°E  Greece Islands of Antiparos and Paros
37°0′N 25°13′E / 37.000°N 25.217°E Aegean Sea
37°0′N 25°23′E / 37.000°N 25.383°E  Greece Island of Naxos
37°0′N 25°34′E / 37.000°N 25.567°E Aegean Sea
37°0′N 26°26′E / 37.000°N 26.433°E  Greece Island of Levitha
37°0′N 26°30′E / 37.000°N 26.500°E Aegean Sea
37°0′N 26°55′E / 37.000°N 26.917°E  Greece Island of Kalymnos
37°0′N 27°3′E / 37.000°N 27.050°E Aegean Sea
37°0′N 27°15′E / 37.000°N 27.250°E  Turkey
37°0′N 27°47′E / 37.000°N 27.783°E Aegean Sea
37°0′N 28°13′E / 37.000°N 28.217°E  Turkey Passing through Adana and Nizip
37°0′N 40°25′E / 37.000°N 40.417°E  Syria
37°0′N 42°18′E / 37.000°N 42.300°E  Iraq
37°0′N 44°16′E / 37.000°N 44.267°E  Turkey Şemdinli district (For about 7 km)
37°0′N 44°20′E / 37.000°N 44.333°E  Iraq
37°0′N 44°54′E / 37.000°N 44.900°E  Iran
37°0′N 50°32′E / 37.000°N 50.533°E Caspian Sea
37°0′N 54°0′E / 37.000°N 54.000°E  Iran
37°0′N 60°3′E / 37.000°N 60.050°E  Turkmenistan
37°0′N 64°47′E / 37.000°N 64.783°E  Afghanistan
37°0′N 67°56′E / 37.000°N 67.933°E  Tajikistan
37°0′N 68°10′E / 37.000°N 68.167°E  Afghanistan
37°0′N 71°28′E / 37.000°N 71.467°E  Tajikistan
37°0′N 72°28′E / 37.000°N 72.467°E  Afghanistan
37°0′N 74°34′E / 37.000°N 74.567°E  Pakistan Gilgit-Baltistan - claimed by  India
37°0′N 74°50′E / 37.000°N 74.833°E  People's Republic of China Xinjiang - for about 14 km
37°0′N 75°0′E / 37.000°N 75.000°E  Pakistan Gilgit-Baltistan - for about 14 km, claimed by  India
37°0′N 75°9′E / 37.000°N 75.150°E  People's Republic of China Xinjiang
Qinghai
Gansu
Ningxia
Gansu
Shaanxi
Shanxi
Hebei
Shandong
37°0′N 122°32′E / 37.000°N 122.533°E Yellow Sea
37°0′N 126°20′E / 37.000°N 126.333°E  South Korea South Chungcheong Province
Gyeonggi Province
North Chungcheong Province
North Gyeongsang Province
37°0′N 129°25′E / 37.000°N 129.417°E Sea of Japan
37°0′N 136°46′E / 37.000°N 136.767°E  Japan Island of Honshū:
Ishikawa Prefecture
37°0′N 137°3′E / 37.000°N 137.050°E Sea of Japan Toyama Bay
37°0′N 137°42′E / 37.000°N 137.700°E  Japan Island of Honshū:
Niigata Prefecture
Nagano Prefecture
— Niigata Prefecture
Gunma Prefecture − for around 10 km
— Niigata Prefecture − for around 7 km
Fukushima Prefecture
Tochigi Prefecture
Ibaraki Prefecture
— Fukushima Prefecture
37°0′N 140°59′E / 37.000°N 140.983°E Pacific Ocean
37°0′N 122°11′W / 37.000°N 122.183°W  United States California (landfall near Santa Cruz)
Nevada
Utah / Arizona border
Colorado / New Mexico border
Colorado / Oklahoma border
Kansas / Oklahoma border
Missouri
Illinois (at its southernmost point)
Kentucky
Virginia - passing through Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel (specifically, the bridge between the two tunnels)
37°0′N 76°18′W / 37.000°N 76.300°W Atlantic Ocean
37°0′N 25°10′W / 37.000°N 25.167°W  Portugal Santa Maria Island in the Azores
37°0′N 25°3′W / 37.000°N 25.050°W Atlantic Ocean
37°0′N 8°57′W / 37.000°N 8.950°W  Portugal Sagres Point
37°0′N 8°56′W / 37.000°N 8.933°W Atlantic Ocean
37°0′N 7°59′W / 37.000°N 7.983°W  Portugal Cape Santa Maria
37°0′N 7°50′W / 37.000°N 7.833°W Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Cádiz
37°0′N 6°32′W / 37.000°N 6.533°W  Spain
37°0′N 1°53′W / 37.000°N 1.883°W Mediterranean Sea

United States

37th parallel US
The 37th parallel defining borders between states in the United States.

In the United States, the parallel defines the southern borders of Utah, Colorado, and Kansas, and the northern borders of Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. It dates to the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 when Congress divided Indian Territory into Kansas and Nebraska north of the 37th parallel and a remainder Indian Territory to the south. Before that the line had been thought to be the boundary between the Cherokee and Osage reservations - the 2.46 miles (3.96 km) discrepancy resulting in the creation of the Cherokee Strip. Congress extended the line west to New Mexico Territory, thus defining which states and territories would constitute The South between the Colorado and Mississippi Rivers, and creating what later became the Oklahoma Panhandle.[2]

Landmarks on the 37th parallel include Santa Cruz, California; Gilroy, California; Madera, California; Ubehebe Crater in Death Valley; Colorado City, Arizona; the Four Corners at the intersection with the 32nd meridian west from Washington (the only place where four U.S. states meet at a point); Cairo, Illinois; Bowling Green, Kentucky; and Newport News, and Hampton, Virginia. It enters the Chesapeake Bay at the northernmost tunnel entrance / exit of the Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel and the southernmost point of Old Point Comfort on the former Army base, Ft. Monroe.

The parallel 37° north formed the southern boundary of the historic and extralegal Territory of Jefferson.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Dur_OneYear.php
  2. ^ Hubbard, Bill (2009). American Boundaries: The Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey. University of Chicago Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
36th parallel north

The 36th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 36 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Africa, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America and the Atlantic Ocean.

From 7 April 1991 to 31 December 1996, the parallel defined the limit of the northern no-fly zone in Iraq.At this latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 36 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 43 minutes during the winter solstice.

37 INK

37 INK is an American publisher launched in 2013 focusing on a diverse list including African-American authors and is part of the Atria Book Publishing Group, a division of Simon & Schuster.

Dawn Davis, the former publisher at Amistad Press, is the current publisher for 37 INK.37 INK officially launched in 2013. Dawn Davis said that the imprint name comes from the 37th parallel north which intersects California, Africa, and Italy—three places that have been significant to Davis. In an interview, Davis said that her mother was from Italy, she was from California and Africa is where we're all from. Davis stated to Publisher's Weekly that the title is also "reflective of the breadth of voices and viewpoints that the imprint will publish." At the launch, the imprint was expected to publish ten titles per year spread across literary fiction, memoir, narrative non-fiction, history and pop culture books. While the imprint has published many titles by African-American authors, Davis stated in an interview on NPR that 37 Ink "wants to publish books that represent a diverse array of cultures and viewpoints because that is what readers want."

37th

37th may refer to:

37th (Howitzer) Brigade Royal Field Artillery, a brigade of the Royal Field Artillery which served in the First World War

37th (North Hampshire) Regiment of Foot, raised in Ireland in February 1702

37th (Northern Ontario) Battalion, CEF, raised in Halton during World War I

37th Academy Awards honored film achievements of 1964

37th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron (37th ARRS), a rescue squadron of the USAF active during the Vietnam War

37th Air Army of the High Supreme Command (Strategic Purpose), the strategic bomber force of the Russian Air Force from 1998 to 2009

37th Air Division (37th AD), an inactive United States Air Force organization

37th Airlift Squadron (37 AS), part of the 86th Airlift Wing at Ramstein Air Base, Germany

37th Annie Awards, honoring the best in animation for 2009, held in 2010 at Royce Hall in Los Angeles, California

37th Arkansas Infantry Regiment (1862–1865), a Confederate Army infantry regiment during the American Civil War

37th Armor Regiment (United States) Nicknamed Iron Dukes, the 2nd Battalion was deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003

37th Battalion (Australia), an infantry battalion of the Australian Army

37th Battalion Virginia Cavalry, a cavalry battalion raised in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War

37th Berlin International Film Festival, held from 20 February to 3 March 1987

37th Bomb Squadron (37 BS), part of the 28th Bomb Wing at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota

37th British Academy Film Awards, given by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts in 1984, honoured the best films of 1983

37th Canadian Parliament, in session from January 29, 2001, until May 23, 2004

37th century, from January 1, 3601 to December 31, 3700 of the Gregorian calendar

37th century BC in the 4th millennium BC

37th Chess Olympiad, between 20 May and 6 June 2006, in Turin, Italy

37th Daytime Emmy Awards, held on June 27, 2010, hosted by Regis Philbin and broadcast on the CBS network

37th Delaware General Assembly, a meeting of the legislative branch of the state government

37th Division (German Empire), a unit of the Prussian/German Army formed in 1899

37th Division (Imperial Japanese Army), an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army

37th Division (United Kingdom), a unit of the British Army during World War I

37th Dogras, an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army

37th Engineer Battalion (United States) ("Eagle Battalion"), an airborne combat engineer battalion in the United States Army

37th Field Artillery Regiment (United States), a Field Artillery regiment of the United States Army

37th Filmfare Awards, held in 1992

37th Flying Training Squadron, part of the 14th Flying Training Wing based at Columbus Air Force Base, Mississippi

37th G8 summit, held 26–27 May 2011 in the commune of Deauville in France

37th General Assembly of Nova Scotia represented Nova Scotia between 1920 and 1925

37th General Assembly of Prince Edward Island, in session from March 7, 1912, to August 21, 1915

37th GMA Dove Awards, held on April 5, 2006, recognizing accomplishments of Christian musicians for the year 2005

37th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television for 1979, held on 26 January 1980

37th Grammy Awards, presented March 1, 1995

37th Grey Cup, played on November 26, 1949, before 20,087 fans at Varsity Stadium at Toronto

37th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment, an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War

37th Indian Infantry Brigade, an Infantry formation of the Indian Army during World War II

37th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States)

37th Infantry Division (United States), a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II

37th Infantry Regiment (United States), an infantry regiment in the United States Army

37th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment, an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War

37th Japan Record Awards took place on December 31, 1995, starting at 6:30PM JST

37th Legislative Assembly of Ontario, in session from June 8, 1999, until May 5, 2003, just prior to the Ontario general election

37th Legislative District (New Jersey), one of 40 in the state

37th meridian east, a line of longitude that extends across Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica

37th meridian west, a line of longitude that extends across Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean and Antarctica

37th NAACP Image Awards, honored the best in film, television and music for 2005

37th National Assembly of Quebec from 2003 to 2007

37th National Hockey League All-Star Game, held in the Olympic Saddledome in Calgary, Alberta, on February 12, 1985

37th New Brunswick Legislative Assembly represented New Brunswick between February 12, 1931, and May 22, 1935

37th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry Regiment, an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War

37th New York State Legislature, met in 1814 during the seventh year of Daniel D. Tompkins's governorship, in Albany

37th Ohio Infantry, a Union Army regiment, composed of German-Americans, in the American Civil War

37th parallel north, a circle of latitude that is 37 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane

37th parallel south, a circle of latitude that is 37 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane

37th Parliament of British Columbia sat from 2001 to 2005

37th People's Choice Awards, honoring the best in popular culture for 2010, held in 2011 at the Nokia Theatre in Los Angeles, California

37th Primetime Emmy Awards, held on September 22, 1985

37th Regiment Indiana Infantry, an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War

37th Regiment Kentucky Volunteer Mounted Infantry, a mounted infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War

37th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, an infantry regiment in the Union army during the American Civil War

37th Saturn Awards, honoring the best in science fiction, fantasy and horror film and television in 2010, held on June 23, 2011

37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Lützow, formed in February 1945

37th Street (Austin), a street in Austin, Texas, known for its many houses that are decorated with Christmas lights

37th Street (Los Angeles Metro station), a Metro Silver Line Station on the Harbor Transitway on the Interstate 110 (Harbor Freeway)

37th Street (Savannah), a historic divided boulevard in Savannah, Georgia, passing through the Cuyler-Brownsville and Mid-City historic districts

37th Tactical Missile Squadron, an inactive United States Air Force unit

37th Tengen, a Go competition in Japan which began on 7 July 2010 and is still ongoing

37th Tony Awards, held at the Gershwin Theatre on June 5, 1983, and broadcast by CBS television

37th Training Wing, a wing of the United States Air Force stationed at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas

37th United States Congress, a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government

37th Vanier Cup, played on November 25, 2001, at the SkyDome in Toronto, Ontario

37th Virginia Infantry, an infantry regiment raised in Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War

37th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment, an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War

37th World Science Fiction Convention, Seacon '79, held in Brighton, UK, 23–26 August 1979 at the Metropole Hotel

37th parallel

37th parallel may refer to:

37th parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere

37th parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere

38th parallel north

The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean. The 38th parallel north formed the border between North and South Korea prior to the Korean War.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 48 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 32 minutes during the winter solstice.

Cape Henlopen

Cape Henlopen is the southern cape of the Delaware Bay along the Atlantic coast of the United States. It lies in the state of Delaware, near the town of Lewes. Off the coast on the bay side are two lighthouses, called the Harbor of Refuge Light and the Delaware Breakwater East End Light.

Cherokee Strip (Kansas)

The Cherokee Strip of Kansas, in the United States, was a disputed strip of land on the southern border of the state.

Damascus Protocol

The Damascus Protocol was a document given to Faisal bin Hussein on 23 May 1915 by the Arab secret societies al-Fatat and Al-'Ahd on his second visit to Damascus during a mission to consult Turkish officials in Constantinople.

The secret societies declared they would support Faisal's father Hussein bin Ali's revolt against the Ottoman Empire, if the demands in the protocol were submitted to the British. These demands, defining the territory of an independent Arab state to be established in the Middle East that would encompass all of the lands of Ottoman Western Asia south of the 37th parallel north, became the basis of the Arab understanding of the Hussein–McMahon Correspondence.

Four Corners Monument

The Four Corners Monument marks the quadripoint in the Southwestern United States where the states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah meet. It is the only point in the United States shared by four states, leading to the area being named the Four Corners region. The monument also marks the boundary between two semi-autonomous Native American governments, the Navajo Nation, which maintains the monument as a tourist attraction, and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation.

The origins of the state boundaries marked by the monument occurred just prior to, and during, the American Civil War, when the United States Congress acted to form governments in the area to combat the spread of slavery to the region. When the early territories were formed, their boundaries were designated along meridian and parallel lines. Beginning in the 1860s, these lines were surveyed and marked. These early surveys included some errors, but even so, the markers placed became the legal boundaries, superseding the written descriptions of geographical meridians and parallels. This includes the Four Corners Monument, which has been legally established as the corner of the four states.

Index of California-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of California.

Index of Colorado-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of Colorado.

Kansas Territory

The Territory of Kansas was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 30, 1854, until January 29, 1861, when the eastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Kansas.

The territory extended from the Missouri border west to the summit of the Rocky Mountains and from the 37th parallel north to the 40th parallel north. Originally part of Missouri Territory, it was unorganized from 1821 to 1854. Much of the eastern region of what is now the State of Colorado was part of Kansas Territory. The Territory of Colorado was created to govern this western region of the former Kansas Territory on February 28, 1861.

Missouri Bootheel

The Missouri Bootheel is the southeasternmost part of the state of Missouri, extending south of 36°30' north latitude, so called because its shape in relation to the rest of the state resembles the heel of a boot. Strictly speaking, it is composed of the counties of Dunklin, New Madrid, and Pemiscot. However, the term is locally used to refer to the entire southeastern lowlands of Missouri located within the Mississippi Embayment, which includes parts of Butler, Mississippi, Ripley, Scott, Stoddard and extreme southern portions of Cape Girardeau and Bollinger counties. The largest city in the region is Kennett.

The Bootheel and the Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri border near the 37th parallel north form the two biggest jogs in a nearly straight line of state borders that starts on the Atlantic Ocean with the Virginia–North Carolina border and extends to the tristate border of Nevada, Arizona and Utah.

Until the 1920s the district was a wheat-growing area of family farms. Following the invasion of the boll weevil, which ruined the cotton crop in Arkansas, planters moved in. They bought up the land for conversion to cotton commodity crops, bringing along thousands of sharecroppers. After mechanization of agriculture and other changes in the 1930s, many black families left the area to go North in the Great Migration. These counties have predominantly white populations in the 21st century, although a few have significant minorities of blacks.

New Mexico meridian

The New Mexico Meridian, is longitude 106° 53′ 40″ west from Greenwich. It extends throughout New Mexico and into Colorado, and together with the baseline, at latitude 34° 15′ 25″ north, governs township and range surveys in New Mexico, except those in the northwest corner of the state which refer to the Navajo meridian and baseline. The New Mexico meridian and Baseline also provide the basis for township and range surveys in the upper valley of the Rio Grande del Norte in Colorado.The New Mexico meridian intersects the principal baseline, i.e. the initial point, above the Rio Grande del Norte, about ten miles (16 km) below the mouth of the Puerco River, on Black Butte just southeast of the village of San Acacia, New Mexico.This meridian was established in 1855 by John W. Garretson, a surveyor for the U.S. government.

Outline of Nevada

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S. state of Nevada:

Nevada – U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States. Nevada is mostly desert or semiarid. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, and about 86% of the state's land is owned by the US government, under various departments and agencies.

Pacific Railroad Surveys

The Pacific Railroad Surveys (1853–1855) consisted of a series of explorations of the American West to find possible routes for a transcontinental railroad across North America. The expeditions included surveyors, scientists, and artists and resulted in an immense body of data covering at least 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) on the American West. "These volumes... constitute probably the most important single contemporary source of knowledge on Western geography and history and their value is greatly enhanced by the inclusion of many beautiful plates in color of scenery, native inhabitants, fauna and flora of the Western country." Published by the United States War Department from 1855 to 1860, the surveys contained significant material on natural history, including many illustrations of reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals. In addition to describing the route, these surveys also reported on the geology, zoology, botany, paleontology of the land as well as provided ethnographic descriptions of the Native peoples encountered during the surveys.

Syria–Turkey border

The border between the Syrian Arab Republic and the Republic of Turkey is about 822 kilometres (511 mi) long. It runs across Upper Mesopotamia for some 400 km, crossing the Euphrates reaching as far as the Tigris, following the Southern Turkish stretch of the Baghdad Railway roughly along the 37th parallel between the 37th and 42nd eastern meridians. In the west, it surrounds the Turkish Hatay Province, following the course of the Orontes River and reaching the Mediterranean coast at the foot of Jebel Aqra.

Timeline of Kansas history

For a detailed description of the events in the Kansas area, see History of Kansas.The timeline of Kansas details past events that happened in what is present day Kansas. Located on the eastern edge of the Great Plains, the U.S. state of Kansas was the home of sedentary agrarian and hunter-gatherer Native American societies, many of whom hunted American bison. The region first appears in western history in the 16th century at the time of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Spanish conquistadores explored the unknown land now known as Kansas. It was later explored by French fur trappers who traded with the Native Americans. It became part of the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. In the 19th century, the first American explorers designated the area as the "Great American Desert."

When the area was opened to Euro-American settlement in the 1850s, Kansas became the first battlefield in the conflict in the American Civil War. After the war, Kansas was home to Wild West towns servicing the cattle trade. With the railroads came heavy immigration from the East, from Europe, and from Freedmen called "Exodusters". For much of its history, Kansas has had a rural economy based on wheat and other crops, supplemented by oil and railroads. Since 1945 the farm population has sharply declined and manufacturing has become more important, typified by the aircraft industry of Wichita.

Willem Verstegen

Willem Verstegen (c. 1612 – 1659) was a merchant in service of the Dutch East India Company and chief trader of factory in Dejima.

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