35mm format

The 35 mm format, or simply 35 mm, is the common name for the 36×24 mm film format or image sensor format used in photography. It has an aspect ratio of 3:2, and a diagonal measurement of approximately 43 mm. It has been employed in countless photographic applications including single-lens reflex (SLR) cameras, rangefinder cameras (film and digital), mirrorless interchangeable-lens digital cameras, digital SLRs, point-and-shoot film cameras, and disposable film cameras.

The format originated with Oskar Barnack and his introduction of the Leica camera in the 1920s.[1] Thus it is sometimes called the Leica format[2] or Barnack format.[3] The name 35 mm originates with the total width of the 135 film, the perforated cartridge film which was the primary medium of the format prior to the invention of the full frame DSLR. The term 135 format remains in use. In digital photography, the format has come to be known as full frame, FF or FX, the latter invented as a trade mark of Nikon. Historically the 35 mm format was sometimes called miniature format[4] or small format,[5] terms meant to distinguish it from medium format and large format.

A roll of Kodak 35 mm film for cameras.
135film
The so-called 35 mm photographic format measures 24×36 mm. It is named for the 35 mm width of 135 film.

Invention

The 35 mm format was conceived by Oskar Barnack by doubling the size of the 24×18 mm format used in cinema.[1]

Use in still photographic film cameras

The term 35 mm camera usually refers to a still photographic film camera which uses the 35 mm format on 135 film. Such cameras have been produced by Leica, Kodak, Argus, Nikon, Canon, Minolta, Olympus, Contax, Pentax, Carl Zeiss, Fujifilm, and numerous other companies. Some notable 35 mm camera systems are the original Leica, Leica M, Leica R, Nikon F, Argus C3, Canon FD, Canon EOS, Minolta OM, Pentax K-mount system, Minolta Maxxum/Dynax "A" mount system, and the inter-compatible Contax and Yashica (C/Y) systems.

Use in digital cameras

CMOS Image Sensor Big and Small
A 35 mm format "full frame" digital image sensor (left, in green) is revealed inside the mirror box of a Canon DSLR camera.

Many digital image sensors approximate the dimensions of the 35 mm format, sometimes differing by fractions of a millimeter on one or both dimensions. Since 2007, Nikon has referred to their 35 mm format by the trade mark FX. Other makers of 35 mm format digital cameras, including Leica, Sony, and Canon, refer to their 35 mm sensors simply as full frame.

Lenses

A true normal lens for 35 mm format would have a focal length of 43 mm, the diagonal measurement of the format. However, lenses of 43 mm to 60 mm are commonly considered normal lenses for the format, in mass production and popular use. Common focal lengths of lenses made for the format include 24, 28, 35, 50, 85, 105, and 135 mm. Most commonly, a 50 mm lens is the one considered normal, any lens shorter than this is considered a wide angle lens and anything above is considered a telephoto lens. Even then, wide angles shorter than 24 mm is called an extreme wide angle. Lenses above 50 mm but up to about 100 mm are called short telephoto or sometimes, as portrait telephotos, from 100 mm to about 200 mm are called medium telephotos, and above 300 mm are called long telephotos.

Focal length equivalent

Many photographers think about angle of view in terms of 35 mm format lenses, due to the historic prevalence of the 35 mm format. For example, a photographer might associate a 50 mm focal length with a normal perspective, because a 50 mm lens produces that perspective on this format. With many smaller formats now common (such as APS-C), lenses may be advertised or marked with their "35 mm equivalent" or "full-frame equivalent" focal length as a mnemonic. This 'equivalent' is computed by multiplying (a) the true focal length of the lens by (b) the ratio of the diagonal measurement of the native format to that of the 35 mm format.

For example, a lens for APS-C format (18×24 mm) with a focal length of 40 mm, might be described as "60 mm (35 mm equivalent)." Although its true focal length remains 40 mm, its angle of view is equivalent to that of a 60 mm lens on a 35 mm format (24×36 mm) camera. Another example is the lens of the 2/3 inch format Fujifilm X10, which is marked with its true zoom range "7.1–28.4 mm" but has 35 mm-equivalent zoom control markings ranging from "28" to "112".

Orchid in Easton CT III
Orchid taken with a 35 mm digital Nikon D810 and a piece of litter, to obscure the lens for soft focus.
Orchid III
Orchid taken with a 35 mm camera at f/2.2, 1/400 s, ISO 400

References

  1. ^ a b The British Journal of Photography. 133: 1485. 1986.CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link)
  2. ^ Camera 35. U.S. Camera Publishing Corp. 3–4: 34.CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link)
  3. ^ Walter, Thomas (2005). Mediafotografie: analog und digital. Springer.
  4. ^ Suess, Bernhard J. (October 1, 2003). Mastering black and white photography. Allworth Press. p. 11.
  5. ^ Warren, Bruce (2003). Photography: A Concise Guide. Cengage Learning. p. 41.
35 mm (disambiguation)

35 mm may refer to:

135 film, film rolls

35 mm film, movie film stock

35mm format (24×36 mm) for still photography and videography

Any lens with focal length of 35 mm

Blue Film Woman

Blue Film Woman (ブルーフィルムの女, Burū firumu no onna) is a 1969 Japanese pink film directed by Kan Mukai.

Canon EF-S 60mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens

The Canon EF-S 60mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens is Canon's first EF-S (APS-C sensor-specific) macro lens, and also the company's first prime lens made specifically for the EF-S mount. Introduced in 2005, it was the only EF-S prime lens until the announcement of the EF-S 24mm f/2.8 STM in September 2014; a second EF-S macro lens, the EF-S 35mm f/2.8 Macro IS STM, was added to the lens lineup in April 2017. As an EF-S lens, it can only be used on cameras with a 1.6x crop factor and is the equivalent of a 96mm lens mounted on a 35mm format camera. As such this lens also can be a good choice for portrait photography.

Its front element does not rotate, nor does it protrude when focusing. This is especially useful when working with a polarization filter or close to the subject.

The circular aperture results in a pleasantly soft bokeh.

Canon EOS-1Ds Mark II

The EOS-1Ds Mark II is a digital SLR camera body introduced by Canon Inc. in 2004. It was the top model in the Canon EOS line of digital cameras until April 2007, with a full-frame 16.7 megapixel CMOS sensor. The EOS-1Ds Mark II had the highest pixel count available in a 35mm format digital SLR at the time of its introduction until its successor was announced in August 2007. It uses the EF lens mount. The EOS-1Ds Mark II is a professional grade camera body and is large, ruggedly built, and dust/weather-resistant.

Being an autofocus camera, it has multiple autofocus modes and uses a 45-point autofocus system, and an option for manual focusing. Its viewfinder is a "fixed pentaprism". It also has a 2", TFT color LCD. Its dimensions are 156 mm in width, 157.6 mm in height, and 79.9 mm in depth (6.14 in × 6.20 in × 3.15 in). Its mass (without a battery) is 1,215 grams (42.9 oz).

The camera's image sensor is a single-plate CMOS-based integrated circuit, 24 mm × 36 mm in size; the same as 35mm film. It has approximately 17.2 million total photosites (16.7 million effective pixels in the final output). It uses a RGB primary color filter.

The shutter is an electronically controlled focal-plane shutter. Its maximum speed is 1/8000 of one second and it is rated for 200,000 actuations. Soft-touch shutter release occurs via electromagnetic signaling.

On 20 August 2007, Canon announced the successor to the Mark II: the Canon EOS-1Ds Mark III.

Carl Zeiss AG

Carl Zeiss (German: [tsaɪs]), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems, and industrial measurement and medical devices, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss. Together with Ernst Abbe (joined 1866) and Otto Schott (joined 1884) they built a base for modern optics and manufacturing. There are currently two parts of the company, Carl Zeiss AG located in Oberkochen with important subsidiaries in Aalen, Göttingen and Munich, and Carl Zeiss GmbH located in Jena.

Carl Zeiss AG is the premier company of the Zeiss Gruppe, one of the two large divisions of the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung. The Zeiss Gruppe is located in Heidenheim and Jena. Also controlled by the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung are the glass manufacturers Schott AG and Jenaer Glas, located in Mainz and Jena respectively. Carl Zeiss is one of the oldest existing optics manufacturers in the world.

Ektachrome

Ektachrome is a brand name owned by Kodak for a range of transparency, still, and motion picture films previously available in many formats, including 35 mm and sheet sizes to 11×14 inch size. Ektachrome has a distinctive look that became familiar to many readers of National Geographic, which used it extensively for color photographs for decades in settings where Kodachrome was too slow. Ektachrome is able to take photos at shutter speeds of 1/10,000 of a second without filters.

Ektachrome, initially developed in the early 1940s, allowed professionals and amateurs alike to process their own films. It also made color reversal film more practical in larger formats, and the Kodachrome Professional film in sheet sizes was later discontinued.

Whereas the development process used by Kodachrome is technically intricate and beyond the means of amateur photographers and smaller photographic labs, Ektachrome processing is simpler, and small professional labs could afford equipment to develop the film. Many process variants (designated E-1 through E-6) were used to develop it over the years. Modern Ektachrome films are developed using the E-6 process, which can be carried out by small labs or by a keen amateur using a basic film tank and tempering bath to maintain the temperature at 100 °F (38 °C).

Ektachrome has been used occasionally as a motion picture film stock, such as in the 1999 film Three Kings and the 2006 film Inside Man, in which each used cross processing in C-41 color negative chemistry to give a unique appearance.Several years before Ektachrome's discontinuation, some of Kodak's consumer E-6 films were rebranded as Elite Chrome. In late 2009, Kodak announced the discontinuation of Ektachrome 64T (EPY) and Ektachrome 100 Plus (EPP) films, citing declining sales. On February 4, 2011, Kodak announced the discontinuance of Ektachrome 200 on its website. On March 1, 2012 Kodak announced the discontinuance of three color Ektachrome films. In December 2012 Kodak announced its discontinuance of Ektachrome 100D color reversal movie film in certain formats. By late 2013, all Ektachrome products were discontinued.

On 25 September 2018, Kodak announced that the 35 mm format of Ektachrome was again available, while Super 8 and 16 mm motion picture versions would be available later.

Fujifilm X-S1

The Fujifilm FinePix X-S1 is a digital superzoom bridge camera with a 12 megapixel sensor, released in November 2011, and is part of the Fujifilm X-series of higher-end cameras. With a field of view range equivalent of 24-624mm in 35mm format, it has 26 times optical zoom. Its sensor obtained a DxOMark score of 49.

Fujinon

Fujinon is a brand of optical lenses made by Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd, now known as Fujifilm. Fujifilm's Fujinon lenses have been used by professional photographers and broadcast stations as well as cinematography. Fujifilm started manufacture of optical glass in its Odawara Factory in Japan in 1940, which was the start of the Fujinon brand. They were proud of their use of expensive Platinum crucibles to get the purest glass achievable at the time. Fujifilm also pioneered Electron Beam Coating (EBC) which according to Fujifilm, represented a new high in lens precision and performance. The EBC process was significantly different from other coating processes by the number of coating, the thinness of the coating, and the materials used for coating. Fujifilm claimed they were able to have as much as 14 layers of coating and used materials such as zirconium oxide, and cerium fluoride, which could not be used for coating in the conventional coating process. The first lens to offer the Electron Beam Coating was the EBC Fujinon 55mm F3.5 Macro in 1972. Light transmission for the coating was said to be 99.8%. EBC later evolved into Super-EBC and HT-EBC (High Transmittance-Electron Beam Coating).

Full-frame digital SLR

A full-frame digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) is one with an image sensor format that is the same size as 35 mm format (36 mm × 24 mm) film. Historically, 35 mm was considered a small film format compared with medium format, large format and even larger.

The full-frame DSLR is in contrast to full-frame mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras, and DSLR and mirrorless cameras with smaller sensors (for instance, those with a size equivalent to APS-C-size film), much smaller than a full 35 mm frame. Many digital cameras, both compact and SLR models, use a smaller-than-35 mm frame as it is easier and cheaper to manufacture imaging sensors at a smaller size. Historically, the earliest digital SLR models, such as the Nikon NASA F4 or Kodak DCS 100, also used a smaller sensor.

Kodak states that 35 mm film has the equivalent of 6,000 pixel horizontal resolution, according to a senior vice president of IMAX.

Full frame (disambiguation)

Full frame is the use of the full film gate at maximum width and height for 35 mm film cameras.

Full frame may also refer to:

35mm format

Full-frame digital SLR

Full-frame type charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor

Hologon

The Zeiss Hologon is an ultra wide-angle f=15mm f/8 triplet lens, providing a 110° angle of view for 35mm format cameras. The Hologon was originally fitted to a dedicated camera, the Zeiss Ikon Contarex Hologon in the late 1960s; as sales of that camera were poor and the Zeiss Ikon company itself was going bankrupt, an additional 225 lenses were made in Leica M mount and released for sale in 1972 as the only Zeiss-branded lenses for Leica rangefinders until the ZM line was released in 2005. The Hologon name was revived in 1994 for a recomputed f=16mm f/8 lens fitted to the Contax G series of rangefinder cameras.

Jeevan Baator Logori

Jeevan Baator Logori (Assamese: জীৱন বাটৰ লগৰী) is a 2009 Assamese language drama film directed by Timothy Das Hanche under the banner Hills Motion Pictures Association of Diphu. The film is set in the rural and urban areas of Assam and shot at Cinemascope at 35mm format.

Leica Digilux 2

The Digilux 2 is a digital camera model sold by Leica Camera, with the body manufactured in Japan by Matsushita, which sold a variant as the Panasonic Lumix DMC-LC1. Its image sensor is a CCD with 5.24 million total pixels. It has a color, transreflective thin-film transistor liquid crystal display with 211,000 pixels, in addition to an electronic viewfinder. It has a near-focus range of 30 centimeters. The camera has a built-in flash. This flash, first of its kind, has the ability to be pointed up, as well as the standard method of pointing straight ahead, in order to "bounce" the light off a ceiling. The camera weighs 630 grams (without a battery). Its dimensions are 135 millimeters in width, 82 millimeters in height, and 103 millimeters in depth. The camera is fitted with a Leica Vario Summicron lens of f/2 with a zoom function of 28mm - 90mm in 35mm format.

The main selling point of the Digilux 2 is that it functions in a manner reminiscent of a rangefinder camera; the Leica lens features manual zoom, aperture and focus rings and the shutter speed can be manually adjusted via a dial on the camera. Many users cite the excellent Leica DC Vario-Summicron lens as their reason to purchase.

Nikon AF-S Zoom-Nikkor 17-35mm f/2.8D ED-IF

The 17-35mm f/2.8D ED-IF AF-S Nikkor is an F-mount zoom lens manufactured and sold by Nikon. For 35mm format cameras, this lens covers a wide-angle range, and is well known as a photojournalists' lens. For Nikon DX format cameras, this lens covers a wide-to-normal range.

It is generally considered to be one of the finest zoom lenses ever produced, comparing favorably with many wide-angle prime Nikkor lenses. As of 2006, Photozone.de ranks the lens in 4th place among all Nikkors both prime and zoom, and in first place among all zoom lenses by any manufacturer.It replaces the older AF Zoom-Nikkor 20-35mm f/2.8 IF lens.

Nikon DX format

The Nikon DX format is an alternative name used by Nikon corporation for APS-C image sensor format being approximately 24x16 mm. Its dimensions are about ​2⁄3 (29 mm vs 43 mm diagonal, approx.) those of the 35mm format. The format was created by Nikon for its digital SLR cameras, many of which are equipped with DX-sized sensors. DX format is very similar in size to sensors from Pentax, Sony and other camera manufacturers. All are referred to as APS-C, including the slightly smaller Canon cameras.

Nikon has produced 23 lenses for the DX format, from macro to telephoto lenses. 35mm format lenses can also be used with DX format cameras, with additional advantages: less vignetting, less distortion and often better border sharpness. Disadvantages of 35mm lenses include generally higher weight and incompatible features such as autofocus with some lower-end DX cameras. Nikon has also produced digital SLRs that feature the larger Nikon FX format sensor that is the size of the 135 film format.

In 2013, Nikon introduced a high-end compact camera with a DX-sized sensor, the Nikon Coolpix A, featuring an 18.5 mm lens."Nikon COOLPIX A". nikonusa.com.

Nikon F-mount

The Nikon F-mount is a type of interchangeable lens mount developed by Nikon for its 35mm format single-lens reflex cameras. The F-mount was first introduced on the Nikon F camera in 1959, and features a three-lug bayonet mount with a 44 mm throat and a flange to focal plane distance of 46.5 mm. The company continues to use variations of the same lens mount specification for its film and digital SLR cameras.

Twin-lens reflex camera

A twin-lens reflex camera (TLR) is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. One of the lenses is the photographic objective or "taking lens" (the lens that takes the picture), while the other is used for the viewfinder system, which is usually viewed from above at waist level.

In addition to the objective, the viewfinder consists of a 45-degree mirror (the reason for the word reflex in the name), a matte focusing screen at the top of the camera, and a pop-up hood surrounding it. The two objectives are connected, so that the focus shown on the focusing screen will be exactly the same as on the film. However, many inexpensive "pseudo" TLRs are fixed-focus models. Most TLRs use leaf shutters with shutter speeds up to 1/500th sec with a B setting.

For practical purposes, all TLRs are film cameras, most often using 120 film, although there are many examples which used 620 film, 127 film, and 35mm film. No general-purpose digital TLR cameras exist, since the heyday of TLR cameras ended long before the era of digital cameras. In 2015, MiNT Camera released Instantflex TL70, a twin-lens reflex camera that uses Fuji instax mini film.

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