356 BC

Year 356 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Ambustus and Laenas (or, less frequently, year 398 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 356 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Millennium: 1st millennium BC
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
356 BC in various calendars
Gregorian calendar356 BC
CCCLV BC
Ab urbe condita398
Ancient Egypt eraXXX dynasty, 25
- PharaohNectanebo II, 5
Ancient Greek era106th Olympiad (victor
Assyrian calendar4395
Balinese saka calendarN/A
Bengali calendar−948
Berber calendar595
Buddhist calendar189
Burmese calendar−993
Byzantine calendar5153–5154
Chinese calendar甲子(Wood Rat)
2341 or 2281
    — to —
乙丑年 (Wood Ox)
2342 or 2282
Coptic calendar−639 – −638
Discordian calendar811
Ethiopian calendar−363 – −362
Hebrew calendar3405–3406
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat−299 – −298
 - Shaka SamvatN/A
 - Kali Yuga2745–2746
Holocene calendar9645
Iranian calendar977 BP – 976 BP
Islamic calendar1007 BH – 1006 BH
Javanese calendarN/A
Julian calendarN/A
Korean calendar1978
Minguo calendar2267 before ROC
民前2267年
Nanakshahi calendar−1823
Thai solar calendar187–188
Tibetan calendar阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
−229 or −610 or −1382
    — to —
阴木牛年
(female Wood-Ox)
−228 or −609 or −1381

Events

By place

Persian Empire

  • Having blamed the defeats by Philip II in Thessaly and Chalcidice on his colleagues, Chares is left as sole Athenian commander. Chares is in need of money for his war effort, but frowns upon asking it from the Athenians so, partly compelled by his mercenaries, he enters the service of the insurgent Persian satrap Artabazus of Phrygia who rewards Chares very generously.
  • Artabazus of Phrygia is also supported by the Thebans, who send him 5,000 men under their general Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazus defeats his Persian enemies in two great battles.
  • The Persian King Artaxerxes III orders all the satraps (governors) of his empire to dismiss their mercenaries. The Athenians, who have originally approved their mercenaries' collaboration with Artabazus of Phrygia, order them to leave due to their fear of Persian support for the revolting states of Chios, Rhodes, and Cos. Thebes follows suit and withdraws its mercenaries.
  • With King Artaxerxes III succeeding in depriving Artabazus of his Athenian and Theban allies, Artabazus is defeated by the Persian King's general, Autophradates.

Greece

  • Philip II of Macedon secretly offers the city of Amphipolis back to the Athenians in exchange for the valuable port of Pydna. Despite the Athenians being willing to comply, both Pydna and Potidaea are conquered by the Macedonians (along with other Athenian strongholds in Thessaly and Chalcidice) despite being defended by Athenian forces led by general and mercenary commander, Chares, as well as generals Iphicrates and Timotheus.
  • With Pydna and Potidaea occupied, Philip II decides to keep Amphipolis anyway. He also takes the city of Crenides from the Odrysae and renames it Philippi.
  • The Phocians capture and sack Delphi in whose territory the famous temple and oracle stand. A sacred war is declared against them by the other members of the Great Amphictyonic League. The Phocians, led by two capable generals, Philomelus and Onomarchus, use Delphi's riches to hire a mercenary army to carry the war into Boeotia and Thessaly.
  • The Social War begins between the Second Athenian League, led by Athens, and its revolting allies of Chios, Rhodes, and Kos as well as the independent state Byzantium. Mausolus, the tyrant of Caria, instigates the rebellion against the Athenian control of these states. The revolting allies ravage the islands of Lemnos and Imbros which are loyal to Athens.
  • The Athenian generals Chares and Chabrias are given command of the Athenian fleet with the aim of defeating the rebellious cities. However, Chabrias' fleet is defeated and he is killed in its attack on the island of Chios, off the coast of Ionia.
  • Chares is given complete command of the Athenian fleet and withdraws to the Hellespont to move against Byzantium. The generals Timotheus, Iphicrates and his son Menestheus are sent to help him when the enemy fleet is sighted on the Hellespont. Timotheus and Iphicrates refuse to engage due to a severe gale, but Chares does engage and lose many of his ships. Timotheus and Iphicrates are accused by Chares and put on trial, however only Timotheus is condemned to pay a fine.

Roman Republic

China

By topic

Architecture

Births

Deaths

350s BC

This article concerns the period 359 BC – 350 BC.

== Events ==

=== 359 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Macedonia ======

The Macedonian King Perdiccas III is killed while defending his country against an Illyrian attack led by King Bardylis. He is succeeded by his infant son, Amyntas IV. The child's uncle, Philip II, assumes the regency.

The Illyrians prepare to close in, the Paeonians raid from the north and two claimants to the Macedonian throne are supported by foreign powers. Philip II buys off his dangerous neighbours and, with a treaty, cedes Amphipolis to Athens.

=== 358 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

Artaxerxes III ("Ochus") succeeds Artaxerxes II as King of Persia and restores central authority over the Persian empire's satraps. To secure his throne he puts to death most of his relatives.

====== Greece ======

Alexander of Pherae, Despot of Pherae in Thessaly is murdered by his wife's brother at her instigation.

Cersobleptes, in conjunction with his brothers, Amadocus II and Berisades, inherits the dominions of the Thracian king, Cotys I, following his murder. However, the overall management of Thracian affairs is assumed by the Euboean adventurer, Charidemus, who is connected by marriage with the royal family, and who plays the prominent part in the ensuing negotiations with Athens for the possession of the Thracian Chersonese.

====== Macedonia ======

Philip II of Macedonia invades the hill tribes of Paeonia and decisively beats them. He established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid.

====== Roman Republic ======

The Romans defeat the Volsci, annex most of their territory, and settle it with Roman colonists. The Romans also force the Latin League to renew its close alliance with Rome, an alliance which was weakened by Rome’s defeat at the hands of the Gauls in 390 BC.

=== 357 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

Rhodes falls to the Persian satrap Mausolus of Halicarnassus.

====== Thrace ======

The Athenian general and mercenary commander, Chares and the Euboean mercenary Charidemus regain the Thracian Chersonese for Athens from the Thracian king Cersobleptes. Charidemus receives from Athens a golden crown for his part in the victory.

====== Macedonia ======

The Macedonian general, Parmenion, wins a great victory over the Illyrians. King Philip II of Macedon, having disposed of an Illyrian threat, occupies the Athenian city of Amphipolis (which commands the gold mines of Mount Pangaion). Philip II now has control of the strategic city which secures the eastern frontier of Macedonia and gives him access into Thrace.

Philip II of Macedon marries Olympias, the Molossian princess of Epirus thus helping to stabilize Macedonia's western frontier.

====== Sicily ======

The brother-in-law of Dionysius I, Dion, exiled from Syracuse in 366 BC by Dionysius II, assembles a force of 1,500 mercenaries at Zacynthus and sails to Sicily. Dion wrests power from the weak Dionysius II, who is exiled and flees to Locri.

=== 356 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

Having blamed the defeats by Philip II in Thessaly and Chalcidice on his colleagues, Chares is left as sole Athenian commander. Chares is in need of money for his war effort, but frowns upon asking it from the Athenians so, partly compelled by his mercenaries, he enters the service of the insurgent Persian satrap Artabazus of Phrygia who rewards Chares very generously.

Artabazus of Phrygia is also supported by the Thebans, who send him 5,000 men under their general Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazus defeats his Persian enemies in two great battles.

The Persian King Artaxerxes III orders all the satraps (governors) of his empire to dismiss their mercenaries. The Athenians, who have originally approved their mercenaries' collaboration with Artabazus of Phrygia, order them to leave due to their fear of Persian support for the revolting states of Chios, Rhodes, and Cos. Thebes follows suit and withdraws its mercenaries.

With King Artaxerxes III succeeding in depriving Artabazus of his Athenian and Theban allies, Artabazus is defeated by the Persian King's general, Autophradates.

====== Greece ======

Philip II of Macedon secretly offers the city of Amphipolis back to the Athenians in exchange for the valuable port of Pydna. Despite the Athenians being willing to comply, both Pydna and Potidaea are conquered by the Macedonians (along with other Athenian strongholds in Thessaly and Chalcidice) despite being defended by Athenian forces led by general and mercenary commander, Chares, as well as generals Iphicrates and Timotheus.

With Pydna and Potidaea occupied, Philip II decides to keep Amphipolis anyway. He also takes the city of Crenides from the Odrysae and renames it Philippi.

The Phocians capture and sack Delphi in whose territory the famous temple and oracle stand. A sacred war is declared against them by the other members of the Great Amphictyonic League. The Phocians, led by two capable generals, Philomelus and Onomarchus, use Delphi's riches to hire a mercenary army to carry the war into Boeotia and Thessaly.

The Social War begins between the Second Athenian League, led by Athens, and its revolting allies of Chios, Rhodes, and Kos as well as the independent state Byzantium. Mausolus, the tyrant of Caria, instigates the rebellion against the Athenian control of these states. The revolting allies ravage the islands of Lemnos and Imbros which are loyal to Athens.

The Athenian generals Chares and Chabrias are given command of the Athenian fleet with the aim of defeating the rebellious cities. However, Chabrias' fleet is defeated and he is killed in its attack on the island of Chios, off the coast of Ionia.

Chares is given complete command of the Athenian fleet and withdraws to the Hellespont to move against Byzantium. The generals Timotheus, Iphicrates and his son Menestheus are sent to help him when the enemy fleet is sighted on the Hellespont. Timotheus and Iphicrates refuse to engage due to a severe gale, but Chares does engage and lose many of his ships. Timotheus and Iphicrates are accused by Chares and put on trial, however only Timotheus is condemned to pay a fine.

====== Roman Republic ======

Gaius Marcius Rutilus is the first plebeian to be chosen as a dictator in Rome.

====== China ======

With his reforms initiated in this year, the Chinese prime minister Shang Yang starts to transform the once marginal and frontier State of Qin to become the most dominant military force amongst the Warring States of China by the 3rd century BC.

==== By topic ====

====== Architecture ======

July 21 (traditional date) – The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus is burned down by a madman named Herostratus, destroying one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The great temple was built by Croesus, king of Lydia, in about 550 BC and was famous not only for its great size (110 metres by 55 metres), but also for the magnificent works of art that adorned it.

=== 355 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

King Artaxerxes III of Persia forces Athens to conclude a peace which requires the city to leave Asia Minor and to acknowledge the independence of its rebellious allies.

King Archidamus III of Sparta supports the Phocians against Thebes in the "Sacred War".

Chares' war party in Athens is replaced by one under Eubulus which favours peace. Eubulus restores the economic position of Athens without increasing the burden of taxation and improves the Athenian fleet while its docks and fortifications are repaired.

=== 354 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

Reflecting the growing level of discontent with his tyrannical conduct, Dion is assassinated by Callippus, an Athenian who has accompanied him on his expedition to take over as tyrant of Syracuse. Dionysius II remains in exile in Italy.

Athens recognises the independence of Chios, Kos and Rhodes and makes peace with Mausolus of Caria.

The Phocians suffer a defeat in the Sacred War against Athens.

Philip II of Macedon takes and destroys Methone, a town which has belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip loses an eye.

====== Roman Republic ======

Rome allies itself with the Samnites and they agree on a mutual defence pact against the Gauls. Rome also defeats the Etruscans of the city of Caere.

====== China ======

The State of Qi is victorious over the State of Wei in the Battle of Guiling, a conflict which involves the military strategy of Sun Bin.

==== By topic ====

====== Architecture ======

The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus in Caria, the tomb of King Mausolus and one of the Seven Wonders of the World, is built.

=== 353 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

Mausolus, King and Persian satrap of Caria, dies and is succeeded in 352 BC by Artemisia, his sister and wife.

====== Greece ======

The Phocians threaten Thessaly to their north. Philip II of Macedon sees his opportunity to penetrate south.

Clearchus, the tyrant of Heraclea, a Greek city on the Black Sea, is murdered by some of the city's citizens led by Chion after a reign of twelve years. Most of the conspirators are killed by the tyrant's body-guards upon the spot, while others are captured and put to death. Within a short time, the city falls under the rule of the new tyrant Satyrus, Clearchus' brother.

=== 352 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Greece ======

After two initial efforts, Philip II of Macedon drives the Phocians south after a major victory over them in the Battle of Crocus Field. Athens and Sparta come to the assistance of the Phocians and Philip is checked at Thermopylae. Philip does not attempt to advance into central Greece with the Athenians occupying this pass. With this victory, Philip accrues great glory as the righteous avenger of Apollo, since the Phocian general Onomarchos has plundered the sacred treasury of Delphi to pay his mercenaries. Onomarchos' body is crucified, and the prisoners are drowned as ritual demanded for temple-robbers.

Philip then moves against Thrace. He makes a successful expedition into Thrace, gaining a firm ascendancy in the country, and brings away a son of Cersobleptes, the King of Thrace, as a hostage. Philip II's Thessalian victory earns him election as president (archon) of the Thessalian League.

=== 351 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

Encouraged by a failed effort at invasion of Egypt by King Artaxerxes III, Phoenicia and Cyprus revolt against Persia.

====== Greece ======

Demosthenes tries to get the Athenians to cease depending on paid mercenaries and return to the old concept of a citizen army. He also delivers his First Philippic, warning Athenians of the folly of believing that Philip's ill health will save Athens from the Macedonians. In response, Athens' citizens votes for increased armaments.

====== Roman Republic ======

The Etruscans are badly defeated by the Romans and abandon their attacks on the city and sue for peace.

First use of the heavy throwing spear, the pilum, (according to Livy) in battle against the Gauls.

Gaius Marcius Rutilus became the first Roman plebeian is elected to the office of censor.

=== 350 BC ===

==== By place ====

====== Persian Empire ======

Sidon, the centre of the revolt against Persia, seeks help from its sister city of Tyre and from Egypt but gets very little.

Idrieus, the second son of Hecatomnus, succeeds to the throne of Caria on the death of Artemisia II, the widow of his elder brother Mausolus. Shortly after his accession, at the request of the Persian king, Artaxerxes III, Idrieus equips a fleet of 40 triremes and assembles an army of 8,000 mercenary troops and despatches them against Cyprus, under the command of the Athenian general Phocion.

====== Greece ======

Alexander I becomes king of Epirus after his brother-in-law, Philip II of Macedon, aids him in ousting the previous king, Arymbas.

Philip II has Abdera in Thrace sacked.

====== Roman Republic ======

The Gauls, once more threatening Rome, are decisively beaten by an army comprising Rome and its allies.

==== By topic ====

====== Science ======

Aristotle argues for a spherical Earth using lunar eclipses and other observations. Also he discusses logical reasoning in Organon.

Plato proposes a geocentric model of the universe with the stars rotating on a fixed celestial sphere.

====== Art ======

Praxiteles makes the Aphrodite of Knidos (approximate date). A composite of two similar Roman copies after the original marble is now kept at Musei Vaticani, Museo Pio Clementino, Gabinetto delle Maschere in Rome.

The building of the Mausoleum in Halikarnassos (modern Bodrum in Turkey) is completed (approximate date). It is the grave of the Persian satrap and Carian ruler Mausolos and is built under the direction of his wife Artemisia. The mausoleum, which is considered to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is today partly preserved at the British Museum in London.

The Corinthian capital is made in the tholos at Epidaurus. It is now preserved at the Archaeological Museum in Epidaurus, Greece (approximate date).

Achaeus of Syracuse

Achaeus of Syracuse (Ancient Greek: Ἀχαιός ὁ Συρακούσιος; lived 4th century BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian native of Syracuse. The Suda ascribes to him 10 plays, while the Pseudo-Eudocia 14. He may be the "Achaios" who won a victory at Athens' Lenaia festival in 356 BC.

Alexander III

Alexander III may refer to:

Alexander III of Macedon (356 BC–323 BC), also known as Alexander the Great

Alexander (Byzantine emperor) (870–913), Byzantine Emperor (912–913)

Pope Alexander III (1100s–1181), pope from 1159 to 1181

Alexander III of Vladimir, Grand Duke of Vladimir (1328–1331), Prince of Suzdal

Alexander III of Scotland (1241–1286), king of Scotland

Alexander III of Imereti (1609–1660), king of Imereti

Alexander III of Russia (1845–1894), emperor of Russia

Pont Alexandre III, an arch bridge that spans the Seine

Russian battleship Imperator Aleksandr III, Russian warship

Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (Greek: Αλέξανδρος Γ΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until age 16. After Philip's assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his father's pan-Hellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia. In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and began a series of campaigns that lasted 10 years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of decisive battles, most notably the battles of Issus and Gaugamela. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety. At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.

He endeavored to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. He eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexander's surviving generals and heirs.

Alexander's legacy includes the cultural diffusion and syncretism which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century AD and the presence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern Anatolia until the 1920s. Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. He is often ranked among the most influential people in history.

Artabazos II

Artabazos II (in Greek Αρτάβαζος) (fl. 389 – 328 BC) was a Persian general and satrap. He was the son of the Persian satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, Pharnabazus II, and younger kinsman (most probably brother) of Ariobarzanes of Phrygia who revolted against Artaxerxes II around 356 BC. His first wife was an unnamed Greek woman from Rhodes, sister of the two mercenaries Mentor of Rhodes and Memnon of Rhodes.

Battle of Embata

The Battle of Embata was a naval battle fought in 356 BC between the Chians and the Athenians led by Chares.

Chaeron of Pellene

Chaeron (Ancient Greek: Χαίρων) was a wrestler and tyrant from Pellene, ancient Achaea.

Chaeron won at the Isthmian Games, possibly twice, and four times at the Ancient Olympic Games, between 356 BC and 344 BC. Alexander the Great made him tyrant of Pellene. It is said that the people of Pellene refused to even mention Chaeron by his name.He was believed to have exiled the aristocrats of Pellene and given their wives and property to their slaves, perhaps because of his study of Plato and Xenocrates.

Athenaeus states And such now are some of the Academics, who live in a scandalous and infamous manner. For they, having by impious and unnatural means acquired vast wealth by trickery, are at present highly thought of; as Chaeron of Pellene, who was not only a pupil of Plato, but of Xenocrates also. And he too, having usurped the supreme power in his country, and having exercised it with great severity, not only banished the most virtuous men in the city, but also gave the property of the masters to their slaves, and gave their wives also to them, compelling them to receive them as their husbands; having got all these admirable ideas from that excellent Republic and those illegal Laws of Plato.

Chersiphron

Chersiphron (; Greek: Χερσίφρων; fl. 6th century BC), an architect of Knossos in ancient Crete, was the builder of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, on the Ionian coast. The original temple was destroyed in the 7th century BC, and about 550 BC Chersiphron and his son Metagenes began a new temple, the Artemision, which became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World in each of its three manifestations. It was burned by Herostratus in July 356 BC and rebuilt again.

The architect's name is recalled in Vitruvius, and in a passage of Pliny as "Ctesiphon", perhaps in confusion with the great Parthian city of the same name on the river Tigris.

Expansion of Macedonia under Philip II

Under the reign of Philip II (359–336 BC), the kingdom of Macedonia, initially at the periphery of classical Greek affairs, came to dominate Ancient Greece in the span of just 25 years, largely thanks to the personality and policies of its king. In addition to utilising effective diplomacy and marriage alliances to achieve his political aims, Philip II was also responsible for reforming the ancient Macedonian army into an effective fighting force. The Macedonian phalanx became the hallmark of the Macedonian army during his reign and the subsequent Hellenistic period. His army and engineers also made extensive use of siege engines.

Macedonia during the reign of Philip II was at first preoccupied by wars with marauding Illyrians and Thracians. Chief among Philip's Thracian enemies was the ruler Kersebleptes, who may have coordinated a temporary alliance with Athens. In a series of campaigns stretching from 356 to 340 BC, Philip II managed to ultimately subjugate Kersebleptes as a tributary vassal, conquering much of Thrace in the process and founding new cities there such as Philippi (modern Filippoi, Greece) and Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv, Bulgaria). Philip II also fought against the Illyrian king Bardylis, who threatened Macedonia proper, and against Grabos and Pleuratus in Illyria (centred in modern-day Albania).

Philip II eventually campaigned against the city-state of Athens and her allies in the Aegean region, as well as Thebes after the decline of its hegemony in mainland Greece. In the defence of the Amphictyonic League of Delphi and in conjunction with the Thessalian League, Macedonia became a key player in the Third Sacred War (356–346 BC), defeating the Phocians, commanded by Onomarchus, at the Battle of Crocus Field in 352 BC. While poised to launch a direct assault on Athens in 346 BC, the Macedonian king was met with an Athenian embassy that arranged a peace treaty known as the Peace of Philocrates. As a result, Macedonia and Athens became allies, yet Athens was forced to relinquish its claims to the city of Amphipolis (in modern-day Central Macedonia).

The Peace of Philocrates eventually broke down as hostilities reignited between Athens and Macedonia. Demosthenes, an Athenian statesman who was partially responsible for engineering the peace treaty, delivered a series of speeches encouraging his fellow Athenians to oppose Philip II. The Macedonian hegemony over Greece was secured by their victory over a Greek coalition army led by Athens and Thebes, at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. In the aftermath the federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth was established, which brought these former Greek adversaries and others into a formal alliance with Macedonia. The League of Corinth elected Philip as strategos (i.e. commander-in-chief) for a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia. However, Philip was assassinated before he could begin the campaign, a task that instead fell to his son and successor, Alexander the Great.

Grabus

Grabus (also Grabos; Greek: Γράβος; ruled c. 358 – 356 BC) was the king of the Grabaei, a minor tribe in Illyria, located somewhere in what is today the northern half of Albania.

Herostratus

Herostratus (Ancient Greek: Ἡρόστρατος) was a 4th-century BC Greek arsonist, who sought notoriety by destroying the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. His acts prompted the creation of a damnatio memoriae law forbidding anyone to mention his name, orally or in writing. The law was ultimately ineffective, as evidenced by mentions of his existence in modern works and parlance. Thus, Herostratus has become a metonym for someone who commits a criminal act in order to become famous.

King Huiwen of Qin

King Huiwen of Qin (Chinese: 秦惠文王; 356–311 BC), also known as Lord Huiwen of Qin (Chinese: 秦惠文君) or King Hui of Qin (Chinese: 秦惠王), given name Si (駟), was the ruler of the Qin state from 338 to 311 BC during the Warring States period of Chinese history and likely an ancestor of Emperor Qin Shi Huang. He was the first ruler of Qin to style himself "King" (王) instead of "Duke" (公).

Leonnatus

Leonnatus (Greek: Λεοννάτος; 356 BC – 322 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the diadochi.

He was a member of the royal house of Lyncestis, a small kingdom that had been included in Macedonia by King Philip II of Macedon. Leonnatus was the same age as Alexander and was very close to him. Later, he was one of Alexander's seven bodyguards, or somatophylakes. After Alexander died in 323 BC, the regent, Perdiccas, made Leonnatus satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia.

Diodorus (Book XVII.37-38) tells us that during the Battle of Issus, the immediate family of Darius had been captured by the Macedonian Army. Darius' family was hysterical that they would suffer a dreadful fate. However, Leonnatus was able to explain to them, on behalf of Alexander, that this would not be the case. In fact, Alexander promised to respect them as royalty, increase their household servants and to raise Darius' 6-year-old boy as his own.

Alexander's sister Cleopatra, the widow of King Alexander I of Epirus, offered her hand to Leonnatus. When the Athenians heard that Alexander had died, they revolted against Macedonia and the new regent, Antipater. Leonnatus led an army of 20,000 infantry with 1,500 cavalry to relieve Antipater during the siege in Lamia (see Lamian War). He intervened probably with the ambition to usurp Antipater's power. A victory in battle against the Athenians would have certainly enhanced his claim to the throne. Leonnatus was killed in battle against the Athenians and his marriage with Cleopatra never took place.

List of state leaders in the 4th century BC

State leaders in the 5th century BC – State leaders in the 3rd century BC – State leaders by yearThis is a list of state leaders in the 4th century BC (400–301 BC).

Philippi

Philippi (; Greek: Φίλιπποι, Philippoi) was a major city northwest of the nearby island, Thasos. Its original name was Crenides (Greek: Κρηνῖδες, Krenides "Fountains") after its establishment by Thasian colonists in 360/359 BC. The city was renamed by Philip II of Macedon in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. The present municipality, Filippoi, is located near the ruins of the ancient city and is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Kavala, Greece. It was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016.

Philistus

Philistus (Greek: Φίλιστος; c. 432 – 356 BC), son of Archomenidas, was a Greek historian from Sicily.

Social War (357–355 BC)

The Social War, also known as the War of the Allies, was fought from 357 BC to 355 BC between Athens with the Second Athenian League and the allied city-states of Chios, Rhodes, Cos and Byzantion.

Temple of Artemis

The Temple of Artemis or Artemision (Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον; Turkish: Artemis Tapınağı), also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis. It was located in Ephesus (near the modern town of Selçuk in present-day Turkey). It was completely rebuilt three times, and in its final form was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. By 401 AD it had been ruined or destroyed. Only foundations and fragments of the last temple remain at the site.

The earliest version of the temple (a temenos) antedated the Ionic immigration by many years, and dates to the Bronze Age. Callimachus, in his Hymn to Artemis, attributed it to the Amazons. In the 7th century BC, it was destroyed by a flood. Its reconstruction, in more grandiose form, began around 550 BC, under the Cretan architect Chersiphron and his son Metagenes. The project was funded by Croesus of Lydia, and took 10 years to complete. This version of the temple was destroyed in 356 BC by Herostratus in an act of arson. The next, greatest and last form of the temple, funded by the Ephesians themselves, is described in Antipater of Sidon's list of the world's Seven Wonders:

I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus, and the hanging gardens, and the colossus of the Sun, and the huge labour of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said, "Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught so grand".

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