34th Bomb Squadron

The 34th Bomb Squadron is part of the 28th Bomb Wing at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota. It operates Rockwell B-1 Lancer aircraft providing strategic bombing capability.

34th Bomb Squadron
Air Force Global Strike Command
180321-F-RU464-0117
A B-1 takes off from Ellsworth Air Force Base, S.D., March 21, 2018. The bomber was manned by an all-female aircrew from the 34th Bomb Squadron.
Active1917–1919; 1931–1945; 1947–1948; 1952–1958; 1962–1976; 1992–present
Country United States
Branch United States Air Force
RoleStrategic Bombing
Part ofGlobal Strike Command
8th Air Force
28th Bomb Wing
28th Operations Group
Garrison/HQEllsworth Air Force Base
Nickname(s)Original Thunderbirds
World Famous Thunderbirds (Doolittle's Raiders)
ColorsRed, Black
Mascot(s)T-Bird
EngagementsWorld War I
World War II
Doolittle Raid
Korean War
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Operation Odyssey Dawn
Operation Freedom's Sentinel
Operation Inherent Resolve[1]
DecorationsDistinguished Unit Citation
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
French Croix de Guerre with Palm
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation[1]
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Ira Eaker[1]
Insignia
34th Bomb Squadron emblem (approved 18 June 1932)[1]
34bs patch

Overview

The 34th Bomb Squadron is presently the 4th-oldest active squadron in the United States Air Force, being formed on 10 May 1917, less than a month after the United States' entry into World War I. Members of the squadron participated in World War I, World War II, Korean War, Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Today, the 34th Bomb Squadron stands ready to provide combat-ready aircrews to project global power anytime in support of the Combatant Commander's objectives.

History

World War I

The 34th Bomb Squadron can trace its origins to the organization of 2d Company H, Kelly Field, Texas which was organized on 10 May 1917. At the time Kelly Field consisted mostly of a field of cotton plants, as it was just obtained by the Army for the establishment of a training airfield, just to the south of San Antonio, Texas. When the first soldiers arrived, there were not any tents or cots for them so they slept on the ground. When the first tents arrived, they were assigned locations for them and they were pitched. A few days later, when the Company received its full quota of men, it was changed to 1st Company G, Kelly Field. The men received their indoctrination into the Army as soldiers, standing guard duty and other rudimentary duties. The lack of sanitary facilities and also uniforms meant most men worked in the civilian clothing they arrived in and slept in them without bathing until latrines and washing facilities were constructed. The men dug ditches for water mains, erected wooden buildings for barracks and a large YMCA.[2][3]

Across the Atlantic

On 15 July, the unit was redesignated as the 34th Provisional Squadron, and rumors began to circulate that the unit would be sent to Europe. On the 25th, it was again re-designated as the 34th Aero Squadron, and they were issued proper uniforms and began to be equipped for overseas duty. On 10 August, the squadron received orders to leave Kelly Field for transport to Hoboken, New Jersey the next day. Five days later, the squadron arrived at Fort Totten, New York. On the 22d they were transported to the Port of Entry, Hoboken, and were boarded on the RMS Baltic. The next day, they left Pier 59, en route to Halifax, Nova Scotia where the ship anchored awaiting for a convoy. Finally, on 5 September, the convoy was formed and the trans-Atlantic journey began.[2]

On the night of 14 September, two red rockets were fired from an accompanying destroyer that had spotted a submarine periscope. The destroyer dropped depth charges on the submarine, and the Baltic made a sudden turn to port, that caused both men and anything loose aboard the ship to move. Suddenly a large explosion was heard and five long blasts were made by the ship's whistle and everyone on board was ordered to report to their assigned lifeboats. The Baltic's captain announced that a torpedo had struck the ship, but it had only made a glancing blow on the bow; that the emergency pumps were working and there was no danger.[2]

Training in England

Edward Sloan from 34th Aero Squadron in training with Royal Flying Corps, Halton Camp, Wendover, England, September 1917
Edward Sloan, assigned to the 34th Aero Squadron, in training with the Royal Flying Corps, Halton Camp, Wendover, England, September 1917

The next day the Baltic arrived at Liverpool, England where the squadron boarded a train for Southampton, arriving on 16 September. There, the squadron received orders that it would remain in England for training by the Royal Flying Corps. On the 20th the men (about 200 in all), were divided into groups and sent to schools to take training in the different types of work they would be expected to do. 75 men were sent to the machine-gun school in Grantham; the remainder sere sent to schools in Reading, Upaven Station, Wendover, Farnsborough, Halton, Pemlice and other RFC Stations. The 34th Aero Squadron was the first American unit to completely train in England.[2]

2d Aviation Instructional Center

After the detachments received their training, the squadron was re-assembled at Winchester for a final inspection. On the 18 December, the squadron departed for France, arriving at the port of Le Havre on the 20th. After a few days wait in a "Rest Camp", they boarded a troop train for the city of Tours, arriving on the 23d. From there, the squadron marched to the American Second Aviation Instructional Center (2d AIC), at Tours Aerodrome, their assigned duty station in France on 23 December 1917.[2]

34th Aero Squadron - Tours France
Men of the 34th Aero Squadron, 2d Air Instructional Center, Tours Aerodrome, France, November 1917. (Several Salmson 2A2 reconnaissance aircraft are parked behind the formation)

The 2d AIC was established by the Training Section, AEF to train aerial observers and observation pilots. The observer also manned two Lewis Machine Guns for defense. Several squadron members, who had been trained by the RFC in machine guns, started a machine gun school at the base. Other men were engaged in construction activities, putting up aircraft hangars and wooden buildings for all manner of uses from training classes to barracks. Men were assigned as mechanics to airplanes arriving at Tours, and others were used as instructors for the various classes that were organized at the base. In February, there was a general reorganization of the 2d AIC and about half the men of the 34th were transferred to other squadrons, and new men were transferred into the 34th. Many promotions were given to the senior members of the squadron who had arrived the previous December. Training was given to many members of the Corps Observation squadrons of the First Army Air Service as they arrived in France; and beginning in August 1918, new pilots and observers for the planned Second Army Air Service began to arrive for training.[2]

By the time of the Armistice on 11 November, the men of the 34th Aero Squadron held about 75% of the responsible positions at the 2d AIC. Although they did not enter combat, the men trained the men who went to the front and gave them the best of training so they might accomplish their work.[2]

Demobilization

The AEF was notoriously slow in returning men to the United States after the end of hostilities, and men who served on the front had priority over those who served in the rear areas. The 34th, therefore, remained at Tours until May, 1919 when orders were received to proceed to the 1st Air Depot, Colombey-les-Belles Airdrome, France, for demobilization. From Colombey, the squadron was moved to a staging camp under the Services of Supply waiting for a date to report to a base port for transportation home. In mid-May, the squadron boarded a troop ship, arriving in New York on the 27th. From there, the 34th moved to Mitchel Field, New York where the men were demobilized and returned to civilian life.[2][4]

Inter-war years

17th Pursuit Squadron P-12s - March Field about 1932
34h Pursuit Squadron Boeing P-12s at March Field, about 1932.

On 24 March 1923, the World War I 34th Aero Squadron was reconstituted into the permanent United States Army Air Service as the 34th Pursuit Squadron. The Army allotted the unit to the Sixth Corps Area, but it remained inactive, although nominally assigned to the inactive 8th Pursuit Group. Until 1927, its designated Active Associate Unit was the 27th Pursuit Squadron. In 1927 its allotted Corps Area became the IX Corps Area, and in 1928, the VIII Corps Area. In 1929, it became a Regular Army Inactive unit, remaining inactive, but with reserve officers assigned. These officers participated in summer training exercises at Kelly Field between 1929 and 1931.[5]

The 34th Pursuit Squadron was finally activated on 15 July 1931, at March Field, California, and assigned to the 17th Pursuit Group.[1]

In the early 1930s, the squadron flew Boeing P-12 and Boeing P-26 fighter aircraft until, in 1935, it was redesignated the 34th Attack Squadron, assigned to the similarly redesignated 17th Attack Group. P-12s continued to be flown after the establishment of the GHQ Air Force in March 1935. The squadron received its first Northrop A-17 attack dive bombers in July 1936.[6][7] In 1939 the A-17 was considered obsolete, and the squadron was re-equipped with the new Douglas Douglas B-18 Bolo medium bomber, being re-designated as the 34th Bombardment Squadron.[1]

In June 1940 the squadron was moved to McChord Field, Washington where it began flying reconnaissance patrols over the Pacific Northwest. The B-18 had a short life in front-line service, and the 34th was re-equipped with the new North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber in February 1941, being one of the first squadrons in the Army Air Corps to receive the new bomber. In June, the squadron was reassigned to Pendleton Field, Oregon, as part of a dispersal plan by the Northwest Air District as part of the buildup of the Air Corps. In August, it received the updated B-25B, that had a much heavier defensive armament, dictated by the results of combat reports coming in from Europe.[8]

World War II

In the immediate aftermath of the Pearl Harbor Attack, the 34th flew anti-submarine warfare patrols in the Pacific Northwest from 22 December 1941 to c. March 1942. It was reassigned to Lexington County Airport, South Carolina, on 9 February 1942 in order to meet the greater threat from German submarines operating off the East Coast. At that time, the only B-25s in service were with the 17th Bombardment Group.[1][8]

Planning for a retaliatory bombing raid on Japan began in December 1941, and the B-25 was determined to be the only Army land-based bomber with the range to be able to attack the Japanese Home Islands that could be launched (one-way) from an aircraft Carrier. Twenty-four B-25Bs were diverted from the 17th Bombardment Group, and volunteers from all three squadrons (34th, 37th and 95th) were recruited, the crews being told only that this was going to be a secret and very dangerous mission against heavy odds. The volunteers moved to Eglin Field in Florida for training. Still not knowing what kind of mission they were training for, the crews practiced making takeoffs in as short a distance as possible. Upon completion of training, seventeen crews left Eglin Field, some from the 34th for McClellan Field in California for final modifications to the B-25s before moving to Naval Air Station Alameda, where the bombers were loaded on the USS Hornet (CV-8) and the men of the Doolittle Raider task force departed on 2 April 1942.[8]

34th Bombardment Squadron 17th BG B-26 Marauders - about 1943
34th Bombardment Squadron Martin B-26 Marauders returning from a mission, about 1943. B-26C-25-MO Marauder 41-35177 identifiable, flying on one engine over the Mediterranean.

The remainder of the squadron remained in Columbia, flying antisubmarine patrols until 23 June when it was moved to Barksdale Field, Louisiana. There, the squadron was re-equipped with the Martin B-26 Marauder, and began transition training under Third Air Force.[1]

In November 1942, the squadron was deployed to North Africa in December 1942 as part of Operation Torch, and was assigned to the new Twelfth Air Force in Algeria. The squadron flew tactical bombing raids on enemy targets in Algeria and later Tunisia as the American forces moved east and participated in the Tunisian Campaign. Remaining assigned to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, the squadron flew combat missions in the invasion of Sicily; invasion of southern Italy; Corsican Campaign; and Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France, during the summer of 1944.[1][9]

Moving into southern France, the squadron supported American ground forces moving north through Lyon and eventually joined American forces in eastern France which had participated in the northern France Campaign after the Normandy D-Day landings in June. The 39th participated in the Western Allied invasion of Germany in the spring of 1945, carrying out tactical bombing missions from Lyon Airfield, primarily hitting enemy targets in central and southern Germany until the German capitulation in May.[1][9]

After the end of hostilities, the 34th became part of the United States Air Forces in Europe occupation forces, being assigned to the American Zone of Occupation in Austria; performing occupation duty at Linz Airport and other cities. It remained in Austria until November 1945, its personnel being demobilized in France and returning to the United States. The squadron was inactivated as a paper unit in late November.[1]

Korean War

B-26Bs 452BW(L) Korea May1951
B-26B Invaders on a day interdiction mission over Korea.

The squadron was reactivated as part of the Tactical Air Command Ninth Air Force in 1947, and programmed as a Douglas A-26 Invader light bombardment squadron. Funding issues associated with the postwar Air Force meant that the "Attack Bomber" concept had to be shelved, with TAC's resources being put into jet fighters. In June 1948, the Attack designation category was officially eliminated and the aircraft was re-designated as the B-26. The B-26B and B-26Cs that were available were subsequently transferred to Air Force Reserve or Air National Guard units. Subsequently, the squadron was never manned or equipped and was inactivated in 1948.[1][10]

When the North Korean army invaded the South on 25 June 1950, the USAF was critically short of light bombers. In particular, the 1054 B-26s that were still officially in the USAF inventory were mostly in reserve units or in storage in the southwest. To meet the emergency needs of the Korean War, the 452d Bombardment Group (Light), an Air Force Reserve unit out of Long Beach Airport, California, was called to active duty. When the 452d reached the end of its federalization period, the group was re-designated as the 17th Bombardment Group (Light) as part of Far East Air Forces, and the reserve 728th Bombardment Squadron inactivated and its mission, personnel and equipment were transferred to the 34th Bombardment Squadron at Pusan West Air Base, South Korea, on 10 May 1952. Reserve personnel were replaced by active duty personnel that had been trained on the B-26 at George Air Force Base, California, then deployed to South Korea.[1][10]

During the conflict, the 17th and the 3d Bombardment Groups flew a total of 55,000 interdiction sorties throughout the war, at first in both day and night conditions and later almost exclusively at night. Attacks were carried out on Communist forces, primarily over South Korea, until the Korean War armistice.[1]

Cold War

Tactical Air Command

Douglas B-66B Destroyer in flight (SN 53-482) 061102-F-1234P-016
Douglas B-66B Destroyer in flight

After the Korean armistice in June 1953, the squadron remained in South Korea for a year and a half until being moved to Miho Air Base, Japan in October 1954. Funding reductions after the Korean War led to the squadron's B-26s being reassigned to the 3d Bombardment Group; and the 34th, along with the 17th Bombardment Wing, was moved to Eglin Air Force Auxiliary Field No. 9, Florida on 1 April 1955 and transferred to Tactical Air Command (TAC) as the 34th Bombardment Squadron, Tactical.[1]

At Eglin, the squadron was re-equipped with the new Martin B-57B Canberra, which had gone into service with TAC as a replacement for the B-26 Invader. The early model B-57Bs, however suffered from many technical problems, including an engine malfunction which filled up the cockpit with toxic fumes, which led to a brief grounding. The type was also found to be severely accident prone, due to difficulties with the aircraft's control surfaces.[11]

The Canberras were replaced by the Douglas B-66B Destroyer, which began arriving in March 1956, with the 34th being the first recipient. The B-66, being an Air Force version of the Navy Douglas A3D Skywarrior, was a much more reliable aircraft that filled the needs of the Air Force for a jet medium bomber. In January 1958, the squadron deployed to RAF Sculthorpe, England where its aircraft were subsequently transferred to the 47th Bombardment Wing, replacing obsolete North American B-45C Tornados.[1][12]

The 43d returned to Eglin Auxiliary Field #9 in March 1958, but due to budget issues, the squadron and its host 17th Bombardment Group were inactivated on 25 June 1958.[1][13]

Strategic Air Command

The squadron designation was transferred from TAC to Strategic Air Command (SAC) in November 1962 as part of a process to re-designate Boeing B-52 Stratofortress "Strategic Wings", which were set up by SAC to disperse its bombers to numerous bases to avoid a single nuclear strike taking out an entire wing at one place. The dispersal, or "Strategic" wings consisted of one bomb and one air refueling squadron. As SAC Major Command designated units (MAJCOM), the wings were not able to carry a lineage or history as Air Force designated wings (AFCON) could.

To remedy this, the Strategic Wings would be given designations of inactive MAJCOM Wings that had notable combat records in World War II, and/or low pre-war designations. The 17th Bombardment Wing, Heavy, was organized on 1 February 1963 which assumed the assets of the 4043d Strategic Wing at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The 34th Bombardment Squadron, Heavy, was placed under the 17th Bomb Wing, and assumed the personnel and B-52Es of the 42d Bombardment Squadron, which was inactivated. These changes were administrative in nature, and no actual personnel changes were made.

The squadron stood nuclear alert at Wright-Patterson, and also provided crews to other Strategic Air Command units conducting combat operations over Southeast Asia ss part of Operation Arc Light, however the squadron's B-52Es were never deployed and remained on nuclear alert. Upgraded to the B-52H in 1968 when the E-models were retired and sent to storage at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base.

The squadron moved to Beale Air Force Base, California when SAC pulled out of Wright-Patterson in 1975, absorbing the B-52G assets of the 744th Bombardment Squadron. It flew training missions at Beale for about a year when it was inactivated along with the 17th Bombardment Wing as part of the phaseout of the B-52 at Beale in 1976.

Modern era

The 34th Bomb Squadron was reactivated at Castle Air Force Base, California on 1 July 1992 by Air Combat Command. With the inactivation of SAC, ACC formed a B-52G squadron at Castle as a geographically separated unit of the 366th Wing, a composite wing based at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho. It operated its B-52 squadron at Castle separately from the 93d Bomb Wing, that had the facilities to support the Stratofortress and provided logistical and maintenance support for the 34th.

In early 1994 the B-52Gs were retired with the closing of Castle and the squadron was reassigned to Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota where it transitioned to the Rockwell B-1B Lancer, remaining part of the 366th Operations Group at Mountain Home. In 1997 the squadron moved to Mountain Home, taking its B-1s with it. In 2001, the squadron assigned conducted devastating attacks versus the Taliban and Al Queda after the 9/11 attacks.

Reassigned to the 28th Bomb Wing in 2002 when the 366th ended its composite organization and moved back to Ellsworth. Deployed again to South Asia and, in 2003, the squadron kicked off Operation Iraqi Freedom with the largest precision guided bomb strike in history, when four B-1s delivered 96 GBU-31 2,000 lb JDAMs.

Lineage

  • Organized as the 34th Aero Squadron on 11 June 1917
Redesignated 34th Aero Squadron (Construction) on 25 July 1917[2]
Redesignated 34th Aero Squadron (Training) on 23 December 1917[2]
Demobilized on 10 June 1919
  • Reconstituted and redesignated 34th Pursuit Squadron on 24 March 1923
Organized in inactive status by June 1929 as a Regular Army Inactive unit[note 1][5]
  • Activated on 15 July 1931
Redesignated 34th Attack Squadron on 1 March 1935
Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) on 17 October 1939
Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Medium on 9 October 1944
Inactivated on 26 November 1945
  • Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Light on 29 April 1947
Activated on 19 May 1947
Inactivated on 10 September 1948
  • Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Light, Night Intruder on 8 May 1952
Activated on 10 May 1952
Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Tactical on 1 October 1955
Inactivated on 25 June 1958
  • Redesignated 34th Bombardment Squadron, Heavy and activated on 15 November 1962 (not organized)
Organized on 1 February 1963
Inactivated on 30 September 1976
  • Redesignated 34th Bomb Squadron and activated on 1 July 1992[14]

Assignments

  • Headquarters, Camp Kelly, 11 June 1917
  • Aviation Concentration Center, 11 August 1917
  • Air Service Headquarters, American Expeditionary Force, British Isles, 19 September 1917 (attached to Royal Flying Corps for training: 20 September – 18 December 1917)
  • Second Aviation Instructional Center, 23 December 1917 – May 1919
  • Services of Supply, May 1919
  • Eastern Department, 27 May – 10 June 1919[2]
  • 17th Pursuit Group (later 17th Attack Group, 17th Bombardment Group), 15 July 1931 – 26 November 1945[note 2]
  • 17th Bombardment Group, 19 May 1947 – 10 September 1948; 10 May 1952 – 25 June 1958
  • Strategic Air Command, 15 November 1962 (not organized)
  • 17th Bombardment Wing, 1 February 1963 – 30 September 1976
  • 366th Operations Group, 1 July 1992
  • 28th Operations Group, 19 September 2002 – present[14]

Stations

  • Dijon/Longvic Airfield (Y-9),[15] France, 20 November 1944
  • Linz Airport, Austria, c. 18 June 1945
  • Hörsching, Austria, 8 July 1945
  • Marchtrenk, Austria, 10 August 1945
  • Clastres Airfield, France, c. 3 October – c. 17 November 1945
  • Camp Myles Standish, Massachusetts, 25–26 November 1945
  • Langley Field (later Langley Air Force Base), Virginia 19 May 1947 – 10 September 1948
  • Pusan Air Base (K-1), South Korea, 10 May 1952
  • Miho Air Base, Japan, 10 October 1954-c. 19 March 1955
  • Eglin Air Force Auxiliary Field No. 9, Florida, 1 April 1955
  • RAF Sculthorpe, England, 18 January – 4 March 1958
  • Eglin Air Force Auxiliary Field No. 9, Florida, 4 March – 25 June 1958
  • Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1 February 1963
  • Beale Air Force Base, California, 30 September 1975 – 30 September 1976
  • Castle Air Force Base, California, 1 July 1992
  • Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 4 April 1994
  • Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho, 1 April 1997
  • Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, 19 September 2002 – present[1]

Aircraft operated

  • Boeing P-12 (1931–1934, 1935–1936)
  • Boeing P-26 Peashooter (1935–1935)
  • Northrop A-17 (1936–1940)
  • YA-19 (1936–1940)
  • Douglas B-18 Bolo]] (1939–1940)
  • Douglas B-23 Dragon (1940–1941)
  • North American B-25 Mitchell (1941–1942)
  • Martin B-26 Marauder (1942–1945)
  • Douglas B-26 Invader, (1952–1956)
  • Martin B-57B Canberra (1955–1956)
  • Douglas B-66 Destroyer (1956–1958)
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress (1963–1976, 1992–1994)
  • Rockwell B-1 Lancer (1994 – present)[1]

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Regular Army Inactive units had Organized Reserve officers assigned although they remained on the inactive list.
  2. ^ The squadron was allotted to the Sixth Corps Area until 28 February 1927 and the Ninth Corps Area until 1 September 1928. It was assigned in inactive status to the 8th Pursuit Group until 1 September 1928, then the 17th Pursuit Group until activated. Clay, p. 1399.
  3. ^ While in Regular Army Inactive status from 1929 to 1931, reserve officers performed their summer training at Kelly Field. Clay, p. 1399.
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Haulman, Daniel (9 October 2015). "Factsheet 34 Bomb Squadron (AFGSC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gorrell, Series E, Volume 7, History of the 30th–37th Aero Squadrons.
  3. ^ Order of Battle of the United States Land Forces in the World War
  4. ^ Gorrell, Series D, Weekly Statistical Reports of Air Service Activities, October 1918 – May 1919.
  5. ^ a b Clay, p. 1399
  6. ^ Editor, "New Airplanes For 17th Attack Group", Air Corps News Letter, Information Division, Air Corps, Munitions Building, Washington, D.C., 15 July 1936, Volume XIX, Number 14, page 4.
  7. ^ https://www.scribd.com/document/76986615/Air-Force-News-Jul-Dec-1936
  8. ^ a b c Baugher, Joe. "B-25 Mitchell". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  9. ^ a b "17th Bomb Group WWII Stories". 17th/452nd Bomb Wing/Group. 11 August 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  10. ^ a b Baugher, Joe (29 December 2006). "A-26/B-26 Invader in USAAF/USAF Service". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  11. ^ Baugher, Joe (21 June 2000). "Martin B-57B". joebaugher.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  12. ^ Baugher, Joe (8 April 2001). "Douglas B-66B Destroyer". joebaugher.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  13. ^ Staff, no byline (7 May 2011). "34th Bomb Squadron (34th BS)". Globalsecurity.com. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
  14. ^ a b Lineage, including assignments, in Haulman, Factsheet 34 Bomb Squadron, except as noted.
  15. ^ Station number in Johnson.

Bibliography

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

17th Bombardment Group

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The Group is a direct successor to the 17th Pursuit Group, one of the 15 original combat air groups formed by the Army before World War II. The 17th's heritage traces back to World War I, when the 95th Aero Squadron played a key role in the St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne, and other Allied campaigns. These battles are symbolized by the seven pattee crosses on the 17th's shield, and it was from the 95th, together with the 34th and 73d Pursuit Squadrons, that the 17th first was formed.

The Group's aircraft and many of its aircrews took part in the 1942 Doolittle Raid on Imperial Japan came from the 17th Bombardment Group. During World War II the 17th Bomb Group was the only combat organization to fight all three of the Axis powers (Japan,Italy, and Germany) on three continents (Asia, Africa, and Europe).

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28th Bomb Wing

The 28th Bomb Wing is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Eighth Air Force (8 AF) of the Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC) and is stationed at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota. The wing is also the "host unit" at Ellsworth AFB.

The wing is one of only two B-1B Lancer strategic bomber wings in the United States Air Force, the other being the 7th Bomb Wing at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas.

Active for over 60 years, the 28th was a component wing of Strategic Air Command's deterrent force throughout the Cold War.

The 28th Bomb Wing has been commanded by Colonel John R. Edwards since September 2017. The previous commander was Colonel Gentry Boswell from 2015-2017; its Command Chief Master Sergeant is CMSgt Adam Vizi.

28th Operations Group

The 28th Operations Group is the flying component of the United States Air Force 28th Bomb Wing, stationed at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota.

The group controls two Rockwell B-1B Lancer bomb squadrons, and provides combat-ready aircrews to project global power anytime in support of the Combatant Commander's objectives.

The group carries the lineage and history of the World War II 28th Bombardment Group, which was one of the primary units assigned to Eleventh Air Force during the Aleutian Campaign. The group helped force the withdrawal of Japanese ships that attacked Dutch Harbor in June 1942, and flew missions against Kiska until the Japanese evacuated that island in August 1943.

In the postwar era, the 28th Bombardment Group was one of the first USAAF units assigned to the Strategic Air Command on 4 August 1946, prior to the establishment of the United States Air Force. The group being activated as a redesignation of the 449th Bombardment Group due to the Air Force's policy of retaining only low-numbered groups on active duty after the war.

The group was inactivated in 1952 when the parent wing adopted the Tri-Deputate organization and assigned all of the groups squadrons directly to the wing.

Reactivated as the 28th Operations Group in 1991 when the 28th Bomb Wing adopted the USAF Objective organization plan.

366th Fighter Wing

The 366th Fighter Wing (366 FW) is a fighter wing of the United States Air Force Air Combat Command stationed at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho.

366th Operations Group

The 366th Operations Group (366 OG) is the flying component of the 366th Fighter Wing, assigned to the United States Air Force Air Combat Command. The group is stationed at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho.

37th Bomb Squadron

The 37th Bomb Squadron is part of the 28th Bomb Wing at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota. It operates Rockwell B-1 Lancer aircraft providing strategic bombing capability.

The squadron is one of the oldest in the United States Air Force, its origins dating to 13 June 1917, when the 37th Aero Squadron was organized at Kelly Field, Texas. The squadron deployed to France as part of the American Expeditionary Force during World War I and served as a training unit until returning to the US for demobilization. It was active in the interwar years at Langley Field, Virginia as a pursuit and attack squadron.

The squadron saw combat as the 37th Bombardment Squadron, a Martin B-26 Marauder unit in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations during World War II, earning two Distinguished Unit Citations (DUC) for its performance. It was inactivated after the war's end, although it was briefly active as a paper unit in 1947-1948.

The squadron was again activated during the Korean War, when it replaced a reserve unit that was being returned to reserve duty. Flying night intruder missions with Douglas B-26 Invaders, the squadron earned another DUC before the truce in July 1953. In 1955 it returned to the United States and became one of the first jet tactical bomber units, flying Martin B-57 Canberras and Douglas B-66 Destroyers. After a brief deployment to England, the squadron once again inactivated.

In 1977, the 37th became part of the Strategic Air Command, flying Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses until 1982. It assumed its present role in 1987.

The squadron is an honorary member of the NATO Tiger Association

Air Force Global Strike Command

Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC) is a Major Command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. AFGSC provides combat-ready forces to conduct strategic nuclear deterrence and global strike operations in support of combatant commanders. It is subordinated to the USSTRATCOM.

Air Force Global Strike Command is the direct descendant unit of the Cold War-era Strategic Air Command (SAC). It holds the lineage, history and honors of SAC.

Al Udeid Air Base

Al Udeid Air Base (Arabic:قاعدة العديد الجوية) is a military base southwest of Doha, Qatar, also known as Abu Nakhlah Airport (Arabic:مطار أبو نخلة). It houses Qatari Air Force, U.S. Air Force, Royal Air Force, and other Gulf War Coalition personnel and assets. It is host to a forward headquarters of United States Central Command, headquarters of United States Air Forces Central Command, No. 83 Expeditionary Air Group RAF, and the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing of the USAF. In 1999, the then Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad, told U.S. officials that he would like to see as many as 10,000 U.S. servicemen permanently stationed at Al Udeid. According to media reports in June 2017, the base hosted over 11,000 U.S. and U.S.-led anti-ISIL coalition forces and over 100 operational aircraft.

Antonio Maldonado

Brigadier General Antonio Maldonado (born 1941), was an officer of the United States Air Force, who in 1967 became the youngest pilot and Aircraft Commander of a B-52 Stratofortress nuclear bomber. He served as Chief, U.S. Office of Defense Cooperation, Madrid, Spain. He was the senior Department of Defense representative to Spain and senior advisor to the US Ambassador to Spain. During the Persian Gulf War in 1991 he coordinated the overall US offensive operations from Spain.

Edward A. Rice Jr.

General Edward A. Rice, Jr, USAF (born 1955) was the 30th Commander, Air Education and Training Command (AETC), Randolph Air Force Base, Texas. As commander, he was responsible for the recruiting, training and education of all US Airmen. His command included the Air Force Recruiting Service, two numbered air forces and Air University. Air Education and Training Command consists of 12 bases, more than 70,600 active duty, reserve, guard, civilians and contractors, and 1,380 trainer, fighter and mobility aircraft. He relinquished command of AETC to General Robin Rand on October 10, 2013.He previously served as Commander, United States Forces Japan and Fifth Air Force, Vice Commander, Pacific Air Forces, Commander, 13th Air Force, and Commander, Kenney Headquarters (P), Hickam AFB, Hawaii until October 2006. He served as a White House Fellow at the Department of Health and Human Services, as a professional staff member for the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces, and as the Deputy Executive Secretary for the National Security Council. He received the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Legion of Merit, and others.

Ellsworth Air Force Base

Ellsworth Air Force Base (AFB) (IATA: RCA, ICAO: KRCA, FAA LID: RCA) is a United States Air Force base located about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Rapid City, South Dakota, just north of the town of Box Elder.

The host unit at Ellsworth is the 28th Bomb Wing (28 BW) assigned to the Global Strike Command's Eighth Air Force. The 28 BW is one of the Air Force's two B-1B Lancer wings (the other is the 7th Bomb Wing at Dyess AFB, Texas). As of 2017, the 28th Bomb Wing is commanded by Colonel John Edwards; its Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sergeant Adam Vizi.An expansion of a bomber training area encompassing the Northern Plains known as the Powder River Training Complex began in 2008.

List of American aero squadrons

This is a partial list of original Air Service, United States Army "Aero Squadrons" before and during World War I. Units formed after 1 January 1919 are not listed.

Aero Squadrons were the designation of the first United States Army aviation units until the end of World War I. These units consisted of combat flying, training, ground support, construction and other components of the Air Service. After World War I ended, the majority of these squadrons were demobilized. Some however were retained during the interwar period of the 1920s and 1930s, and served in all theaters of operation during World War II. Today, the oldest squadrons in the United States Air Force and Air National Guard can trace their lineage back to the original Aero Squadrons of World War I.

List of United States Air Force bomb squadrons

This is a list of United States Air Force Bomb Squadrons. It covers all squadrons that were constituted or redesignated as bombardment squadron sometime during their active service. Today Bomb Squadrons are considered to be part of the Combat Air Force (CAF) along with fighter squadrons. Units in this list are assigned to nearly every Major Command in the United States Air Force. All the active Bomb Squadrons are in Bold.

List of active United States Air Force aircraft squadrons

This is an organized incomplete list of all of the active aircraft squadrons that currently exist in the United States Air Force, sorted by type. Most squadrons have changed names and designations many times over the years, so they are listed by their current designation.

To see all USAF squadrons, regardless of active or not, go to the List of United States Air Force squadrons.

Mountain Home Air Force Base

Mountain Home Air Force Base (IATA: MUO, ICAO: KMUO, FAA LID: MUO) is a United States Air Force installation in the western United States. Located in southwestern Idaho in Elmore County, the base is twelve miles (20 km) southwest of Mountain Home, which is forty miles (65 km) southeast of Boise via Interstate 84. The base is also used by the Republic of Singapore Air Force, which has a detachment of F-15SG fighters on long term assignment to the base. They undergo training in combat tactics by U.S. airmen.

The host unit at Mountain Home since 1972 has been the 366th Fighter Wing (366 FW) of the Air Combat Command (ACC), nicknamed the "Gunfighters." The base's primary mission is to provide combat airpower and combat support capabilities to respond to and sustain worldwide contingency operations.

Constructed in the early 1940s during World War II as a training base for bombers, after the war it briefly had transports, then was a bomber and missile base. It became a fighter base 53 years ago in 1966.

Part of the base is a census-designated place (CDP); the population was 3,238 at the 2010 census.

Rockwell B-1 Lancer

The Rockwell B-1 Lancer is a supersonic variable-sweep wing, heavy bomber used by the United States Air Force. It is commonly called the "Bone" (from "B-One"). It is one of three strategic bombers in the U.S. Air Force fleet as of 2018, the other two being the B-2 Spirit and the B-52 Stratofortress.

The B-1 was first envisioned in the 1960s as a platform that would combine the Mach 2 speed of the B-58 Hustler with the range and payload of the B-52, and would ultimately replace both bombers. After a long series of studies, Rockwell International (now part of Boeing) won the design contest for what emerged as the B-1A. This version had a top speed of Mach 2.2 at high altitude and the capability of flying for long distances at Mach 0.85 at very low altitudes. The combination of the high cost of the aircraft, the introduction of the AGM-86 cruise missile that flew the same basic profile, and early work on the stealth bomber all significantly affected the need for the B-1. This led to the program being canceled in 1977, after the B-1A prototypes had been built.

The program was restarted in 1981, largely as an interim measure until the stealth bomber entered service. This led to a redesign as the B-1B, which had lower top speed at high altitude of Mach 1.25, but improved low-altitude performance of Mach 0.96. The electronics were also extensively improved during the redesign, and the airframe was improved to allow takeoff with the maximum possible fuel and weapons load. The B-1B began deliveries in 1986 and formally entered service with Strategic Air Command (SAC) as a nuclear bomber in 1986. By 1988, all 100 aircraft had been delivered.

In the early 1990s, following the Gulf War and concurrent with the disestablishment of SAC and its reassignment to the newly formed Air Combat Command, the B-1B was converted to conventional bombing use. It first served in combat during Operation Desert Fox in 1998 and again during the NATO action in Kosovo the following year. The B-1B has supported U.S. and NATO military forces in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Air Force had 66 B-1Bs in service as of September 2012. The B-1B is expected to continue to serve into the 2030s, with the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider to begin replacing the B-1B after 2025. The B-1s currently in inventory will be retired by 2036.

William G. Farrow

William Glover Farrow (24 September 1918 – 15 October 1942) was a lieutenant in the United States Army Air Corps who participated in the Doolittle Raid. In February 1942, he volunteered to participate in the Doolittle Raid, which took place in April of that year. Farrow was captured by the Japanese after the completion of his bombing mission. He was tried and, along with two other crew members, sentenced to death and executed by firing squad. His ashes were recovered and interred in the Arlington National Cemetery in 1946, and he posthumously received multiple awards.

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