312

Year 312 (CCCXII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Constantinus and Licinianus (or, less frequently, year 1065 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 312 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. 312 (CCCXII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 312th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 312th year of the 1st millennium, the 12th year of the 4th century, and the 3rd year of the 310s decade. As of the start of 312, the Gregorian calendar was 1 day ahead of the Julian calendar, which was the dominant calendar of the time.

Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
312 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar312
CCCXII
Ab urbe condita1065
Assyrian calendar5062
Balinese saka calendar233–234
Bengali calendar−281
Berber calendar1262
Buddhist calendar856
Burmese calendar−326
Byzantine calendar5820–5821
Chinese calendar辛未(Metal Goat)
3008 or 2948
    — to —
壬申年 (Water Monkey)
3009 or 2949
Coptic calendar28–29
Discordian calendar1478
Ethiopian calendar304–305
Hebrew calendar4072–4073
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat368–369
 - Shaka Samvat233–234
 - Kali Yuga3412–3413
Holocene calendar10312
Iranian calendar310 BP – 309 BP
Islamic calendar320 BH – 319 BH
Javanese calendar192–193
Julian calendar312
CCCXII
Korean calendar2645
Minguo calendar1600 before ROC
民前1600年
Nanakshahi calendar−1156
Seleucid era623/624 AG
Thai solar calendar854–855
Tibetan calendar阴金羊年
(female Iron-Goat)
438 or 57 or −715
    — to —
阳水猴年
(male Water-Monkey)
439 or 58 or −714

Events

By place

Roman Empire

By topic

Religion

  • Constantine I adopts the words "in hoc signo vinces" as a motto and have the letters X and P (the first letters of the Greek word Christ) emblazoned on the shields of his soldiers.
  • The Council of Carthage supports Donatism, which espouses a rigorous application and interpretation of the sacraments. These doctrines will be condemned by the Council of Arles (314).
  • Constantine I promotes a policy of state sponsorship of Christianity, perhaps even becoming a Christian himself (see Constantine the Great and Christianity).

Births

Deaths

ATR 42

The ATR 42 is a twin-turboprop, short-haul regional airliner developed and manufactured in France and Italy by ATR (Aerei da Trasporto Regionale or Avions de transport régional), a joint venture formed by French aerospace company Aérospatiale (now Airbus) and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia (now Leonardo S.p.A.). The number "42" in its name is derived from the aircraft's standard seating configuration in a passenger-carrying configuration, which typically varies between 40 and 52 passengers.

During the 1980s, French aerospace company Aérospatiale and Italian aviation conglomerate Aeritalia merged their separate work upon a new generation of regional aircraft together. For this purpose, a new jointly owned company was established, ATR, for the purpose of developing, manufacturing, and marketing their first airliner, which was later designated as the ATR 42. On 16 August 1984, the first model of the series, designated as the ATR 42–300, performed the type's maiden flight. Type certification from French and Italian aviation authorities was granted during September 1985, and the aircraft performed its first revenue-earning flight, operated by launch customer Air Littoral, during December of that year.

To date, all of the ATR series have been manufactured at the company's final assembly line in Toulouse, France; ATR benefits from its sharing of resources and technology with Airbus SE, which has continued to hold a 50 percent stake in the company. Improved models of the aircraft have been introduced, incorporating new avionics such as a glass cockpit, and the adoption of newer engine versions for enhanced performance, such as increased efficiency and reliability along with reductions in operational costs. The aircraft serves as the basis for the larger ATR 72, which was also developed during the late 1980s to complement its smaller sibling. The ATR 42 and ATR 72 have been produced side-by-side for decades.

Airbus A340

The Airbus A340 is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus. The A340 was assembled in Toulouse, France. It seats up to 375 passengers in the standard variants and 440 in the stretched -600 series. Depending on the model, it has a range of 6,700 to 9,000 nautical miles (12,400 to 16,700 km; 7,700 to 10,400 mi). Its distinguishing features are four high-bypass turbofan engines and three leg main landing gear.

The A340 was manufactured in four fuselage lengths. The initial variant, A340-300, which entered service in 1993, measured 63.69 metres (209.0 ft). The shorter -200 was developed next, and the A340-600 was a 15.96 metres (52.4 ft) stretch of the -200. The -600 was developed alongside the shorter A340-500, which would become the longest-range commercial airliner until the arrival of the Boeing 777-200LR. The -200 and -300 models were powered by the 151 kilonewtons (34,000 lbf) CFM56-5C, while the 267-kilonewton (60,000 lbf) Rolls-Royce Trent 500 was the exclusive powerplant for the extended-range -500 and -600 models. The initial A340-200 and -300 variants share the fuselage and wing of the twin-engine Airbus A330 with which it was concurrently designed. The heavier A340-500 and -600 are stretched and have enlarged wings.Launch customers Lufthansa and Air France placed the A340 into service in March 1993. In September 2011, 379 orders had been placed (not including private operators), of which 375 were delivered. The most common type were the A340-300 model, with 218 aircraft delivered. Lufthansa is the biggest operator of the A340, having acquired 59 aircraft. The A340 is used on long-haul, trans-oceanic routes due to its immunity from ETOPS restrictions; however, with reliability and fuel efficiency in engines improving, airlines have gradually phased out the type in favour of more economical twinjets of comparable capacity such as the Boeing 777, while Airbus has positioned the larger variants of the Airbus A350 as a successor. Airbus announced on 10 November 2011 that A340 production had been concluded.

Amniote

Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals. Amniotes lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother, and are distinguished from the anamniotes (fishes and amphibians), which typically lay their eggs in water. Older sources, particularly prior to the 20th century, may refer to amniotes as "higher vertebrates" and anamniotes as "lower vertebrates", based on the discredited idea of the evolutionary great chain of being.

Amniotes are tetrapods (descendants of four-limbed and backboned animals) that are characterised by having an egg equipped with an amnion, an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as the anamniotes (including frogs) typically do. Amniotes include synapsids (mammals along with their extinct kin) and sauropsids (reptiles and birds), as well as their ancestors, back to amphibians. Amniote embryos, whether laid as eggs or carried by the female, are protected and aided by several extensive membranes. In eutherian mammals (such as humans), these membranes include the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus. These embryonic membranes and the lack of a larval stage distinguish amniotes from tetrapod amphibians.The first amniotes, referred to as "basal amniotes", resembled small lizards and evolved from the amphibian reptiliomorphs about 312 million years ago, in the Carboniferous geologic period. Their eggs could survive out of the water, allowing amniotes to branch out into drier environments. The eggs could also "breathe" and cope with wastes, allowing the eggs and the amniotes themselves to evolve into larger forms.

The amniotic egg represents a critical divergence within the vertebrates, one enabling amniotes to reproduce on dry land—free of the need to return to water for reproduction as required of the amphibians. From this point the amniotes spread around the globe, eventually to become the dominant land vertebrates. Very early in their evolutionary history, basal amniotes diverged into two main lines, the synapsids and the sauropsids, both of which persist into the modern era. The oldest known fossil synapsid is Protoclepsydrops from about 312 million years ago, while the oldest known sauropsid is probably Paleothyris, in the order Captorhinida, from the Middle Pennsylvanian epoch (c. 306–312 million years ago).

Can-Am 500

The Can-Am 500 is a Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series stock car race held at ISM Raceway in Avondale, Arizona. It is one of five NASCAR races run with a length measured in kilometers; the TicketGuardian 500 at Phoenix and the three road course events (Toyota/Save Mart 350, Go Bowling at The Glen and Bank of America Roval 400) are the others.

China National Highway 312

China National Highway 312 (312国道), also referred to as Route 312 or The Mother Road, is a key east-west route beginning in Shanghai and ending at Khorgas, Xinjiang in the Ili River valley, on the border with Kazakhstan. In total it spans 4,967 km (3,086 mi), passing through Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Shaanxi, Gansu before ending in Xinjiang. Besides Shanghai, cities of note on the route include Suzhou, Wuxi, Nanjing, Hefei, Xinyang, Nanyang, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Jiayuguan and Ürümqi.

It theoretically starts at People's Square, the Zero-Kilometre point for all highways starting in Shanghai, but the first part of the road, Cao-An Highway, starts at Cao-Yang New Village.The road was the subject of Rob Gifford's 2007 book China Road, in which he describes traveling the entire length of Route 312 from the East China Sea to Central Asia.The G40 Shanghai–Xi'an Expressway has replaced National Highway 312 as the main route between those two cities.

German submarine U-312

German submarine U-312 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 10 April 1942 at the Flender Werke yard at Lübeck as yard number 312, launched on 27 February 1943 and commissioned on 21 April under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Kurt-Heinz Nicolay.

During her career, the U-boat sailed on eight combat patrols, but sank no ships. She surrendered in May 1945 and was sunk as part of Operation Deadlight, in November 1945.She was a member of eight wolfpacks.

ISM Raceway

ISM Raceway is a 1-mile, low-banked tri-oval race track located in Avondale, Arizona, near Phoenix. The motorsport track opened in 1964 and currently hosts two NASCAR race weekends annually. ISM Raceway has also hosted the CART, IndyCar Series, USAC and the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. The raceway is currently owned and operated by International Speedway Corporation.

The raceway was originally constructed with a 2.5 miles (4.0 km) road course that ran on both the inside and the outside of the main tri-oval. In 1991 the track was reconfigured with the current 1.51 miles (2.43 km) interior layout. ISM Raceway currently has an estimated grandstand seating capacity of around 51,000. Lights were installed around the track in 2004 following the addition of a second annual NASCAR race weekend.

ISM Raceway is home to two annual NASCAR race weekends, one of 13 facilities on the NASCAR schedule to host more than one race weekend a year.

List of Royal Air Force ferry units

This is a List of Royal Air Force ferry units.

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 312

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 312 of the United States Reports:

Sibbach v. Wilson & Co., 312 U.S. 1 (1941)

Gorin v. United States, 312 U.S. 19 (1941)

United States v. Cowden Mfg. Co., 312 U.S. 34 (1941)

A. C. Frost & Co. v. Coeur D'Alene Mines Corp., 312 U.S. 38 (1941)

Beal v. Missouri Pacific R. Corp., 312 U.S. 45 (1941)

Hines v. Davidowitz, 312 U.S. 52 (1941)

Reconstruction Finance Corporation v. J. G. Menihan Corp., 312 U.S. 81 (1941)

United States v. Gilliland, 312 U.S. 86 (1941)

Rawlings v. Ray, 312 U.S. 96 (1941)

United States v. Darby, 312 U.S. 100 (1941)

OPP Cotton Mills, Inc. v. Administrator of Wage and Hour Div., Dept. of Labor, 312 U.S. 126 (1941)

Palmer v. Webster and Atlas Nat. Bank of Boston, 312 U.S. 156 (1941)

Philadelphia Co. v. Dipple, 312 U.S. 168 (1941)

Superior Bath House Co. v. McCarroll, 312 U.S. 176 (1941)

Huron Holding Corp. v. Lincoln Mine Operating Co., 312 U.S. 183 (1941)

Armour & Co. v. Alton R. Co., 312 U.S. 195 (1941)

United States v. Goltra, 312 U.S. 203 (1941)

Higgins v. Commissioner, 312 U.S. 212 (1941)

United States v. Hutcheson, 312 U.S. 219 (1941)

Phillips v. United States, 312 U.S. 246 (1941)

Guggenheim v. Rasquin, 312 U.S. 254 (1941)

Powers v. Commissioner, 312 U.S. 259 (1941)

United States v. Ryerson, 312 U.S. 260 (1941)

Woods v. City Nat. Bank & Trust Co. of Chicago, 312 U.S. 262 (1941)

Maryland Casualty Co. v. Pacific Coal & Oil Co., 312 U.S. 270 (1941)

Walker v. Johnston, 312 U.S. 275 (1941)

Milk Wagon Drivers v. Meadowmoor Dairies, Inc., 312 U.S. 287 (1941)

AFL v. Swing, 312 U.S. 321 (1941)

Smith v. O'Grady, 312 U.S. 329 (1941)

Browder v. United States, 312 U.S. 335 (1941)

Warszower v. United States, 312 U.S. 342 (1941)

FTC v. Bunte Brothers, Inc., 312 U.S. 349 (1941)

Nelson v. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 312 U.S. 359 (1941)

Nelson v. Montgomery Ward & Co., 312 U.S. 373 (1941)

Kelleam v. Maryland Casualty Co. of Baltimore, 312 U.S. 377 (1941)

Just v. Chambers, 312 U.S. 383 (1941)

Helvering v. Hutchings, 312 U.S. 393 (1941)

United States v. Pelzer, 312 U.S. 399 (1941)

Ryerson v. United States, 312 U.S. 405 (1941)

Equitable Life Ins. Co. of Iowa v. Halsey, Stuart & Co., 312 U.S. 410 (1941)

NLRB v. Express Publishing Co., 312 U.S. 426 (1941)

Maass v. Higgins, 312 U.S. 443 (1941)

Berry v. United States, 312 U.S. 450 (1941)

Fashion Originators' Guild of America, Inc. v. FTC, 312 U.S. 457 (1941)

Millinery Creator's Guild, Inc. v. FTC, 312 U.S. 469 (1941)

Edwards v. United States, 312 U.S. 473 (1941)

Breisch v. Central R. Co. of N. J., 312 U.S. 484 (1941)

Conway v. O'Brien, 312 U.S. 492 (1941)

Railroad Comm'n of Tex. v. Pullman Co., 312 U.S. 496 (1941)

Missouri-Kansas Pipe Line Co. v. United States, 312 U.S. 502 (1941)

Consolidated Rock Products Co. v. Du Bois, 312 U.S. 510 (1941)

Helvering v. Le Gierse, 312 U.S. 531 (1941)

Estate of Keller v. Commissioner, 312 U.S. 543 (1941)

Ex parte Hull, 312 U.S. 546 (1941)

Hormel v. Helvering, 312 U.S. 552 (1941)

Helvering v. Richter, 312 U.S. 561 (1941)

Metropolitan Casualty Ins. Co. v. Stevens, 312 U.S. 563 (1941)

Cox v. New Hampshire, 312 U.S. 569 (1941)

Harrison v. Schaffner, 312 U.S. 579 (1941)

United States v. Sherwood, 312 U.S. 584 (1941)

United States v. Chicago, M., St. P. & P. R. Co., 312 U.S. 592 (1941)

United States v. Cooper Corp., 312 U.S. 600 (1941)

Public Serv. Comm'n of Mo. v. Brashear Freight Lines, Inc., 312 U.S. 621 (1941)

Moore v. Illinois Central R. Co., 312 U.S. 630 (1941)

Helvering v. Estate of Enright, 312 U.S. 636 (1941)

Pfaff v. Commissioner, 312 U.S. 646 (1941)

List of fastest production motorcycles

The fastest production motorcycle for a given year is the unmodified motorcycle with the highest tested top speed that was manufactured in series and available for purchase by the general public. Modified or specially produced motorcycles are a different class, motorcycle land-speed record. Unlike those records, which are officially sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM), production model tests were conducted under a variety of unequal or undefined conditions, and tested by numerous different sources, mainly motorcycling magazines. This has led to inconsistent and sometimes contradictory speed statistics from various sources.

List of secondary state highways in Virginia

This is a partial list of secondary state highways in the U.S. state of Virginia. The numbers begin with 600 and can go into five digits in populous counties such as Fairfax County. The same number can be, and often is, assigned to secondary roads in more than one county. Because of the sheer number of secondary routes, this list is not intended to be a complete list.

For information about the creation and history of Virginia's Secondary Roads System, see article Byrd Road Act.

Maxentius

Maxentius (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus; c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. He was the son of former Emperor Maximian and the son-in-law of Emperor Galerius. The latter part of his reign was preoccupied with civil war, allying with Maximinus II against Licinius and Constantine. The latter defeated him at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312, where Maxentius, with his army in flight, purportedly perished by drowning in the Tiber river.

MoneyLion 300

The MoneyLion 300 is a NASCAR Xfinity Series race held at Talladega Superspeedway, a 300 mile race, It is held annually before the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series race, the GEICO 500.

From its inception in 1992 through 1996, the race was held in the summer, as a support race to the Alabama 500. When the DieHard 500 moved to the fall, this race moved to the spring, as a support race to the spring race, the GEICO 500.

Large wrecks involving 20 or more cars have occurred a number of times in the history of the event, most notably in 2002, when 30 cars were involved in an accident on the backstretch on lap 14, with 19 of them knocked out at that point. The remainder of the race, following a long red-flag period, had little resemblance to typical restrictor plate racing as only two cars were within short distance at the checkered flag and only three finished on the lead lap.

National Highway 312 (India)

National Highway 312, commonly referred to as NH 312 is a national highway in India. It is a secondary route of National Highway 12. NH-312 runs in the state of West Bengal in India.

No. 312 (Czechoslovak) Squadron RAF

No. 312 Squadron RAF was a Czechoslovak-manned fighter squadron of the Royal Air Force in the Second World War.

Rinnai 250

The Rinnai 250 is a NASCAR Xfinity Series stock car race held at Atlanta Motor Speedway in Hampton, Georgia, a few miles south of Atlanta. This race has long served as Atlanta's lone Busch/Nationwide Series date, and has been shuffled around the schedule several times. From its inception until 2001 the race was run as part of Atlanta's spring Winston Cup race weekend, as the then-Busch Series ended its season at a different track than the then-Winston Cup series.

Following the transfer of the season ending Cup series race from Atlanta to Homestead-Miami Speedway after the 2001 season (although due to extenuating circumstances the 2001 Atlanta fall race was not the final race of the season), the then 312-mile race was moved to Atlanta's fall race weekend where it remained until Aaron's Rental, who was sponsoring the race, chose instead to sponsor the lone Busch event at Talladega. The race gained sponsorship from GlaxoSmithKline through its Nicorette brand and moved back to its traditional spring date.

In September 2008, NASCAR officials announced that Nicorette would not renew its corporate sponsorship for race after the 2008 season. On October 26, 2008 it was announced that Unilever's deodorant brand Degree will take over sponsorship of this race starting in 2009. It was later announced that the now-Degree V12 300 would be moving to September as part of the latest round of NASCAR realignment, which resulted in the Pep Boys Auto 500, the AMP Energy 500 at Talladega, and the Pepsi 500 at Fontana trading places. The Degree V12 300 took the place of the Camping World RV Service 300 on NASCAR's Labor Day weekend race schedule and serves as an accompanying race to the AdvoCare 500.

In 2015, the Xfinity race at Atlanta moved along with the Cup race (Folds of Honor QuikTrip 500) to the second weekend of the season and ran as a doubleheader on Saturday afternoon along with the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. The race was also reduced to 250 miles in order to make the race a doubleheader on the same day.Jeff Gordon, Mike Skinner, Jamie McMurray, and Carl Edwards got their first series wins at Atlanta.

Rural Municipality of Morris No. 312

Morris No. 312 is a rural municipality in north-central Saskatchewan, Canada on the South Saskatchewan River. It is located in Division No. 15.

According to the Canada 2001 Census:

Population: 410

% Change (1996-2001): -8.5

Dwellings: 160

Area (km²): 847.17

Density (persons per km²): .5

Saskatchewan Highway 312

Highway 312 is a highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Highway 12 to Highway 2 near Wakaw. Highway 312 is about 78 km (48 mi) long.

Highway 312 passes near Waldheim, Laird, and Rosthern. It also connects with Highways 683, 11, and 225.

Siemens Desiro

The Siemens Desiro is a family of diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains developed by Siemens Mobility, a division of the German Siemens AG conglomerate. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML, Desiro UK and the later Desiro City, Desiro HC and Desiro RUS. The trains are mostly used for commuter and regional services, and their rapid acceleration makes them suitable for services with short distances between stations. The design is flexible, and has become common in many European countries.

TicketGuardian 500

The TicketGuardian 500 is a Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series stock car race held annually at ISM Raceway in Avondale, Arizona. The 312 lap event is one of only four Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series events measured in kilometers rather than miles or laps (joining the fall Phoenix race and both road course events). The 500-kilometer (310 mi) race currently starts at 3:30 p.m. EST and finishes during the day.

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