2nd Division (Australia)

The 2nd Division commands all the Reserve brigades in Australia. These are the 4th in Victoria, the 5th in New South Wales, the 9th in South Australia and Tasmania, the 11th in Queensland, the 13th in Western Australia, and the 8th spread across the country. The division is also responsible for the security of Australia's northern borders through its Regional Force Surveillance Units.

The division was first formed in Egypt in July 1915 during World War I as part of the First Australian Imperial Force (1st AIF). The division took part in the Gallipoli campaign, arriving in the latter stages and then traversed to the Western Front in France and Belgium where it had the distinction of taking part in the final ground action fought by Australian troops in the war. After the war ended and the AIF was demobilised, the 2nd Division name was revived and assigned to a Citizens Military Forces (reserve) unit in 1921.

During the inter-war years, the division was based in New South Wales with its headquarters Parramatta. During World War II, the 2nd Division undertook defensive duties on the east coast until mid-1942 when it was sent to Western Australia. In May 1944, the division was disbanded as the war situation no longer required large numbers of garrison troops to be held back in Australia. Post war, the division was re-raised in 1948, and except for a period from 1960 to 1965, the division has existed in one form or another since then.

2nd Division
2nd Division Australia logo
Active1915–1919
1921–1944
1948–1960
1965–present
CountryAustralia
BranchAustralian Army Reserve
TypeReserve division
Size6 brigades ~11,000 soldiers
March'Pozieres' (arr Allis)
EngagementsWorld War I
Commanders
Current
commander
Major General Kathryn Campbell
Notable
commanders
Major General Sir Charles Rosenthal
Major General Iven Mackay
Major General Herbert Lloyd
Insignia
2nd aus div

World War I

Gallipoli, 1915


The Australian 2nd Division was formed from reinforcements training in Egypt on 26 July 1915 as part of the Australian Imperial Force, which has been raised to fight in World War I.[2] The division was formed from three brigades – the 5th, 6th and 7th[2] – that had been raised independently in Australia (in February and April 1915), and sent to Egypt (in May and June 1915) for further training. Initially, it was intended that the division's commander would be James McCay, but he was wounded on 11 July, and repatriated back to Australia after the death of both his wife and father.[3] As a result, the command of the division went to Lieutenant-General Gordon Legge.[2]

Due to the pressing need for more soldiers for the Gallipoli Campaign, parts of the 2nd Division was sent to Anzac Cove in mid-August 1915,[2] despite the fact that the division was only partially trained. There, they reinforced the 1st Division and the New Zealand and Australian Division. The rest of the division arrived by early September. The 2nd Division held a quiet stretch of the original line (as a majority of the fighting was taking place north of ANZAC Cove), and only a part of the division (the 18th Battalion) saw serious fighting during around Hill 60 on 22 August.[4] The 2nd Division was evacuated from the peninsula in December, returning to Egypt,[2] where it completed its training and formation while the 1st Division was split and used to raise two new divisions (the 4th and 5th) as the AIF was expanded prior to its departure to Europe to fight on the Western Front.[5] A pioneer battalion, designated the 2nd Pioneer Battalion, was added to the division at this time.[6]

Somme, 1916

The 2nd Division started to arrive in France in March 1916.[7] In April, it was sent (as part of the I Anzac Corps with the Australian 1st Division) to a quiet sector south of Armentières to acclimatise to the Western Front conditions.[2] In mid-July, with the British offensive on the Somme dragging on, I Anzac Corps was sent to join the British Reserve Army of Lieutenant General Hubert Gough who intended to use the Australian divisions to take the village of Pozières. Due to the casualties sustained by the Australian 1st Division's attack at Pozières on 23 July, it was replaced by the 2nd Division on 27 July. Continuing the effort started by the 1st Division, the 2nd Division attacked on 29 July. However, due to the hurried preparation, the troops forming up for the attack were detected and the supporting artillery proved inadequate, leaving large segments of wire in front of the German position intact. The division sustained approximately 3,500 casualties for little gain.[8]

Gibraltar bunker Pozieres (AWM EZ0098)
7th Brigade fatigue party passing the "Gibraltar" bunker, Pozières, August 1916.

After several days of disrupted preparations, the 2nd Division attacked again in the evening of 4 August, capturing the OG2 trench line and part of the crest. Alarmed by the loss of the defences (including the crest), the Germans initiated a counter-attack the following day, which the Australians repulsed. This was followed by a severe, sustained artillery bombardment that inflicted heavy casualties.[9] The position of the Australian salient meant that the soldiers received artillery fire from the front, flank and rear – including from German batteries near Thiepval.[10] After 12 days on the front line and sustaining 6,846 casualties,[11] the 2nd Division was relieved by the Australian 4th Division on 6 August.[9]

After a brief rest, the 2nd Division again relieved the Australian 1st Division from its position beyond Pozières (in front of Mouquet Farm) on 22 August (the Battle of Mouquet Farm). Attacking on 26 August, the 2nd Division succeeded in penetrating past the fortifications at Mouquet Farm only to be attacked from the rear as troops from the German Guards Reserve Corps emerged from the fortified underground positions at Mouquet Farm. These counterattacks succeeded in forcing the 2nd Division back from Mouquet Farm. After sustaining another 1,268 casualties, the 2nd Division was relieved by the Australian 4th Division on 26 August.[12]

Australian 6th Brigade marching Somme (AWM EZ0092)
Remnants of the 6th Brigade returning from Pozières, August 1916.

On 5 September, I Anzac was withdrawn from the Somme and sent to Ypres for rest. The division anticipated spending winter in Flanders. Throughout early October, the division undertook a number of minor raids in the sector, but in the middle of the month it was relieved by the British 21st Division and was recalled to the Somme for the final stages of the British offensive.[13] This time they joined the British Fourth Army, holding a sector south of Pozières near the village of Flers. Despite heavy mud, the Australians were required to mount a number of attacks around Gueudecourt,[14] with a brigade from the 2nd Division and a brigade from the 1st Division.[12] On 5 November, the 7th Brigade attacking the German series of trenches called "The Maze". While part of the German trenches were captured and held, the exhausted soldiers were ejected from their gains a few days later.[13] Two battalions of the 7th Brigade, along with two battalions from the 5th, attacked again on 14 November, but they were only partially successful in capturing parts of the "Gird" and "Gird Support" trenches immediately to the north of "The Maze". However, a German counterattack on 16 November succeeded in recapturing all of the trenches captured by the 2nd Division, which had sustained 1,720 casualties in the two attacks.[15][16]

German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line, 1917

In January 1917, Legge fell ill and was replaced by Major-General Nevill Maskelyne Smyth VC who had formerly commanded the Australian 1st Brigade since during the Gallipoli Campaign.[17] Legge returned to Australia to take up the post of Inspector General.[18] However, until Smyth was available, the division was temporarily commanded by the 6th Brigade commander, Brigadier-General John Gellibrand.[19] During this period, the division took part in the operations on the Ancre, participating in the capture of Thilloys.[20] The 2nd Division was relieved by the Australian 5th Division; however, by late February (during the German withdrawal to the prepared fortifications in the Hindenburg Line), elements of the 2nd Division were active in engaging the German rearguard as it fell back to the first fortified reserve position known to the British as the Loupart-Le Transloy Line, or the R.I. Stellung by the Germans.[21] The Germans had decided to temporarily hold the R.I. position, which was centred on the village of Bapaume, so on 25 February, the 5th and 6th Brigades mounted an unsuccessful attack on the "Malt" trench – an outpost in front of the R.I. position.[22]

Continual small attacks were conducted on the Malt Trench through 26 and 27 February, with a larger attack attempted on the 27th and 28th by the 7th Brigade. However, as the wire defences were undamaged, little headway could be made.[23] It was not until 2 March, when a combined attack was put in with the 5th and 7th Brigades,[24] and after sustained artillery fire had cut paths through the wire, that the 7th Brigade captured portions of Malt trench. This brought the 2nd Division close enough to be able to attack the R.I. position.[25] As the 2nd Division was preparing to attack the R.I. position in front of Loupart Wood (the attack was planned to commence on 13 March), it was discovered on 12 March, that the Germans had already withdrawn to the second reserve position R.II. Stellung centred on the crest of the ridge beyond Bapaume. R.II. was evacuated by the Germans on 17 March, as they withdrew to the Hindenburg Line.[26]

Starting on 17 March 1917, the 2nd Division was reorganised to pursue the German withdrawal, with the 6th Brigade chosen to lead the pursuit. On 20 March, the 6th Brigade attempted a hasty attack on the fortified village of Noreuil, which was beaten back with over 300 casualties.[27] However, the next attack on the fortified village of Lagnicourt on 26 March was successful,[28] with the German counter-attack on the same day defeated by the Australians. Soon after, the 2nd Division was relieved by Australian 4th Division. This formation conducted a second attack on the fortified village of Noreuil, which was captured on 2 April. With the capture of Noreuil (Louverval and Doignies were also taken by the Australian 5th Division on 2 April), the I Anzac Corps was within striking distance of the main Hindenburg defences.[29]

Aus 2nd Division troops in Bapaume Mar 1917
2nd Division troops in Bapaume, March 1917

Hindenburg Line, 1917

The 2nd Division was in support during the First Battle of Bullecourt, which was the Fifth Army's main contribution to the Arras offensive. Once the first attempt on Bullecourt had failed, the 2nd Division relieved the Australian 4th Division from in front of Bullecourt (a front of approximately 2,750 yd (2,510 m) on 13 April.[30]

As such, when the Germans launched a counter-stroke on 15 April in front of the village of Lagnicourt (the Battle of Lagnicourt), part of it fell on the 17th Battalion (which was holding the right flank of the 2nd Division), with the remainder falling on the 1st Division. The attack was strongest along the divisional boundary between the 1st and 2nd Divisions, and as a result the Germans managed to penetrate between the 17th Battalion and the neighbouring 12th Battalion and capture the village of Lagnicourt.[31] Counterattacks by the 5th Brigade (2nd Division) and 3rd Brigade (1st Division) managed to drive off the attacking Germans, and re-establish the original front line. During this battle, the 2nd Division experienced 305 casualties (of the 1,010 casualties experienced by the I Anzac Corps).[32]

On 3 May, the Second Battle of Bullecourt commenced with the 2nd Division – committing the 5th and 6th Brigades – attacking the two trench lines east of Bullecourt. The 5th Brigade made little progress, but the 6th Brigade seized parts of both trench lines.[33] Heavy counter attacks then fell against the 6th Brigade. In order to secure the 6th Brigade's left flank, the 7th Brigade, as the divisional reserve attacked.[34] The 6th Brigade held its position against numerous counterattacks, until relieved by elements of the 1st Division on 4 May. As they were withdrawn, a fourth counter-attack fell on the area, at which point the 6th rejoined the battle, helping to blunt this assault before finally departing.[35] Further attacks were conducted on 4 May and 6 May by brigades of the Australian 1st Division that were attached to the 2nd Division, supported by elements of the 2nd Division,[36] resulted in the capture of most of the first line of trenches. After repulsing a total of six German counterattacks,[37] the 5th Division arrived on 8/9 May,[38] continuing the fighting until 17 May.[33] For its part, the fighting around Bullecourt had cost the 2nd Division 3,898 casualties.[39]

Third Battle of Ypres, 1917

The 2nd Division was then sent to rest areas in the Somme region for reorganisation and training.[40] The 2nd Division's artillery was in action from the start of the Third Battle of Ypres on 22 July 1917, supporting the British 24th Division,[41] but the infantry were not called upon until the second phase of the battle commenced on 20 September with the Battle of Menin Road. Attacking along an 8-mile (13 km) front with ten other divisions,[42] including the Australian 1st Division on their right and the 9th (Scottish) Division on their left, the 2nd Division advanced an average of 1,000 yards (910 m), with the 5th Brigade on the left, and the 7th on the right.[43] The division sustained 2,259 casualties, and was relieved on 22 September by the Australian 4th Division, which then continued the offensive in the next the Battle of Polygon Wood.[44]

Relieving the British 3rd Infantry Division between 29 September and 1 October, the 2nd Division's task in the Battle of Broodseinde was to advance 1,800 to 1,900 yd (1,600 to 1,700 m), and to capture one of the ridgelines which dominated the Ypres Salient.[45] On 4 October, as the division was forming up for its attack, a heavy German bombardment fell on their assembly area, causing heavy casualties. A German attack then started at almost the same time as the Australian attack, resulting in the two attacking forces engaging each other in no-man's land.[46] After gaining the upper hand, the 2nd Division captured all of its objectives, sustaining 2,174 casualties.[47] This battle marked the peak of British success during 3rd Ypres, and with rain starting to fall on 3 October,[48] was the last successful action of the battle.[49]

With the rain becoming heavier, the conditions on the ground deteriorated. When the next attack (the Battle of Poelcappelle) started on 9 October the ground became difficult to traverse, resulting in difficulty bringing artillery and ammunition forward,[50] and the troops becoming exhausted moving up to their starting positions prior to the start of the attack The 2nd Division's role was for the left brigade to advance to protect the flank of the 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Division.[51] With the 6th and 7th Brigades heavily understrength (just 600 and 800 men each),[52] and supported by a weak artillery barrage, the advance quickly stalled, and resulted in only small gains at a cost of 1,253 casualties.[53][50] As a result of the exhaustion of the troops, the 2nd Division was relieved for the final effort around Passchendaele on 12 October.[54]

The 2nd Division relieved the Australian 5th Division on 27 October, and continued to hold the line along the Broodseinde Ridge, conducting patrols into no man's land,[55] until all of the Australian divisions (grouped into an all Australian Corps from November 1917)[56] were transferred south to Flanders, centred on the town of Messines, where they spent the winter.[57] During this period, the 2nd Division occupied the front around Ploegsteert, in the southern part of the Australian line, during December 1917 – January 1918, and then again in March – April 1918. On 3 April, the division was relieved by the British 25th Division.[58]

German Spring Offensive, 1918

On 21 March, the Germans launched their Spring Offensive, focused on the Somme. As the offensive, began to threaten the vital rail hub of Amiens, the Australians were hurriedly brought south to help restore the British line in the Somme.[59][60] Upon reaching the Somme on 4 April, the leading brigade (the 5th) was detached to relieve the troops around Villers-Bretonneux, while the rest of the division (under the command of the British Third Army) relieved the Australian 4th Division, which had just fought the First and Second Battles of Dernancourt. The detached 5th Brigade (under the command of the British Fourth Army) was initially put into a reserve line (the "Aubigny Line") under the 14th Division, before it was sent to support (and later relieve) the 18th Division south of Villers-Bretonneux.[61]

After the 5th Brigade had relieved the 18th Division on 5 April, it was decided that the 5th would recapture the lost parts of Hangard wood, and so reduce a salient that threatened the southern flank of the Australian forces at Villers-Bretonneux.[62] The attack by two battalions – the 19th and 20th – was conducted on 7 April, and while it succeeded in clearing Hangard Wood (at a cost of 151 casualties), the position that the attacking troops were expected to fortify was poorly sited, and as a result the attacking troops retreated to their starting positions.[63]

Another attack was planned, this time in conjunction with the French First Army, with the objective of eliminating the entire salient south of Villers-Bretonneux. However, when the next stage of German offensive (the Battle of Lys) started on 9 April, it drew off the British forces required to mount the attack.[64] In addition, German attacks on 7 and 12 April had captured of the village of Hangard, and led to the abandonment of the Allied attack.[65] However, it was decided that a small local attack would be mounted on 15 April, with the intention of capturing the cemetery and a copse north of Hangard village. One battalion – the 18th – from the 5th Brigade was to capture the copse, while the French secured the cemetery. In the end, the failure of the French attack ultimately undermined the Australian position in the copse, which eventually fell to German counterattacks (with a total of 84 casualties). The 5th Brigade returned to the Australian Corps on 19 April.[66]

Peaceful penetration operations, 1918

3rdAustralianMediumTrenchMortarBatteryMorlancourt29May1918.jpeg
3rd Medium Trench Mortar Battery in action, Ville-sur-Ancre 29 May 1918

As the Spring Offensive ground to a halt, the 2nd Division was relieved by the 47th Division on 2 May, and became the reserve division for the Australian Corps.[67] After resting, the division relieved the Australian 3rd Division opposite Morlancourt on 11 May,[68] and continued the peaceful penetration operations that had been started by the 3rd Division during the Second Battle of Morlancourt. On 19 May, elements of the division (mostly from 6th Brigade) attacked the Germans on either side of the village of Ville-sur-Ancre (an advance of approximately 1,000 yards (910 m)). Despite coming up against fresh troops who were anticipating the attack, the Australians succeeded in capturing the village, albeit at cost of 418 casualties. Against this, the Germans suffered 800 casualties, as well as 330 prisoners and 45 machine guns.[69][70]

On 22 May, Major General Charles Rosenthal, who had previously commanded the 9th Brigade, replaced Smyth as the 2nd Division commander.[71] On 10 June, the 7th Brigade conducted an attack over a 3,000 yards (2,700 m) frontage between Morlancourt and Sailly-Laurette during the Third Battle of Morlancourt,[72] and succeeded in advancing an average depth of 700 yards (640 m), with approximately 350 casualties and the capture of 325 Germans, 30 machineguns and six trench mortars. This attack revealed the ease in which a well-planned attack could be conducted, and also revealed that there was no major offensive planned on the Amiens front.[73]

As a result of the advances by the Australian Corps in front of Morlancourt, the southern flank was exposed to artillery fire from near the village of Hamel. In response to this and to provide support for a French attack south of Villers-Bretonneux, it was decided to attack the German salient and capture the village of Hamel as well as the Hamel and Vaire Woods. In preparation, the 2nd Division relieved the Australian 3rd Division on 28/29 June.[74] The Australian divisions were heavily depleted, so it was decided that the upcoming Battle of Hamel would involve units from three Australian divisions (the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Australian Divisions), with the 2nd Division temporarily placing its left brigade (the 6th) under the command of the 4th Division for the attack.[75] The 25th Battalion, detached from the 7th Brigade, also assisted.[76]

The attack at Hamel, conducted on 4 July, was a complete success, with the battle completed in only 93 minutes. The 2nd Division troops temporarily attached to the Australian 4th Division suffered only 246 casualties (out of a total of 1,380 Australian and American casualties). The total German casualties for the battle were approximately 2,000, of which approximately 1,600 were captured), and included 177 machineguns and 32 trench mortars.[77][78]

AWM E02635 Hamel and surrounds 4 July 1918
Hamel and the surrounding wood burning following the initial bombardment on 4 July 1918

The division continued peaceful penetration operations on its front and by 11 July had advanced its front line by approximately 200 yards (180 m). This aided a planned offensive whose objective was to capture more of the Villers-Bretonneux plateau. The continued peaceful penetrations on the northern flank of the salient below Villers-Bretonneux caused the Germans to withdraw by 1,000 yards (910 m), leaving only outposts and sentries behind to deceive the Allies that the front was still being held. This withdrawal meant that the Australians were able to capture Monument Farm and parts of Monument Wood. The 26th Battalion also secured a German tank ("Mephisto"),[79] which had been disabled on 24 April. The withdrawal also meant that the planned offensive was now superseded, as peaceful penetration had already achieved the objectives.[80]

Further patrols were conducted; this time with the objective of advancing the Australian 7th Brigade's front by 1,000 yards (910 m), and capturing the remainder of Monument Wood and "The Mound" (spoil from a nearby railway cutting). However, this would then expose the southern flank of the division. To counter this, Rosenthal approached the French commanders with a deal: the Australians would capture the ground, which would then be defended by French units.[81] As the Germans were now starting to dig stronger fortifications, peaceful penetration was becoming more difficult to conduct. As a result, a small-scale attack was carried out on 17 July by only two battalions – the 25th and 26th – advancing the line by 500 yards (460 m) with 129 casualties, and inflicting at least 303 German casualties.[82]

Due to their vulnerable southern flank, no further advances were possible until the French forces south of the 2nd Division advanced. French patrols on 18 July advanced their line, but it remained a mile behind the neighbouring 2nd Division. The peaceful penetration conducted over the previous two weeks had pushed the line forward by an average of 1,000 yards (910 m) over a frontage of 4,500 yards (4,100 m), at a cost of 437 casualties, and had achieved all of the objectives set down for the offensive that was to occur after the Battle of Hamel.[83]

Between 26 July and 5 August, elements of the US 65th Infantry Brigade (from the 33rd Division) were assigned to the Australian Corps. Of these troops, two battalions of the US 129th Infantry Regiment were assigned to the 2nd Division, joining it around Villers-Bretonneux. One US company was allocated to each Australian battalion, and as some of the battalions were extremely under strength (for example, the front line strength of the 24th Battalion was only 193 men), it meant that there were equal numbers of Australians and Americans in the front line.[84]

Hundred Days, 1918

In August, the Allies launched their own (the start of the offensive, which ultimately ended the war. On 8 August, the 2nd Division commenced the Battle of Amiens, attacking (with the Australian 3rd Division) from its position near Villers-Bretonneux. The 2nd Division reached its objective (the "Green Line") between 6:25 and 7 am, and started to dig in.[85] The second wave of Australian troops (the Australian 4th and 5th Divisions) moved through the 2nd and 3rd Divisions at 8:20 am, and continued on to the "Red Line".[86] The soldiers of the 2nd Division held their positions (one brigade in the original front line, the other two brigades on the "Green Line"), digging in until released at 11:15 to rejoin the attack.[87]

On 9–11 August, as part of the advance from Harbonnieres towards Lihons,[88] the division continued its attack. Relieving the 5th Division, which had carried the first phase, the 5th and 7th Brigades, reinforced by the 2nd Brigade (from the 1st Division), carried the advance in the second phase.[89] Over the course of several days, Vauvillers, Framerville and Rainecourt were captured at a cost of 1,295 casualties or the division.[90] The attacks post 9 August were hastily planned, with limited knowledge of the tactical situation,[91] and lacked co-ordination between neighbouring units and supporting artillery. While supporting tanks made up for some of this, their use was hampered by opposing artillery, resulting in a subsequent increase in casualties.[92]

Between 16 and 18 August, another peaceful penetration operation was carried out by the 6th Brigade (then the only unit of the 2nd Division on the front line) around Herleville, culminating in an attack on 18 August to the edge of Herleville itself. By this stage the 6th Brigade had been heavily depleted – particularly from gas shelling around Villers-Bretonneux – to the extent that the 22nd Battalion's four companies were each at platoon strength; nevertheless, it attacked over a large frontage of 1,000 yards (910 m), losing a further 117 men. The 2nd Division was relieved on 19 August by the 32nd British Division.[93]

After a short rest, the 2nd Division relieved the 1st Division on 26 August.[94] As the Battle of Arras was to be the main effort of the British Expeditionary Force, General Henry Rawlinson (4th Army commander) ordered the Australians to maintain contact with the Germans while not being too aggressive.[95] Nevertheless, the 2nd Division kept advancing along the south bank of the Somme River capturing various villages such as Herbécourt, Flaucourt, Barleux and – despite a stiff defence – Biaches. With German morale declining, the division was ordered to advance towards Péronne and Mont St. Quentin, with the intention of capturing Mont St. Quentin. The latter dominated the surrounding terrain, and was heavily fortified.[96][97]

MontStQuentinLeistAWMart02929
Capture of Mont Saint Quentin painting by Fred Leist (1920)

The initial plan for the Battle of Mont St. Quentin was for the 2nd Division, along with the Australian 3rd and the British 32nd Divisions, to attack to the east, and cross the Somme River near Péronne, before the 2nd Division continued on to take Mont St. Quentin. However, it was discovered that the defences along the river were too strong, and so the 2nd Division's front was taken over by the Australian 5th Division. The 2nd Division then moved north behind the Australian 3rd Division (which was to take Cléry and continue east to protect the 2nd Division's flank), approaching Mont St. Quentin on the northern side of the Somme River, before attacking Mont St. Quentin from the west.[98] The offensive succeeded, with the Australian 5th Brigade (consisting of 1,340 men, supported by five brigades of field artillery, and four brigades of heavy artillery)[99] securing Mont St. Quentin on the morning of 31 August, and capturing over 700 German prisoners.[100][101] The 5th Brigade was then subjected to several counterattacks. Eventually, in the afternoon of the 31st one of these succeeded in recapturing the crest, although the Australians managed to hold on to a position just below the summit. [102] The effort to take the Mont was later described by Rawlinson as "a magnificent performance...".[103]

Mont St. Quentin was attacked a second time in the morning of 1 September, this time by the Australian 6th Brigade, with its right flank protected by the Australian 14th Brigade (5th Division) capturing part of Péronne. Attacking against troops of the German 38th Division), the 6th Brigade succeeded in capturing Mont St. Quentin.[104] The attack continued on 2 September, with the 7th Brigade attacking east from Mont St. Quentin,[105] extending the Allied lines beyond the high ground while elements of the 5th Division took the remaining part of Péronne.[106]

By 4 September, the 2nd Division was relieved by the 3rd Division for the pursuit beyond Peronne.[107] It subsequently began a rest period that lasted until late September. On 23 September, the 19th, 21st and 25th Battalions were ordered to disband to make up the strength of the other battalions in their brigades, as the division moved towards the nine battalion structure used by the British. The decision proved unpopular with the troops, who wished to maintain their battalion identities, and the soldiers refused to obey the order to disband. As a result, the units remained in existence until October, after the Australians had fought their final battles of the war.[108]

By early October, Allied forces had succeeded in capturing the main Hindenburg defences in the first part of the Battle of St. Quentin Canal, and the supporting defences; however, this left the third line of defences, the "Beaurevoir Line".[109] Relieving the Australian 5th Division on 1 October,[110] the 2nd Division's was to attack, along with the Australian 1st Division and the American 27th and 30th Divisions, and breach the Beaurevoir Line, opening a gap for the cavalry to exploit.[111]

Aftermath of the fighting at Montbrehain October 1918 (AWM image E03779)
Aftermath of the fighting at Montbrehain, the final action of the war for the Australians

The 2nd Division attacked the Beaurevoir Line on 3 October, with two brigades (the 5th and 7th) totalling 2,500 men on an frontage of 6,000 yards (5,500 m).[112] Starting out from Estrees, the objectives called for a 2-mile (3.2 km) advance. Attacking before sunrise, the soldiers managed to capture the fortified positions at the la Motte Farm and Mushroom Quarry (at a cost of 989 casualties),[113] but were stopped short of their final objective: the village of Beaurevoir.[114] Continuing the attack on 4 October, the 2nd Division approached the village of Beaurevoir, and conducted further attacks the next day to capture Montbrehain.[109] After much hard fighting by two battalions of the 6th Brigade (reinforced by the 2nd Pioneer Battalion, which attacked as infantry)[115] (against the German 241st (Saxon), 24th and the 34th Divisions),[116] the village was captured, along with nearly 400 German prisoners. This drove a mile long salient into the German lines, and was described by Charles Bean as "one of the most brilliant actions of Australian infantry in the First World War".[117] However, this action cost the Australians an additional 430 casualties.[118]

The 2nd Division was relieved by the US 30th Division on the evening of 5 October, with the intention of allowing it to rest until the start of the campaigning season in 1919; however, as the Armistice was signed in November 1918, the 2nd Division was the last Australian division to see combat in World War I.[109] With the end of the war, Australian forces were not involved in occupation duties,[20] and were quickly disbanded, and the soldiers transported back to Australia. As a result, the 2nd Division merged with the Australian 5th Division in March 1919 (as a single division of four brigades).[119] Throughout the war, the division lost over 12,000 killed in action or died of wounds or other causes, and nearly 38,000 wounded,[1] while 13 members of the division received the Victoria Cross.[2]

Inter-war years and World War II

On 1 April 1921, the AIF was officially disbanded. After this, Australia's part-time military forces were re-organised to perpetuate the numerical designations of the AIF.[120] As a result , the division was reformed as a Citizens Military Forces/Militia (reserve) formation, consisting of the 5th, 9th and 14th Brigades,[121] each of four infantry battalions: 4th, 20th, 36th, and 54th (5th Brigade); 1st, 19th, 34th, and 45th (9th Brigade); and 3rd, 53rd, 55th and 56th (14th Brigade).[2] Defence spending was limited during this time, and while initially it was planned to maintain a strong Reserve element through compulsory training, this scheme was only partially implemented in the 1920s, and was suspended following the Great Depression. Defence spending remained low throughout the 1930s, and voluntary recruitment proved inadequate. As a result, the inter-war years were characterised by limited equipment and reduced manning levels.[122]

During World War II, the division was composed primarily of infantry units from New South Wales and its headquarters was based initially in Sydney, around Parramatta.[121] When the war broke out in September 1939, the 2nd Division was commanded by Major General Iven Mackay.[123]

B Coy Australian 56th Bn
Soldiers of the CMF 56th Battalion, part of the 14th Brigade, in 1937

In 1940, the division's component brigades were reduced from four battalions to three, and units undertook short period of training to improve readiness as the division was partially mobilised. As the Militia was barred from overseas service, many members left the division to join the Second Australian Imperial Force.[2] In July 1940, Major General James Cannan assumed command of the division until October when he handed over to Major General Herbert Lloyd.[123] Following Japan's entry into the war, the Militia was called up for home defence.[2] At this time, the division's main role was the defence of Sydney; however, after training around Bathurst, Walgrove and Greta, the division's brigades relieved those of the 1st Division in defence of Newcastle, so that those units could undertake collective training. This lasted until March 1942.[121]

In May 1942, the 14th Brigade (3rd, 36th, and 55th Battalions) was transferred to New Guinea Force, where they joined the garrison around Port Moresby.[124] Initially assigned to II Corps,[125] in July, the 2nd Division was transferred to III Corps, for the defence of Western Australia, relieving the 4th Division around Guildford, Western Australia.[126] The 5th Brigade (54th, 56th and 44th Battalions, the latter being a Western Australian unit) and 8th Brigade (4th, 30th and 35th Battalions) were joined by the 13th Brigade (the 11th, 16th, and 28th Battalions, all from Western Australia).[2]

As the Allies assumed the offensive in the Pacific, the threat to Australia diminished, allowing for a reduction in garrison forces. Subsequently, the division prepared for active service in the Australian territory of New Guinea. In early 1943, the 13th Brigade was detached,[2] and the 2nd Brigade became part of the division until August 1943, when it was sent to Darwin. Following this, the 8th Brigade was transferred to Sydney and then north Queensland, eventually joining the 5th Division in September 1943, for service in New Guinea. The 3rd Motor Brigade joined the division. In early 1944, the 5th Brigade was sent to Queensland and in May of that year the 2nd Division was disbanded.[126] The division's final commander was Major General Horace Robertson who commanded the division from September 1943.[123]

Post-war

Members of the Australian Army with Battle Group Waratah, 8th Brigade, perform synchronized combat arms training at Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia, May 23, 2016
An 8th Brigade soldier during Exercise Southern Jackaroo in 2016

In 1948, the Citizen Military Forces were re-formed,[127] firstly by voluntary enlistment but then by a mixture of voluntary and compulsory national service from 1951 to 1957, and then 1965 to 1972, when national service was abolished.[128] The 2nd Division was formed again as the main CMF formation in New South Wales, initially consisting of the 5th, 7th and 8th Brigades,[129] although in 1953 it was reorganised and consisted of the 5th, 8th and 14th Brigades.[130][2] In 1960, the division was disbanded with the advent of the Pentropic organisation scheme that was based around the five element battle group. The division was revived in 1965 when the Pentropic organisation was abandoned.[131] Upon being re-raised, the division consisted of two brigade-level formations: the 5th and 8th Task Forces; these reverted to brigade-designations in 1982. In the 1990s, following the disbandment of the 3rd Division, the 2nd Division became the main Army Reserve formation, assuming command of several other brigade-level elements.[2]

The 7th Brigade transferred its Reserve personnel to the division (mainly to the 11th Brigade) in 2011 as that brigade became a completely Regular formation of Forces Command.[132] In September 2014, the division received the three Regional Force Surveillance Units from the 6th Brigade, and as of late 2014, the division included over 11,000 Reservists.[133] In January 2015, Major General Stephen Porter took over command of the division.[134] Under the Army's Plan Beersheba reforms, the 4th and 9th Brigades were paired with the regular 1st Brigade; 5th and 8th Brigades with the regular 7th Brigade; and the 11th and 13th Brigades with the regular 3rd Brigade, tasked with providing a battle group to each Regular manoeuvre brigade during the ready phase of the force generation cycle: Battle Groups Cannan (11th and 13th Brigades), Jacka (4th and 9th Brigades) and Waratah (5th and 8th Brigades).[132][135] On 24 July 2015, members of the 2nd Division marked 100 years of service with a national parade at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra.[136] In 2017–2018, the 8th Brigade became responsible for the management of training delivered to Reserve soldiers within the 2nd Division.[137]

During the period since 2011, the division has deployed forces and provided individual troops to deployments to the Solomon Islands, Timor Leste, Afghanistan, and South Sudan as well as supporting ongoing border protection operations.[138]

Memorial

Australian 2nd Division Memorial at Mont St Quentin, France in August 1925
The original 2nd Division memorial

Positioned at Mont St Quentin (49°56′51.61″N 2°55′55.91″E / 49.9476694°N 2.9321972°E), where the Australian 2nd Division captured one of the most formidable defensive positions on the Western Front, the 2nd Division's memorial was unconventional. Instead of an obelisk such as at the other four AIF divisional memorials, the original memorial which was unveiled in 1925 was a statue of an Australian soldier bayoneting a German eagle sprawled at his feet. However, this statue was removed and destroyed by German soldiers in 1940 during World War II, leaving only the stone plinth. A replacement statue, consisting of an Australian soldier standing in full kit was installed in 1971.[139]

The memorial lists the battle honours of the 2nd Division as: Pozieres, Mouquet Farm, Flers, Malt Trench, Lagnicourt, Bullecourt, Menin Road, Broodseinde Ridge, Passchendaele, Ville-sur-Ancre, Morlancourt, Hamel, Villers-Bretonneux, Herleville, Herbécourt, Biaches, Mont St. Quentin, Beaurevoir Line, and Montbrehain.[140]

Current structure

As at 2019 the division currently commands almost all Reserve units, including the following: [141]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Mallett, Ross. "First AIF Order of Battle 1914–1918: Second Division". AIF Project. University of New South Wales (Australian Defence Force Academy). Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "History of the 2nd Division". Australian Army. Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  3. ^ Wray 2002, pp. 145–147.
  4. ^ Bean 1941a, pp. 739–740 & 761.
  5. ^ Bean 1941a, pp. 36–42.
  6. ^ Kuring 2004, pp. 83, 90–92.
  7. ^ Bean 1941b, p. 66.
  8. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, pp. 117–118.
  9. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 118.
  10. ^ Bean 1941b, p. 701.
  11. ^ Carlyon 2006, p. 194.
  12. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 120.
  13. ^ a b Belham & Denham 2009, p. 16.
  14. ^ Bean 1941b, pp. 894–895.
  15. ^ Bean 1941b, pp. 915 & 928–937.
  16. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 121.
  17. ^ Carlyon 2006, p. 297.
  18. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1986, pp. 63–65.
  19. ^ Mallet, Ross. "Major General Sir John Gellibrand: 5 December 1872 – 3 June 1945". AIF Project. University of New South Wales (Australian Defence Force Academy). Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  20. ^ a b Baker, Chris. "2nd Australian Division". The Long, Long Trail: The British Army in the Great War of 1914–1918. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  21. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 76.
  22. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 83–89.
  23. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 96–97.
  24. ^ Belham & Denham 2009, p. 20.
  25. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 105.
  26. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 115–132.
  27. ^ Carlyon 2006, p. 317.
  28. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 125.
  29. ^ Carlyon 2006, pp. 318 –319.
  30. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 355 & 360.
  31. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 365 & 374.
  32. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 389–393.
  33. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 127.
  34. ^ Belham & Denham 2009, p. 27.
  35. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 487–488.
  36. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 491.
  37. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 519.
  38. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 527.
  39. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 543.
  40. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 685.
  41. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 703–704.
  42. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 757.
  43. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 755.
  44. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 788–789.
  45. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 836–837.
  46. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 845–846.
  47. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 866 & 876.
  48. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 838.
  49. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, pp. 132–134.
  50. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 133.
  51. ^ Bean 1941c, pp. 885–886.
  52. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 890.
  53. ^ Bean 1941c, p. 900.
  54. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, pp. 133–134.
  55. ^ Belham & Denham 2009, p. 30.
  56. ^ Grey 2008, p. 107.
  57. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 134.
  58. ^ Bean 1941d, p. 34.
  59. ^ Grey 2008, p. 108.
  60. ^ Carlyon 2006, p. 565.
  61. ^ Bean 1941d, p. 354.
  62. ^ Bean 1941d, p. 502.
  63. ^ Bean 1941d, pp. 511–513.
  64. ^ Bean 1941d, pp. 513–514.
  65. ^ Bean 1941d, p. 516.
  66. ^ Bean 1941d, pp. 517–521.
  67. ^ Bean 1942, p. 67.
  68. ^ Bean 1942, p. 94.
  69. ^ Bean 1942, p. 146.
  70. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 147.
  71. ^ Bean 1942, p. 219.
  72. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 148.
  73. ^ Bean 1942, p. 240.
  74. ^ Bean 1942, p. 251.
  75. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, pp. 148–149.
  76. ^ Laffin 1999, p. 111.
  77. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 326–327.
  78. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 149.
  79. ^ Morgan 2014, p. 24.
  80. ^ Bean 1942, p. 366.
  81. ^ Bean 1942, p. 368.
  82. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 371–375.
  83. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 375–376.
  84. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 509–510.
  85. ^ Bean 1942, p. 543.
  86. ^ Bean 1942, p. 547.
  87. ^ Bean 1942, p. 599.
  88. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 152.
  89. ^ Belham & Denham 2009, p. 50.
  90. ^ Bean 1942, p. 684.
  91. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 153.
  92. ^ Bean 1942, p. 682.
  93. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 719–723.
  94. ^ Belham & Denham 2009, p. 53.
  95. ^ Bean 1942, p. 773.
  96. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 781–782.
  97. ^ Belham & Denham 2009, p. 55.
  98. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 787 & 801.
  99. ^ Bean 1942, p. 810.
  100. ^ Bean 1942, p. 816.
  101. ^ Carlyon 2006, p. 685.
  102. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 157.
  103. ^ Bean 1942, p. 815.
  104. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 840–845.
  105. ^ Carlyon 2006, p. 691.
  106. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 158.
  107. ^ Carlyon 2006, p. 696.
  108. ^ Carlyon 2006, pp. 699–703.
  109. ^ a b c Coulthard-Clark 1998, pp. 164–165.
  110. ^ Bean 1942, p. 1,014.
  111. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 949–951.
  112. ^ Carlyon 2006, p. 719.
  113. ^ Bean 1942, p. 1,026.
  114. ^ Coulthard-Clark 1998, p. 165.
  115. ^ Bean 1942, p. 1,035.
  116. ^ Bean 1942, pp. 1,041 – 1,042.
  117. ^ Bean 1942, p. 1,043.
  118. ^ Williams 2003, p. 240.
  119. ^ Ellis 1920, pp. 397–399.
  120. ^ Grey 2008, p. 125.
  121. ^ a b c McKenzie-Smith 2018, p. 2031.
  122. ^ Grey 2008, pp. 125 & 138.
  123. ^ a b c "2nd Infantry Division: Appointments". Orders of Battle. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  124. ^ Brune 2004, p. 561.
  125. ^ Palazzo 2001, p. 170.
  126. ^ a b McKenzie-Smith 2018, p. 2032.
  127. ^ Grey 2008, pp. 200–201.
  128. ^ Grey 2008, p. 250.
  129. ^ Palazzo 2001, p. 209.
  130. ^ Palazzo 2001, p. 238.
  131. ^ McCarthy 2003, pp. 99–102 & 131–134.
  132. ^ a b Clay 2014, p. 30.
  133. ^ Smith 2014, pp. 28 – 29.
  134. ^ "Commander 2nd Division". Australian Army: Our leaders. Department of Defence. 1 September 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  135. ^ Smith 2014, p. 28.
  136. ^ "National parade marks a century of service" (Press release). Department of Defence. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  137. ^ Whitwell, Julia (17 May 2018). "Small base, big mission" (PDF). Army News (1,419 ed.). p. 23.
  138. ^ Clay 2014, p. 29.
  139. ^ Bomford 2012, pp. 156–158.
  140. ^ McLachlan 2007.
  141. ^ "2nd Division". Our people. Australian Army. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  142. ^ "Formation of 9th Regiment Royal Australian Artillery". VeteransSA. Retrieved 17 August 2017.

References

External links

Index of World War II articles (0–9)

1 Alpine Division Taurinense

1st Alpini Regiment

1 Cent WWII (Dutch coin)

1st Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

1 vs 40 (Zipang manga)

1. Jagd-Division

1.1"/75 caliber gun

10 cm K 17

10.5 cm FlaK 38

10.5 cm leFH 16

10.5 cm leFH 18/40

10.5 cm leFH 18

10.5 cm leFH 18M

10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 42

10.5 cm schwere Kanone 18

100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3)

100th Division (United States)

100th Guards Rifle Division

100th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

101st Airborne Division (United States)

101st Infantry Division (France)

101st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

101st SS Heavy Panzer Detachment

102nd Fortress Division (France)

102nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

102nd Infantry Division (United States)

103rd Infantry Division (United States)

104th Division (United States)

105 mm Howitzer M3

106th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

106th Infantry Division (United States)

107 mm divisional gun M1940 (M-60)

107 mm gun M1910/30

1077th Anti-Aircraft Regiment (Soviet Union)

10H64

10th Armored Division (United States)

10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

10th Army (Soviet Union)

10th Canadian Infantry Brigade

10th Division (Australia)

10th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

10th Indian Infantry Division

10th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

10th Infantry Division (Poland)

10th Marine Regiment (United States)

10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Mountain Division (United States)

10th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

10th Reconnaissance Group (United States)

10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg

10TP

110th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

110th Rifle Division

112 Gripes about the French

114th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

116th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

118th General Hospital US Army

11th (East Africa) Division

11th Airborne Division (United States)

11th Armored Division (United States)

11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

11th Army (Soviet Union)

11th Army Group

11th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

11th Guards Army

11th Indian Infantry Division

11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

11th SS Panzer Army

11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland

11th/28th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment

12th Alpini Regiment

12.8 cm FlaK 40

12.8 cm PaK 44

120 mm M1 gun

121st Engineer Battalion (United States)

122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19)

122 mm howitzer M1909/37

122 mm howitzer M1910/30

122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30)

12th (Eastern) Division

12th Armored Division (United States)

12th Army (Soviet Union)

12th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

12th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

12th Infantry Regiment (United States)

12th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend

13 JG 52

13 Rue Madeleine

13. Unterseebootsflottille

13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine gun

138mm/40 Modèle 1927 gun

13th Airborne Division (United States)

13th Armored Division (United States)

13th Army (Soviet Union)

13th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade

13th Guards Rifle Division

13th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian)

140th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

141st Reserve Division (Germany)

142nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

143rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

148th Reserve Division (Germany)

14th Armored Division (United States)

14th Army (Soviet Union)

14th Army involvement in Transnistria

14th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

14th Indian Infantry Division

14th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

14th Infantry Division (Poland)

14th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

14th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galicia (1st Ukrainian)

15 cm Kanone 18

15 cm sFH 13

15 cm sFH 18

15 cm sIG 33

150th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

150th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

151st Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

152 mm gun M1910/30

152 mm gun M1910/34

152 mm gun M1935 (Br-2)

152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20)

152 mm howitzer M1909/30

152 mm howitzer M1910/37

152 mm howitzer M1938 (M-10)

152 mm howitzer M1943 (D-1)

152 mm mortar M1931 (NM)

152nd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

153rd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

153rd Rifle Division

154th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

155 mm Long Tom

15th (Scottish) Division

15th Airborne Corps

15th Army Group

15th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

15th Infantry Division (Poland)

15th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Latvian)

16 inch Coast Gun M1919

16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun

161st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

163rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

164th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

164th Infantry Regiment (United States)

169th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

16th Armored Division (United States)

16th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment

16th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

16th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

16th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS

17 cm Kanone 18

176th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Airborne Division (United States)

17th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

17th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Infantry Division (India)

17th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen

183rd Volksgrenadier Division (Germany)

184th Rifle Division

18th Army (Soviet Union)

18th Army Group

18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

18th Infantry Division (France)

18th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

18th Infantry Division (Poland)

18th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

1938 Changsha Fire

1939-40 Winter Offensive

1939 Tarnow rail station bomb attack

193rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

1940-1944 insurgency in Chechnya

1941 (film)

1941 Iraqi coup d'état

1941 Odessa massacre

1942 (video game)

1942 Luxembourgian general strike

1942: Joint Strike

1942: The Pacific Air War

1943 Naples post office bombing

1943 steel cent

1943: The Battle of Midway

1944-1945 killings in Bačka

1944 in France

1944: The Loop Master

1945 (Conroy novel)

1945 (Gingrich and Forstchen novel)

1945 Prime Minister's Resignation Honours

19th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

19th Infantry Division (India)

19th Infantry Division Gavninana

19th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Latvian)

1st (African) Division

1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy

1st Armored Division (France)

1st Armored Division (United States)

1st Armoured Brigade (Poland)

1st Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Armoured Division (Australia)

1st Armoured Division (Poland)

1st Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

1st Armoured Reconnaissance Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Baltic Front

1st Belgrade Special Combat detachment

1st Belorussian Front

1st Canadian Armoured Brigade

1st Canadian Infantry Division

1st Canadian Tank Brigade

1st Cavalry Army (Soviet Union)

1st Cavalry Division (United States)

1st Colonial Infantry Division (France)

1st Cossack Division

1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade

1st Division (Australia)

1st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Far East Front

1st Free French Division

1st Grenadiers Division (Poland)

1st Guards Army (Soviet Union)

1st Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Guards Special Rifle Corps

1st Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

1st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Infantry Division (Slovak Republic)

1st Infantry Division (South Africa)

1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

1st Infantry Division (United States)

1st Legions Infantry Division (Poland)

1st Light Cavalry Division (France)

1st Light Division (Germany)

1st Light Mechanized Division (France)

1st Marine Division (United States)

1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment

1st Moroccan Infantry Division

1st Motor Machine Gun Brigade

1st Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Naval Infantry Division (Germany)

1st Operations Group

1st Panzer Army

1st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Parachute Army (Germany)

1st Parachute Battalion (Australia)

1st Parachute Division (Germany)

1st Photo Squadron (Detachment C)

1st Red Banner Army

1st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

1st Shock Army

1st Ski Division (Germany)

1st Special Service Brigade (United kingdom)

1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler

1st Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Ukrainian Front

2-inch mortar

2 Alpine Division Tridentina

2nd Engineer Regiment (Italy)

2 cm FlaK 30

2 cm KwK 30

2nd Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

2 or 3 Things I Know About Him

2. Jagd-Division

2.8 cm sPzB 41

2/11th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/12th Field Ambulance (Australia)

2/18th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/1st Australian Infantry Battalion

2/25th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/2nd Australian Infantry Battalion

2/3rd Australian Infantry Battalion

2/4th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/5th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/6th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/6th Cavalry Commando Regiment (Australia)

2/7th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/8th Australian Infantry Battalion

20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier Truck

20 mm Anti-Aircraft Tank "Ta-Se"

200th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

201st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

202nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

203 mm howitzer M1931 (B-4)

203mm/50 Modèle 1924 gun

203mm/55 Modèle 1931 gun

205th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

206th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

207th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

208th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

208th Rifle Division

20th Armored Division (United States)

20th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

20th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

20th Infantry Division (India)

20th Infantry Division (Poland)

20th Mountain Army (Wehrmacht)

20th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian)

21 cm Mörser 18

210 mm gun M1939 (Br-17)

210th Coastal Defense Division (Germany)

210th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)

212th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

214th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

216th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

218th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Army (Wehrmacht)

21st Army Group

21st Infantry Division (France)

21st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Mountain Infantry Division (Poland)

21st Norwegian Army (Germany)

21st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian)

223rd Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)

22nd Air Landing Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

22nd Army (Soviet Union)

22nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

22nd Infantry Division (France)

22nd Mountain Infantry Division (Poland)

22nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

22nd SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Maria Theresia

230th Coastal Defense Division (Germany)

23rd (Northumbrian) Division

23rd Army (Soviet Union)

23rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

23rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

23rd Infantry Division (India)

23rd Infantry Division (Poland)

23rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama

240 mm howitzer M1

240mm/50 Modèle 1902 gun

243rd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

246th Volksgrenadier Division (Wehrmacht)

24th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

24th Infantry Division (United States)

24th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

24th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

24th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

25 Cent WWII (Dutch coin)

25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K)

25 mm Hotchkiss anti-aircraft gun

25 mm Hotchkiss anti-tank gun

25. Unterseebootsflottille

25th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

25th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

25th Infantry Division (India)

25th Infantry Division (United States)

25th Motorized Division (France)

25th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

25th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

25th SS Grenadier Division Hunyadi (1st Hungarian)

25th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Hunyadi (1st Hungarian)

25th/49th Battalion, Royal Queensland Regiment

26th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

26th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

26th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

26th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

26th Infantry Division (United States)

26th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Hungarian)

270th Rifle Division

273rd Reserve Panzer Division

275th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

277th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

27th Armoured Brigade

27th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

27th Guards Rifle Division

27th Home Army Infantry Division (Poland)

27th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

27th Infantry Division (Poland)

27th Infantry Division (Sila)

27th Infantry Division (United States)

27th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

27th Truck-Moveable Division (Brescia)

281st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

286th Security Division (Germany)

289th Military Police Company

28th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

28th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

28th Infantry Division (Poland)

28th Infantry Division (United States)

28th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht)

292nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

299th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

29th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

29th Army (Soviet Union)

29th Flight Training Wing

29th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

29th Infantry Division (United States)

29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian)

2nd (African) Division

2nd Armored Division (France)

2nd Armored Division (United States)

2nd Armoured Division (Australia)

2nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Armoured Regiment (Poland)

2nd Belorussian Front

2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade

2nd Canadian Infantry Division

2nd Cavalry Division (United States)

2nd Division (Australia)

2nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

2nd Division (Norway)

2nd Far Eastern Front

2nd Guards Army (Soviet Union)

2nd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

2nd Guards Mixed Brigade (Japan)

2nd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

2nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Infantry Division (India)

2nd Infantry Division (South Africa)

2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Infantry Division (United States)

2nd Infantry Regiment (United States)

2nd Light Cavalry Division (France)

2nd Light Division (Germany)

2nd Light Mechanized Division (France)

2nd London Infantry Division

2nd Marine Division (United States)

2nd Marine Regiment (United States)

2nd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Naval Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd North African Infantry Division

2nd Panzer Army

2nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Panzer Group

2nd Parachute Division (Germany)

2nd Red Banner Army

2nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

2nd Shock Army

2nd SS Division Das Reich

2nd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3 Alpine Division Julia

3rd Alpini Regiment

3 inch Gun M5

3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

3"/50 caliber gun

3.7 cm FlaK 43

3.7 cm KwK 36

3.7 cm PaK 36

3.7 inch Mountain Howitzer

301 Military Hospital

301st Air Refueling Wing

302nd Static Infantry Division (Germany)

305 mm howitzer M1939 (Br-18)

305mm/45 Modèle 1906 gun

305th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

308th Armament Systems Wing

30th Armoured Brigade

30th Infantry Division (United States)

30th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Belarussian)

30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Russian)

318th Fighter Group

31st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

31st Guards Rifle Division

31st Infantry Division (United States)

322nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

323d Flying Training Wing

324th Fighter Group

324th Rifle Division

326th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

32nd Infantry Division (France)

32nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

32nd Infantry Division (United States)

32nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

33/5

330mm/50 Modèle 1931 gun

331st Bombardment Group

332d Fighter Group

332nd Static Infantry Division (Germany)

333d Bombardment Group

334th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

336th Training Group

33rd Army (Soviet Union)

33rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

33rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

33rd Infantry Division (United States)

33rd Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French)

340mm/45 Modèle 1912 gun

340th Bombardment Group

345th Bomb Group

346th Bombardment Group

349th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

349th Squadron (Belgium)

34th Brigade (Australia)

34th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

34th Infantry Division (United States)

350th Squadron (Belgium)

351st Bomb Group

352d Fighter Group

352nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

357th Fighter Group

359th Fighter Group

35th Army (Soviet Union)

35th Infantry Division (United States)

35th SS and Police Grenadier Division

36 Hours (1965 film)

361st Fighter Group

365th Fighter Group

369th (Croatian) Reinforced Infantry Regiment

369th (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

36th Battalion (Australia)

36th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

36th Infantry Division (United States)

36th Infantry Regiment (Poland)

37 mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K)

37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)

37 mm Gun M3

37mm Gun M1

37th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

37th Infantry Division (United States)

37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Lützow

373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

38 cm SKC 34 naval gun

380mm/45 Modèle 1935 gun

380th Bomb Group

381st Training Group

382d Bombardment Group

383d Bombardment Group

383rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

385th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

38th (Irish) Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

38th (Welsh) Division

38th Infantry Division (United States)

391st Bombardment Group

392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

392nd Strategic Missile Wing

393d Bombardment Group

394th Bombardment Group

396th Bombardment Group

397th Bombardment Wing

399th Bombardment Group

39M Csaba

39th Battalion (Australia)

39th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

39th Infantry Division (India)

39th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

3d Armored Cavalry Regiment (United States)

3d Combat Cargo Group

3d United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)

3M-54 Klub

3rd Algerian Infantry Division

3rd Armored Division (France)

3rd Armored Division (United States)

3rd Armoured Division (Australia)

3rd Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Battalion 3rd Marines

3rd Belorussian Front

3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (United States)

3rd Canadian Infantry Division

3rd Division (Australia)

3rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd Division (New Zealand)

3rd Guards Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd Infantry Division (South Africa)

3rd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

3rd Infantry Division (United States)

3rd Light Division (Germany)

3rd Light Mechanized Division (France)

3rd Marine Division (United States)

3rd Motor Rifle Division

3rd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd North African Infantry Division

3rd Panzer Army

3rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd Panzer Group

3rd Polish Infantry Brigade

3rd Shock Army (Soviet Union)

3rd SS Division Totenkopf

3rd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd/4th County of London Yeomanry (Sharpshooters)

4 Alpine Division Cuneense

4th Alpini Regiment

4th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

4"/50 caliber gun

4.2 cm PaK 41

4.5 inch Gun M1

40 cm/45 Type 94

40 M Turan I

400th Bombardment Group

405th Fighter Group

409th Bombardment Group

40th Air Expeditionary Wing

40th Army (Soviet Union)

40th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

40th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

40th Infantry Division (United States)

413th Fighter Group

414th Fighter Group

41st Infantry Division (France)

41st Infantry Division (United States)

42nd (East Lancashire) Division

42nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

42nd Infantry Division (United States)

43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division

43rd Infantry Division (United States)

441st Troop Carrier Group

443d Troop Carrier Group

444th Bombardment Group

449th Bombardment Wing

44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division

44th Airborne Division (India)

44th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

44th Infantry Division (United States)

45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K)

45 mm anti-tank gun M1942 (M-42)

453rd Bombardment Group

454th Bombardment Wing

456th Bomb Group

458th Bombardment Group

45th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

45th Infantry Division (United States)

45th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

460th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion (United States)

461st Bombardment Wing

462d Bombardment Group

463d Airlift Group

464th Tactical Airlift Wing

465th Bombardment Wing

466th Bombardment Group

467th Bombardment Group

468th Bombardment Group

46th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

46th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

47 mm APX anti-tank gun

470th Bombardment Group

477th Fighter Group

483d Composite Wing

489th Bombardment Group

48th (South Midland) Division

48th Armored Medical Battalion

490th Bombardment Group

491st Bombardment Group

493d Bombardment Group

494th Bombardment Group

49th (West Riding) Infantry Division

49th Hutsul Rifle Regiment

49th Parallel

4th Armored Division (United States)

4th Army (Soviet Union)

4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (United States)

4th Canadian (Armoured) Division

4th Canadian Armoured Brigade

4th Canadian Infantry Brigade

4th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

4th Combat Cargo Group

4th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Fighter Group

4th Guards Army (Soviet Union)

4th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

4th Infantry Division (India)

4th Infantry Division (Poland)

4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

4th Infantry Division (United States)

4th Infantry Regiment (United States)

4th Light Cavalry Division (France)

4th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

4th Marine Division (United States)

4th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

4th North African Infantry Division

4th Panzer Army

4th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

4th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

4th SS Polizei Division

4th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Brigade Netherlands

4th Tank Army (Soviet Union)

4th Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Territorial Army Corps (Romania)

4th Ukrainian Front

5 Alpine Division Pusteria

5th Alpini Regiment

5 cm KwK 38

5 cm KwK 39

5 cm PaK 38

5th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

5"/25 caliber gun

5"/38 caliber gun

5"/51 caliber gun

500th SS Parachute Battalion

501st Parachute Infantry Regiment (United States)

502d Bombardment Group

502nd Heavy Tank Battalion (Germany)

503rd heavy tank battalion (Germany)

504th Bombardment Group

509th heavy tank battalion (Germany)

509th Operations Group

50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division

51st (Highland) Infantry Division (World War II)

51st Army (Soviet Union)

52nd (Lowland) Division

53rd (Welsh) Division

53rd Infantry Division (France)

5535 Annefrank

55th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

55th Infantry Division (France)

55th Infantry Division (Poland)

55th Operations Group

562nd Grenadier Division (Germany)

56th (London) Division

56th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

56th Field Artillery Command

56th Fighter Group

56th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

57 mm anti-tank gun M1943 (ZiS-2)

57th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

58th Army (Soviet Union)

58th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

596th Parachute Combat Engineer Company (United States)

59th Guards Rifle Division

5th Armored Division (France)

5th Armored Division (United States)

5th Army (Wehrmacht)

5th Army (Soviet Union)

5th Canadian (Armoured) Division

5th Canadian Division

5th Canadian Infantry Brigade

5th Cavalry Brigade (United Kingdom)

5th Division (Australia)

5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

5th Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

5th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

5th Infantry Division (India)

5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

5th Infantry Division (United States)

5th Light Cavalry Division (France)

5th Marine Division (United States)

5th Motorized Division (France)

5th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

5th North African Infantry Division

5th Panzer Army

5th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

5th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking

5th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Wallonien

6 Alpine Division Alpi Graie

6th Alpini Regiment

6 inch 26 cwt howitzer

6th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

60 pounder

60th Infantry Division (France)

60th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

61st Infantry Division (France)

61st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

61st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

62nd Army (Soviet Union)

62nd Battalion (Australia)

633 Squadron

63rd Army (Soviet Union)

63rd Infantry Division (United States)

64 Baker Street

65th Infantry Division (United States)

66th (East Lancashire) Infantry Division

66th Infantry Division (United States)

68th Infantry Division (France)

68th Observation Group

69th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

69th Infantry Division (United States)

6th Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom)

6th Armored Division (United States)

6th Armoured Division (South Africa)

6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

6th Army (Soviet Union)

6th Canadian Infantry Brigade

6th Canadian Infantry Division

6th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

6th Division (Australia)

6th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

6th Guards Tank Army

6th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Infantry Division (Poland)

6th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

6th Infantry Division (United States)

6th Infantry Regiment (United States)

6th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

6th Marine Division (United States)

6th Marine Division on Okinawa

6th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Panzer Army

6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Parachute Division (Germany)

6th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

6th SS Mountain Division Nord

6th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Langemarck

7th Alpini Regiment

7 cm Mountain Gun

7.5 cm FK 16 nA

7.5 cm FK 18

7.5 cm FK 38

7.5 cm FK 7M85

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschütz 37

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschütz 42

7.5 cm KwK 37

7.5 cm KwK 40

7.5 cm KwK 42

7.5 cm L/45 M/16 anti aircraft gun

7.5 cm L/45 M/32 anti aircraft gun

7.5 cm leichtes Infanteriegeschütz 18

7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

7.5 cm PaK 39

7.5 cm PaK 40

7.5 cm PaK 41

7.5 cm PaK 97/38

7.62 cm PaK 36(r)

7.92 mm DS

700 Naval Air Squadron

709th Static Infantry Division (Germany)

70th Armor Regiment (United States)

70th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

70th Infantry Division (United States)

715th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

716th Static Infantry Division (Germany)

719th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

71st Infantry Division (France)

71st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

71st Infantry Division (United States)

71st Infantry Regiment (New York)

72nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

72nd Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

73rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

74th Infantry Regiment (Poland)

75 mm gun (US)

75 mm Schneider-Danglis 06/09

758th Tank Battalion (United States)

75th Guards Rifle Division

75th Infantry Division (United States)

76 mm air defense gun M1938

76 mm divisional gun M1902/30

76 mm divisional gun M1936 (F-22)

76 mm divisional gun M1939 (USV)

76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3)

76 mm gun M1

76 mm mountain gun M1938

76 mm regimental gun M1927

76 mm regimental gun M1943

761st Tank Battalion (United States)

76th Division (United States)

76th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

76th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

76th Reconnaissance Group

76th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

77th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

77th Infantry Division (United States)

78th Division (United States)

78th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

78th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

79th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

79th Fighter Group

79th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

79th Infantry Division (United States)

79th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery

7th Armored Division (United States)

7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

7th Army (Wehrmacht)

7th Army (Soviet Union)

7th Canadian Infantry Brigade

7th Canadian Infantry Division

7th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

7th Division (Australia)

7th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

7th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)

7th Guards Army

7th Indian Infantry Division

7th Infantry Division (United States)

7th Marine Regiment (United States)

7th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

7th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen

7TP

8th Alpini Regiment

8 cm FK M. 17

8 cm PAW 600

8 cm sGrW 34

8 inch Gun M1

8.8 cm KwK 36

8.8 cm KwK 43

8.8 cm PaK 43

805th Engineer Aviation Battalion (United States)

80th Division (United States)

80th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

80th Rifle Division

81st (West Africa) Division

81st Infantry Division (United States)

82-PM-37

82nd (West Africa) Division

82nd Airborne Division (United States)

83rd Infantry Division (Germany)

83rd Infantry Division (United States)

84 Avenue Foch

84th Division (United States)

85 mm air defense gun M1939 (52-K)

85th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

86th Infantry Division (United States)

87th Division (United States)

87th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

88 mm gun

88th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

88th Infantry Division (United States)

89th "Tamanyan" Rifle Division

89th Division (United States)

8th Armored Division (United States)

8th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

8th Army (Soviet Union)

8th Division (Australia)

8th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

8th Guards Army (Soviet Union)

8th Infantry Division (France)

8th Infantry Division (India)

8th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

8th Infantry Division (United States)

8th Marine Regiment (United States)

8th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer

9th Alpini Regiment

9 Parachute Squadron RE

90 mm gun

904 Expeditionary Air Wing (United Kingdom)

90th Infantry Division (United States)

90th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

914th Grenadier Regiment

916th Grenadier Regiment (Germany)

91st Bomb Group

91st Division (United States)

91st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

92nd Infantry Division (United States)

93rd Infantry Division (United States)

94th Infantry Division (United States)

95th Bomb Group

95th Infantry Division (United States)

96th Infantry Division (United States)

97th Infantry Division (United States)

97th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

98th Division (United States)

98th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

999th Light Afrika Division (Germany)

99th Infantry Division (United States)

99th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

99th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

9th (Highland) Infantry Division

9th Armored Division (United States)

9th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

9th Army (Soviet Union)

9th Division (Australia)

9th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

9th Infantry Division (India)

9th Infantry Division (Poland) (interwar)

9th Infantry Division (Soviet Union)

9th Infantry Division (United States)

9th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

9th Motorized Division (France)

9th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

9th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

9th Parachute Division (Germany)

9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen

List of Australian Army medical units in World War I

The following is a list of Australian Army medical units in World War I.

Order of Battle, 2nd Division[1] (World War I)
Parent unit
Components
Expeditionary Forces
Corps
Divisions
Brigades
Militia
Australian Imperial Force

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