2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment

The 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an air defense artillery regiment of the United States Army first formed in 1821 as a field artillery unit.

Battery A-2 THAAD (Battery A, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense)[1] of the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States) successfully intercepted an Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile which was launched near Hawaii on 11 July 2017. The soldiers used the procedures of an actual combat scenario at the Pacific Spaceport on Kodiak Island, Alaska, and were not aware of the IRBM's launch time.[1]

On 19 October 2017, Battery D-2 THAAD (Delta Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment) reflagged from the 11th ADA Brigade to the 35th ADA Brigade prior to the permanent change of station from Fort Bliss to South Korea.[2]

2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment
002 ADA COA
Active1821
CountryUnited States
BranchArmy
TypeAir defense artillery
Motto(s)Fidus Ultra Finem (Faithful Beyond the End)
EngagementsWar of 1812
Indian Wars
Mexican War
U.S. Civil War
World War II
Vietnam War
Southwest Asia
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Brevet Lt Col. John Trout Greble
Lt. Robert Allen
Maj. Lewis G. Arnold
Col. Romeyn B. Ayres
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia
2 ADA Rgt DUI

Lineage

Constituted 1 June 1821 in the Regular Army as the 2nd Regiment of Artillery and organized from existing units with headquarters at Baltimore, Maryland.[3][4]

2nd U.S. Artillery took part with distinction in the Mexican War and U.S. Army captain James Duncan received three brevets—major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel—for his actions in the war.[5][6]


The 2nd US Artillery served throughout the US Civil war, and Battery M fired the first shot of the Union Army ay the First Battle of Bull Run. At the time, the battery was commanded by 2LT Peter Conover Hains, who was the last veteran of the Civil War to serve on active duty, being recalled from retirement with the outbreak of the First World War to serve as commander of the Eastern District of the Corps of Engineers from 1917-1918 (MG Hains had retired originally in 1904 as head of the Corps of Engineers).

Regiment was broken up on 13 February 1901, and its elements reorganized and redesignated as separate numbered companies and batteries of the Artillery Corps.

Reconstituted 1 July 1924 in the Regular Army as the 2nd Coast Artillery at Fort Sherman in the Harbor Defenses of Cristobal (Batteries E, G, and H concurrently reorganized and redesignated from existing units in the Panama Canal Zone). The regiment was organized by redesignating the 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, and 24th companies of the Coast Artillery Corps (CAC). Batteries B, C, D, E, H, I, K, and L carried the lineage and designations of the corresponding batteries in the old 2nd Artillery.[7][8]

(Battery C activated 30 April 1926 in the Canal Zone; Battery G concurrently inactivated in the Canal Zone. Batteries C, E, and H inactivated 15 April 1932 in the Canal Zone and transferred, less personnel and equipment, to Fort Monroe).[7]

Regimental headquarters and Batteries C, E, and H activated 30 April 1932 at Fort Monroe, Virginia in the Harbor Defenses of the Chesapeake with personnel from inactivated 12th Coast Artillery.[7]

(Battery A activated 1 September 1935 at Fort Monroe, Virginia; Battery H concurrently inactivated at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Batteries B and D activated 1 November 1938 at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Battery F activated 1 February 1940 at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Remainder of 1st and 2d Battalions activated 1 August 1940 at Fort Monroe, Virginia as a Type B harbor defense regiment.[9] Battery G activated 1 March 1941 at Fort Monroe, Virginia. Regiment upgraded to Type A in 1941.[9] Remainder of regiment including 3rd Battalion activated 30 April 1942 at Fort Monroe, Virginia).[7]

Battery K activated at Ft. Moultrie with personnel and equipment of Btry D, 263rd Coast Artillery. Btry H sent to Fort Macon July 1942.[7]

In September, Btry K and one platoon from Btry N assigned to Fort Macon.[7]

In 1942 batteries from 2nd Bn posted at Forts Moultrie, Monroe, & Macon, and at Little Creek Mine Base, VA.[10]

Regiment changed from Type A to Type C 21 April 1942.[7]

Batteries at Temporary Harbor Defenses of Beaufort manned the 5-inch gun battery on Cape Lookout and Fort Macon’s 6-inch guns.[7]

Regiment broken up 1 October 1944 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as follows:

Headquarters and Headquarters Battery and Batteries A, B, C, G, H, and I as the 2d Coast Artillery Battalion[9] (2d Coast Artillery Battalion inactivated 1 April 1945 at Fort Monroe, Virginia; activated 1 August 1946 at Fort Winfield Scott, California; inactivated 25 November 1946 at Fort Winfield Scott, California).
Batteries D, E, and F as elements of the 175th Coast Artillery Battalion[9] (inactivated 20 July 1946 at Fort Monroe, Virginia). Former elements of the 2d Coast Artillery reconstituted and/or consolidated 28 June 1950 to form the following units:
Headquarters and Headquarters Detachment, 2d Coast Artillery Battalion, consolidated with Headquarters Battery, 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Group (see ANNEX 1), and consolidated unit designated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Group.
Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 1st Battalion, 2d Coast Artillery, reconstituted in the Regular Army and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion; concurrently Battery A, Harbor Defenses of Chesapeake Bay (formerly Battery A, 2d Coast Artillery Battalion), Batteries B and C, 2d Coast Artillery Battalion, and Battery F, 2d Harbor Defenses of Chesapeake Bay (formerly Battery A, 175th Coast Artillery Battalion), redesignated as Batteries A, B, C, and D, 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion, respectively.
Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2d Battalion, 2d Coast Artillery, reconstituted in the Regular Army and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 12th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion; concurrently Batteries B, C, D, and E, Harbor Defenses of Chesapeake Bay (formerly Batteries E, F, G, and H, 2d Coast Artillery), redesignated as Batteries A, B, C, and D, 12th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion, respectively; battalion concurrently consolidated with the 136th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion (see ANNEX 2), and consolidated unit designated as the 12th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion.
Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 3d Battalion, 2d Coast Artillery, reconstituted in the Regular Army; concurrently consolidated with Battery F, 2d Coast Artillery Battalion, Battery E, 175th Coast Artillery Battalion, and the 42nd Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion (active) (see ANNEX 3), and consolidated unit designated as the 42d Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion, an element of the 9th Infantry Division.

After 28 June 1950 the above units underwent changes as follows:

Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Group, activated 10 June 1951 at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts.
Reorganized and redesignated 20 March 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2d Artillery Group.
Inactivated 15 December 1961 at Lockport Air Force Station, New York.
2d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion redesignated 27 February 1951 as the 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion and assigned to the 1st Armored Division
Activated 7 March 1951 at Fort Bliss, Texas
Consolidated 20 March 1951 with the 434th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion (see ANNEX 4), and consolidated unit designated as the 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion
Redesignated 20 May 1953 as the 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
Inactivated 15 February 1957 at Fort Polk, Louisiana, and relieved from assignment to the 1st Armored Division
12th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion redesignated 13 March 1952 as the 12th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion
Activated 8 April 1952 at Fort Hancock, New Jersey
Redesignated 15 May 1953 as the 12th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
Inactivated 20 December 1957 at New York, New York
42d Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion redesignated 25 May 1954 as the 42d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion
Inactivated 1 December 1957 at Fort Carson, Colorado, and relieved from assignment to the 9th Infantry Division. Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2d Artillery Group; 2d, 12th, and 42d Antiaircraft Artillery Battalions; and the 2d Field Artillery Battalion (organized in 1907) consolidated, reorganized, and redesignated 15 December 1961 as the 2d Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System.

2d Artillery (less former 2d Field Artillery Battalion) reorganized and redesignated 1 September 1971 as the 2d Air Defense Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System (former 2d Field Artillery Battalion concurrently reorganized and redesignated as the 2d Field Artillery – hereafter separate lineage) Withdrawn 16 January 1989 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System.

Annex 1

Constituted 5 August 1942 in the Army of the United States as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Group. Activated 17 August 1942 at Fort Bliss, Texas. Redesignated 26 May 1943 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 2d Antiaircraft Artillery Group. Inactivated 26 October 1945 at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey.

Annex 2

Constituted 25 February 1943 in the Army of the United States as the 136th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion. Activated 15 June 1943 at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts. Inactivated 12 December 1945 at Camp Myles Standish, Massachusetts.

Annex 3

Constituted 25 February 1943 in the Army of the United States as the 795th Coast Artillery Battalion. Activated 20 April 1943 at Camp Stewart, Georgia. Redesignated 30 April 1943 as the 795th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion. Inactivated 31 December 1945 in Germany. Redesignated 25 June 1948 as the 42d Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion and assigned to the 9th Infantry Division. Activated 12 July 1948 at Fort Dix, New Jersey.

Annex 4

Constituted 31 January 1942 in the Army of the United States as the 434th Coast Artillery Battalion. Activated 1 March 1942 at Camp Hulen, Texas. Redesignated 5 December 1943 as the 434th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion. Disbanded 14 January 1945 in Italy. Reconstituted 20 March 1951 in the Regular Army.

Campaign participation credit

  • War of 1812: Canada.
  • Indian Wars: Florida, Seminoles.
  • Mexican War: Palo Alto; Resaca de la Palma; Monterey; Vera Cruz; Cerro Gordo; Contreras; Churubusco; Molino del Rey; Chapultepec; Tamaulipas 1846; Puebla 1847.
  • American Civil War: Bull Run; Peninsula; Antietam; Fredericksburg; Chancellorsville; Gettysburg; Wilderness; Spotsylvania; Cold Harbor; Petersburg; Shenandoah; Appomattox; Florida 1861; Florida 1862; Virginia 1861; Virginia 1862; Virginia 1863; Virginia 1865; Maryland 1863.
  • World War II: Tunisia; Naples-Foggia; Anzio; Rome-Arno; Normandy; Northern France; North Apennines; Rhineland; Ardennes-Alsace; Central Europe; England 1944.
  • Vietnam: Counteroffensive, Phase II; Counteroffensive, Phase III; Tet Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase IV; Counteroffensive, Phase V; Counteroffensive, Phase VI; Tet 69/Counteroffensive; Summer-Fall 1969; Winter-Spring 1970; Sanctuary Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase VII.
  • Southwest Asia: Liberation and Defense of Kuwait.[3]

Decorations

  • Army Superior Unit Award for 1990–1991
  • Air Force Outstanding Unit Award for KOREA 1978–1981

Current configuration

Active Units:

  • 3rd Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (3-2nd ADAR)
  • A Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (A-2nd ADAR)
  • B Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (B-2nd ADAR)
  • D Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (D-2nd ADAR)

Inactive Units:

  • 1st Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (1-2nd ADAR)[11]
  • 2nd Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (2-2nd ADAR)
  • 4th Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (4-2nd ADAR)
  • 5th Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (5-2nd ADAR)[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b A-2 THAAD successfully intercepts missile target Fort Bliss Bugle (20 July 2017) accessdate=2017-07-20
  2. ^ Capt. Jonathon Daniell (20 October 2017) THAAD battery reflags to align with 35th ADA Brigade in South Korea
  3. ^ a b "2d Air Defense Artillery". www.history.army.mil. Retrieved 2016-10-21.
  4. ^ Simpson, Lt. W. A. "Second Regiment of Artillery." In Rodenbough, Brevet Brigadier General Theo. F. and Major William L. Haskin, eds. The Army of the United States: Historical Sketches of Staff and Line with Portraits of Generals-in-Chief. New York: Maynard, Merrilee, & Company, 1896.
  5. ^ Tucker, Spencer, James R. Arnold, Roberta Wiener, Paul G. Pierpaoli, Thomas W. Cutrer, and Pedro Santoni. The Encyclopedia of the Mexican-American War: A Political, Social, and Military History. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2013, p. 187.
  6. ^ Duncan's Battery (1839-1848)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Gaines, p. 5
  8. ^ Berhow, pp. 440-441
  9. ^ a b c d Stanton, p. 455
  10. ^ Little Creek historical website at American Forts Network
  11. ^ 1st Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Lineage
  12. ^ 5th Battalion, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Lineage

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Center of Military History document "2d Air Defense Artillery Regiment Lineage and Honors".

External links

108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)

The 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade is an air defense artillery brigade of the United States Army. The mission of the brigade is to train and maintain a strategic crisis response air defense artillery brigade capable of deploying worldwide, on short notice, to provide air defense force protection from air-breathing threats and tactical ballistic missiles, as well as allow freedom of maneuver for XVIII Airborne Corps operations.

11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)

The 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade is an air defense artillery brigade of the United States Army stationed at Fort Bliss.

1st Battalion, 1st Air Defense Artillery Regiment (United States)

The 1st Battalion, 1st Air Defense Artillery Regiment was organized in the 1790s as a company in the 2nd Regiment of Artillerists and Engineers. From there, the battalion was called upon to serve in multiple conflicts including the War of 1812, Indian Wars, Mexican-American War, World War II, and modern conflicts in the Middle East.

From February 2003 to May 2003, the battalion served in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Alpha and Bravo batteries deployed to provide air defense for the Kingdom of Bahrain, while the balance of the battalion deployed to Kuwait in support of operation there.

In February 2006, the battalion was deployed on a contingency operation to Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan, to provide air defense for key assets in the Pacific region; the battalion arrived in November of that same year. The battalion is currently assigned to the 38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, and is charged with providing air and missile defense in support of the INDOPACOM commander.

2nd U.S. Light Artillery, Battery G

Battery "G" 2nd Regiment of Artillery was a light artillery battery that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)

The 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade is an air defense artillery brigade of the United States Army based at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)

The 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (35th ADAB) is an air defense artillery unit of the United States Army subordinate to the Eighth United States Army, located at Osan Air Base in the Republic of Korea.

The 35th ADA has integrated THAAD into its layered defense on the Korean Peninsula.

Active regular United States Army units with campaign credit for the War of 1812

Twenty-three currently active battalions of the Regular Army earned credit for campaigns during the War of 1812: two Air Defense Artillery battalions, six Field Artillery Battalions and seventeen Infantry battalions. These twenty-three battalions represent two Air Defense Artillery, four Field Artillery and seven Infantry regiments. Three additional Air Defense Artillery regiments have been awarded shared credit for War of 1812 campaigns, but the lineages of the artillery companies that earned those credits have not been perpetuated by currently active battalions.

There are also twenty-four Army National Guard units with campaign credit for the War of 1812.

Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System

The Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (Aegis BMD or ABMD) is a United States Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency program developed to provide missile defense against short to intermediate-range ballistic missiles. It is part of the United States national missile defense strategy. Aegis BMD (also known as Sea-Based Midcourse) is designed to intercept ballistic missiles post-boost phase and prior to reentry.

It enables warships to shoot down enemy ballistic missiles by expanding the Aegis Combat System with the addition of the AN/SPY-1 radar and Standard missile technologies. Aegis BMD-equipped vessels can transmit their target detection information to the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense system and, if needed, engage potential threats using the RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) mid-course interceptors and the RIM-156 Standard Missile 2 Extended Range Block IV (SM-2 Block IV) or RIM-174 Standard Extended Range Active Missile (SM-6) terminal-phase interceptors. The Aegis BMD system is not designed, at least at present, to intercept longer-ranged intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Detection and tracking data collected by the Aegis BMD system’s radar, however, might be passed to other U.S. BMD systems that are designed to intercept ICBMs, which might support intercepts of ICBMs that are conducted by those other U.S. BMD systems.The current system uses the Lockheed Martin Aegis Weapon System and the Raytheon Standard missile. Notable subcontractors and technical experts include Boeing Defense, Space & Security, Alliant Techsystems (ATK), Honeywell, Engility, Naval Surface Warfare Center, SPAWAR Systems Center, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (Lincoln Lab).

Air Defense Artillery Branch

The Air Defense Artillery branch is the branch of the United States Army that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles). In the U.S. Army, these groups are composed of mainly air defense systems such as the Patriot Missile System, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and the Avenger Air Defense system which fires the FIM-92 Stinger missile. The Air Defense Artillery branch descended from Anti-Aircraft Artillery (part of the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps until 1950, then part of the Artillery Branch) into a separate branch on 20 June 1968. On 1 December 1968, the ADA branch was authorized to wear modified Artillery insignia, crossed field guns with missile. The Branch Motto, "First To Fire", was adopted in 1986 by the attendees of the ADA Commanders' Conference at Fort Bliss. The motto refers to a speech given by General Jonathan Wainwright to veterans of the 200th Coast Artillery (Antiaircraft) stating they were the 'First to Fire' in World War II against the Empire of Japan.

Early U.S. Artillery formations

In the early years of the Republic, the United States Army experimented with a number of different artillery formations. For a time, the Artillery Branch and Engineer Branch were combined. Unit designations did not yet contain the terms "Field Artillery" or "Coast Artillery," although units so designated, as well those of the as air defense artillery units, would eventually trace their lineage and honors to some of the early formations.

Fort Sill

Fort Sill, Oklahoma is a United States Army post north of Lawton, Oklahoma, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City. It covers almost 94,000 acres (38,000 ha).The fort was first built during the Indian Wars. It is designated as a National Historic Landmark and serves as home of the United States Army Field Artillery School as well as the Marine Corps' site for Field Artillery MOS school, United States Army Air Defense Artillery School, the 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade, and the 75th Field Artillery Brigade. Fort Sill is also one of the four locations for Army Basic Combat Training. It has played a significant role in every major American conflict since 1869.

Paskhas

Paskhas (Indonesian: Korps Pasukan Khas) is the air force infantry and special forces corps of the Indonesian Air Force ("TNI-AU"). The corps is also known as the Orange Berets (Baret Jingga in Indonesian) from the colour of their service headgear. Paskhas is trained to seize and defend airfields from enemy forces known as Operasi Pembentukan dan Pengoperasian Pangkalan Udara Depan (OP 3 UD) (Frontline Air Base Establishment and Management Operation), airborne operations, and other specific military operations within the scope of the Indonesian Air Force.

Paskhas is tasked with carrying out the objectives and defense of the strategic objects of the Air Force, air defense, special operations and other typical military operations under the policy of the TNI chief Commander. Paskhas has many air-oriented combat abilities, such as combat-control team, airfield control and defense, combat search and rescue, jumpmaster, airborne, ground-forward air control and high-altitude military parachuting. They also can operate as Air Traffic Controllers (ATC) in certain situations.

Paskhas has a special unit tasked for conducting special operations such as responding to aircraft hijackings and other specific missions tasked to the corps, the unit is known as the Bravo Detachment 90 (Satbravo 90).

Terminal High Altitude Area Defense

Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), formerly Theater High Altitude Area Defense, is an American anti-ballistic missile defense system designed to shoot down short-, medium-, and intermediate-range ballistic missiles in their terminal phase (descent or reentry) by intercepting with a hit-to-kill approach. THAAD was developed after the experience of Iraq's Scud missile attacks during the Gulf War in 1991. The THAAD interceptor carries no warhead, but relies on its kinetic energy of impact to destroy the incoming missile. A kinetic energy hit minimizes the risk of exploding conventional-warhead ballistic missiles, and the warhead of nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles will not detonate upon a kinetic-energy hit.

Originally a United States Army program, THAAD has come under the umbrella of the Missile Defense Agency. The Navy has a similar program, the sea-based Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, which also has a land component ("Aegis ashore"). THAAD was originally scheduled for deployment in 2012, but initial deployment took place in May 2008. THAAD has been deployed in Guam, the United Arab Emirates, Israel, and South Korea.

The vulnerability and lethality analyses of the THAAD have been conducted by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL). The vulnerability assessment for the THAAD featured an evaluation of the effects of major electromagnetic elements. This included EM interference, EM radiation operations, EM radiation hazards, EM pulse, electrostatic discharge, and lightning effects on components of the THAAD system.The ARL assessments were designed to determine the THAAD system's growth potential given its tactical design as well as provide survivability analysis against threats such as conventional weapons, chemical weapons, and electronic warfare countermeasures. The data collected from the analyses were used to develop trajectory models for targets and missile as well as target trajectories using infrared scene generation of infrared countermeasures (IRCMs).The THAAD system is being designed, built, and integrated by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control acting as prime contractor. Key subcontractors include Raytheon, Boeing, Aerojet Rocketdyne, Honeywell, BAE Systems, Oshkosh Defense, and MiltonCAT.

U.S. Army Regimental System

The United States Army Regimental System (USARS) was established in 1981 to replace the Combat Arms Regimental System, to provide each soldier with continuous identification with a single regiment, and to increase a soldier's probability of serving recurring assignments with his or her regiment. The USARS was intended to enhance combat effectiveness by providing the opportunity for a regimental affiliation, thus obtaining some of the benefits of the traditional regimental system.

Artillery formations of the United States
Misc. formations
Air Defense Artillery
Coast Artillery
Field Artillery

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.