The Second Bombardment Wing, abbreviated both as 2d Bombardment Wing and 2nd Bombardment Wing, of the United States Army Air Forces is a disbanded unit whose last assignment was with the Continental Air Forces, based at McChord Field, Washington. It was last active in November 1945.
|2d Bombardment Wing|
93d Bombardment Group B-24D Liberator 41-23711, at RAF Alconbury, England, 1942.
|Active||1919–1921, 1922-1941, 1942-1945|
|Branch||United States Army Air Forces|
|Role||Bomber operational command & control|
|Engagements||European Theater of World War II|
|Maj Gen Oscar Westover|
Lt Gen Edward Timberlake
Colonel James Stewart
2d Bombardment Wing emblem
The wing was organized in 1919 at Langley Field, Virginia and assumed control of all Air Service units on the Atlantic Coast. It was inactivated at Langley in 1921 and most of its personnel were assigned to Air Park No.3. It was reactivated the following year and conducted mostly bombardment operations. As the 2nd Wing, the unit became one of the original wings of the GHQ Air Force on 1 March 1935. It once again conducted much of the United States Army's pursuit, bombardment and observation operations in the eastern part of the United States. The wing's 2d Bombardment Group was the first group of the Air Corps to equip with the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. The wing provided cadres for new tactical units activating as the Air Corps expanded under the Woodring Plan. It participated in maneuvers during 1940 that influenced Air Corps doctrine on the employment of airpower. The wing was inactivated in 1941 and its personnel used as the cadre for 1st Bomber Command.
The group was reactivated as a heavy bomber operational command and control organization in June 1942. It moved to England, August–September 1942, and became a heavy bombardment wing of Eighth AF. In the fall of 1942, it helped to train bombardment groups assigned to Twelfth Air Force.
It served in combat in the European theater from November 1942 to June 1943. The wing ceased combat temporarily during July and August 1943 while its groups were detached to the Mediterranean theater. The wing resumed combat in the European theater in October 1943 and continued operations until April 1945. In August 1945 it returned to the US and was inactivated in November.
Except as noted, lineage and station information is in Maurer, Combat Units.
The 14th Air Division is an inactive United States Air Force unit. Its last assignment was with Fifteenth Air Force, stationed at Beale Air Force Base, California. It was inactivated on 14 June 1989.389th Strategic Missile Wing
The 389th Strategic Missile Wing is an inactive unit of the United States Air Force. Its last assignment was with the 13th Strategic Missile Division at Francis E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming, where it was inactivated on 25 March 1965.
The wing was first active during World War II as the 389th Bombardment Group, a Consolidated B-24 Liberator unit that served with VIII Bomber Command in England. The group was stationed at RAF Hethel in early 1943. It was one of three Eighth Air Force B-24 groups that took part in Operation Tidal Wave, the Ploiești Mission of 1 August 1943. For his actions during the Ploiești operation, Second Lieutenant Lloyd Herbert Hughes was awarded the Medal of Honor. The group continued in combat until the surrender of Germany in 1945, then returned to the United States where it was inactivated.
The 389th Strategic Missile Wing was activated in 1961, when it assumed the assets of the inactivating 706th Strategic Missile Wing. It operated Atlas missiles at Warren until they were phased out in 1965.
In early 1984, the group and wing were consolidated into a single unit, but have not been active since.445th Operations Group
The 445th Operations Group (445 OG) is the flying component of the 445th Airlift Wing, assigned to Fourth Air Force of the United States Air Force Reserve. The group is stationed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.
The group was first activated during World War II as the 445th Bombardment Group, a Consolidated B-24 Liberator unit stationed in England with VIII Bomber Command. The 445th was stationed at RAF Tibenham in late 1943. The group earned a Distinguished Unit Citation on 24 February 1944 for attacking an aircraft assembly plant at Gotha, in Central Germany, losing thirteen aircraft. The 445th also earned the French Croix de Guerre with Palm for its operations supporting the liberation of France. The 445th was actor Jimmy Stewart's original bombardment group.
The United States Air Force (USAF) reactivated the group in the Air Force Reserve in 1947. In June 1949 it was inactivated when Continental Air Command reorganized its reserve units under the wing base reorganization plan.
After the Korean War, the group was again active at as the 445th Fighter-Bomber Group, the operational element of the 445th Fighter-Bomber Wing near Buffalo, New York. In 1957 the group moved to Memphis Municipal Airport, where it replaced the 319th Fighter-Bomber Group and converted to a troop carrier mission when USAF decided to concentrate its reserve fighter resources in the Air National Guard. The group was inactivated a year later when its parent wing converted to the dual deputy organization and its operational squadrons were assigned directly to the 445th Troop Carrier Wing.
In 1992 the group once again assumed its role as the operational element of the 445th Airlift Wing under the USAF objective wing organization and became an associate unit of the active duty 63d Operations Group. The following year, the group moved to March Air Reserve Base, California when Norton AFB closed. In the spring of 1994 the active duty 63d Airlift Wing and its elements inactivated and reserve airlift units joined with the air refueling units already assigned to the 452d Air Mobility Wing or inactivated. The 445th was activated again later that year at Wright-Patterson as a stand-alone Lockheed C-141 Starlifter organization.453rd Operations Group
The 453rd Operations Group is an inactive United States Air Force unit. Its last assignment was to the 43d Air Refueling Wing, stationed at Souda Bay, Greece. It was activated as a temporary MAJCOM air refueling organization flying KC-135 Stratotankers as part of Operation Restore Hope.
During World War II, its predecessor unit, the 453rd Bombardment Group was an Eighth Air Force B-24 Liberator heavy bombardment group stationed in England. Its 733d Bombardment Squadron completed 82 consecutive missions without a loss, a record. James Stewart, of film fame, was Group Operations Officer from March 31 to July 1, 1944.Eighth Air Force
The Eighth Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) (8 AF) is a numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC). It is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. The command serves as Air Forces Strategic – Global Strike, one of the air components of United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). The Eighth Air Force includes the heart of America's heavy bomber force: the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber, the B-1 Lancer supersonic bomber, and the B-52 Stratofortress heavy bomber aircraft.
Established on 22 February 1944 by the redesignation of VIII Bomber Command at RAF Daws Hill in High Wycombe, England, the Eighth Army Air Force (8 AAF) was a United States Army Air Forces combat air force in the European Theater of World War II (1939/41–1945), engaging in operations primarily in the Northern Europe AOR; carrying out strategic bombing of enemy targets in France, the low countries, and Germany; and engaging in air-to-air fighter combat against enemy aircraft until the German capitulation in May 1945. It was the largest of the deployed combat Army Air Forces in numbers of personnel, aircraft, and equipment.
During the Cold War (1945–1991), 8 AF was one of three Numbered Air Forces of the United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command (SAC), with a three-star general headquartered at Westover AFB, Massachusetts commanding USAF strategic bombers and missiles on a global scale. Elements of 8 AF engaged in combat operations during the Korean War (1950–1953); Vietnam War (1961-1975), as well as Operation Desert Storm (1990–1991) over Iraq and occupied Kuwait in the First Persian Gulf War.