2K resolution

2K resolution is a generic term for display devices or content having horizontal resolution of approximately 2,000 pixels.[1] Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI) defines 2K resolution standard as 2048×1080.[2][3]

In the movie projection industry, DCI is the dominant standard for 2K output.

Vector Video Standards8
Display resolutions


Format Resolution Display aspect ratio Pixels
DCI 2K (native resolution) 2048 × 1080 1.90:1 (256:135, ~17:9) 2,211,840
DCI 2K (flat cropped) 1998 × 1080 1.85:1 2,157,840
DCI 2K (CinemaScope cropped) 2048 × 858 2.39:1 1,755,136

Comparison to 1080p

Occasionally, 1080p (Full HD or FHD) has been included into the 2K resolution definition. Although 1920x1080 could be considered as having a horizontal resolution of approximately 2,000 pixels, most media, including web content and books on video production, cinema references and definitions, define 1080p and 2K resolutions as separate definitions and not the same.

Although 1080p has the same vertical resolution as DCI 2K resolutions (1080 pixels), it has a smaller horizontal resolution below the range of 2K resolution formats.[4]

According to official reference material, DCI and industry standards do not officially recognize 1080p as a 2K resolution in literature concerning 2K and 4K resolution.[2][3][5][6]

See also

  • 1080p Full HD – digital video format with a horizontal resolution of 1920×1080
  • 1440p – digital video format with a horizontal resolution of 1440, aimed at non-television computer monitor usage
  • 21:9 – a common widescreen cinema aspect ratio
  • 5K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 5000 pixels, aimed at non-television computer monitor usage
  • 10K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 10,000 pixels, aimed at non-television computer monitor usage
  • 16K resolution – experimental VR format
  • Ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) – digital video formats with resolutions of 4K (3840×2160) and 8K (7680×4320)
  • Rec. 2020 – ITU-R Recommendation for UHDTV
  • Aspect ratio (image) – proportional relationship between an image's width and height
  • High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) – video standard that supports 4K & 8K UHDTV and resolutions up to 8192×4320
  • Rec. 2020 – ITU-R Recommendation for UHDTV
  • Digital cinema
  • Display resolution


  1. ^ James, Jack (2006). Digital Intermediates for Film and Video. Focal Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-240-80702-7. Retrieved April 19, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Digital Cinema System Specification" (PDF). Digital Cinema Initiatives. 10 October 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-05-27. Retrieved 2015-04-02.
  3. ^ a b Swinson, Peter R (November 2005). "DCI and OTHER Film Formats" (PDF).
  4. ^ Lenovo. "What is 2K Resolution?".
  5. ^ Ascher, Steven (2007). The Filmmaker's Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide for the Digital Age. Penguin. pp. 189, 714. ISBN 045-2-286-786. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
  6. ^ Siglin, Tim (March 8, 2013). "What is 2K and 4K Video?". www.streamingmedia.com. Retrieved March 29, 2015.

FYQ-93 was a computer system used from 1983–2006, and built for the Joint Surveillance System (JSS) by the Hughes Aircraft Company. The system consisted of a fault tolerant central computer complex using a two string concept that interfaced with many display consoles and interfaced with external radars to provide a region-sector display of air traffic.

This system was composed of a suite of computers and peripheral equipment configured to receive plot data from ground radar systems, perform track processing, and present track data to both weapons controllers forward and lateral communications links. The HMD-22 consoles displayed data from various radars including the AN/GSQ-235. The data was routed to the Cheyenne Mountain complex from installations located in the continental United States (CONUS), Canada, Alaska and Hawaii.

The need for the FYQ-93 system became apparent in the 1970s when the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system became technologically obsolete and logistically unsupportable. The FYQ-93 system was conceived and specified in the late 1970s. It was manufactured and delivered during the first half of the 1980s and by the end of 1984, all nine facilities were in place. Enough of the system was in place in mid 1983 for the SAGE system to officially shut down and the JSS became the air defense system of the United States and Canada. The large network of military long range radar sites was closed and a much smaller number (43) of FAA Joint Use sites replaced them.

The JSS was a joint USAF/FAA radar use program. The ACC portion of the JSS was composed of four CONUS SOCCs equipped with FYQ-93 computers, and 47 ground-based FPS-93 Search Radars. FAA equipment was a mix of Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) 1, 2, and 3 systems. Collocated with most radar sites were UHF ground-air-ground (G/A/G) transmitter/receiver (GATR) facilities. Fourteen sites have VHF radios also. The GATR facility provided radio access to fighters and AWACS aircraft from the SOCCs.

The JSS radars sent surveillance data to the SOCCs who then forwarded tracks of interest to the CONUS ROCC and North American Air Defense Command (NORAD). Radar and track data were sent through landlines as TADIL-B data and through HF radio links as TADIL-A data. Both TADIL links were provided by the Radar Data Information Link (RADIL). CONUS SOCCs communicated with the CONUS ROCC and NORAD by voice and data landline circuits.

Internally a single "string" of the FYQ-93 system included one Hughes H5118ME Central Computer and two Hughes HMP-1116 Peripheral computers. Radar data was input and buffered in one 1116 for orderly transfer to the 5118, which then constructed the "air picture". The second 1116 on the string handled program loading, console commands, and data storage. The output of the string fed another 1116 called a "Display Controller" (DC), which sent data to and received switch actions from the HMD-22 consoles. Typically there were two strings and two DCs processing in parallel, one on standby in case of a malfunction in its counterpart. Either string could feed either DC for further equipment reliability.

The software was written in a proprietary version of the programming language JOVIAL termed JSS JOVIAL. The system was updated over time to change tape drives to disk cartridges and single-line printers to multi-line printers. The memory in the H5118ME was expanded at least twice to the system maximum of 512,000 18-bit words.

The H5118E was eventually upgraded to the H5118M computer which had 1 megabyte of memory and could handle 1.2 million instructions per second while the original model had a memory of 256 kilobytes and a clock speed of 150000 instructions per second. Although the H5118M was part of the NATO Integrated Air Defense System it is unclear if JSS received the same upgrades.

Internal to Hughes, the next generation Air Defense and Air Traffic Control systems were being developed as JSS was being deployed. The next generation was based on using any computer of a certain processing class to replace the 5118 computer. Examples include DEC VAX and Norsk Data Systems. This was driven in part by the needs of different sovereign states who wanted their computers used for their in-country systems. This was also driven by the great miniaturization of computer hardware. The next generation Hughes systems used 2K X 2K resolution 20" X 20" color raster displays, touch entry, voice synthesis and recognition consoles, dual redundant Fiber Optic Token ring buses to link all consoles and computers, extensive processing in the consoles including mission processing, and movement into software written in the programming language Ada.The FYQ-93 was part of a long history of developing air defense Systems starting in the 1950s. The FYQ-93 was based on the Combat Grande System which was one of the first systems to extensively use science and engineering principals to develop software. This allowed for extensive re-use and optimization for the needs of each nation state installing and using the Hughes Systems.


CinePlayer is a software based media player used to review Digital Cinema Packages (DCP) without the need for a digital cinema server by Doremi Labs. CinePlayer can play back any DCP, not just those created by Doremi Mastering products. In addition to playing DCPs, CinePlayer can also playback JPEG2000 image sequences and many popular multimedia file types.

There are two versions of CinePlayer available, standard and Pro. The standard version supports playback of non-encrypted, 2D DCP’s up to 2K resolution. The Pro version supports playback of encrypted, 2D or 3D DCP’s with subtitles up to 4K resolution.

Digital Cinema Initiatives

Digital Cinema Initiatives, LLC (DCI) is a joint venture of major motion picture studios, formed to establish a standard architecture for digital cinema systems.

The organization was formed in March 2002 by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment, 20th Century Fox, Universal Studios, The Walt Disney Company and Warner Bros.

The primary purpose of DCI is to establish and document specifications for an open architecture for digital cinema that ensures a uniform and high level of technical performance, reliability and quality. By establishing a common set of content requirements, distributors, studios, exhibitors, d-cinema manufacturers and vendors can be assured of interoperability and compatibility. Because of the relationship of DCI to many of Hollywood's key studios, conformance to DCI's specifications is considered a requirement by software developers or equipment manufacturers targeting the digital cinema market.

Digital intermediate

Digital intermediate (typically abbreviated to DI) is a motion picture finishing process which classically involves digitizing a motion picture and manipulating the color and other image characteristics.

Imagination Creator

Creator is a family of single-board computers developed by Imagination Technologies to promote educational research and software development based on the MIPS architecture. The first board in the platform, the Creator Ci20, was released in August 2014. A second development kit called Creator Ci40 was introduced through a Kickstarter campaign in November 2015.

List of IMAX venues

This is a list of IMAX venues which feature either 15/70 mm film projectors or IMAX with Laser projectors. Not included are IMAX venues with solely 2K resolution digital xenon projectors.

Traditional 15/70 mm IMAX locations use 70 mm film projectors, with the film running through the projector(s) horizontally, each frame being 15 perforations wide. 3D presentations are shown using two projectors and either linear polarized or LCD shutter glasses. These locations are capable of displaying aspect ratios as tall as 1.43:1. IMAX with Laser locations use two 4K resolution digital projectors with laser light sources, with 3D content using wavelength multiplex visualization in a similar fashion to Dolby 3D. They are capable of displaying aspect ratios as tall as 1.43:1.

All cinemas feature 3D projection unless noted otherwise.


Loev (pronounced love) is a 2015 Indian romantic drama film written and directed by Sudhanshu Saria. Produced by Saria and Bombay Berlin Film Productions, the film stars Dhruv Ganesh and Shiv Pandit as two friends who set off to the Western Ghats for a weekend trip and focuses on their complex emotional and sexual relationship. It was Ganesh's final film role as he died from tuberculosis prior to the production's release. Loev also features Siddharth Menon and Rishabh Chaddha in supporting roles. The film's title is a deliberate misspelling of the word "love".

Saria wrote Loev's script while he was working on the draft of the unreleased film I Am Here and drew heavily from his personal experiences. It was eventually picked up for production by Arfi Lamba and Katherine Suckale despite Saria's own doubts on its viability. Principal photography took place at Mahabaleshwar, in the Western Ghats in peninsular India, and at Mumbai. The film was shot in the summer of 2014, over the course of 16 days by the cinematographer Sherri Kauk in 2K resolution. It relied on crowdfunding and cost-cutting measures; its budget was relatively low at $1 million.

Loev had its world premiere at the 2015 Tallinn Black Nights Film Festival in Estonia. It had its North American premiere at the 2016 South By Southwest Film Festival and premiered in India at the 2016 Mumbai International Film Festival, and was well received by the critics and audience alike. Particular praise was given for the script as well as the performances of Pandit and Ganesh. Commentators were also appreciative of the unconventional and fresh treatment of same-sex relationships in India. The film won the Audience Award for Best Feature Film at the 2016 Tel Aviv International Film Festival. Loev was released on Netflix on 1 May 2017.

Meizu MX4 Pro

The Meizu MX4 Pro is a smartphone designed and produced by the Chinese manufacturer Meizu, which runs on Flyme OS, Meizu’s modified Android operating system. It is a previous phablet model of the MX series, representing a more powerful version of the Meizu MX4.

It was unveiled on 19 November 2014 in Beijing.


Mutthanna (Kannada: ಮುತ್ತಣ್ಣ) is a 1994 Indian Kannada action drama film directed by M. S. Rajashekar and produced by L. Somanna Gowda. The film features Shivarajkumar in dual roles, Shashikumar, Supriya and Sneha in the lead roles.The film was a remake of director Manmohan Desai's Hindi film Sachaa Jhutha (1970) starring Rajesh Khanna, Mumtaz and Vinod Khanna in the lead roles. The film also had its Tamil version released in 1975 as Ninaithadhai Mudippavan starring M. G. Ramachandran and M. N. Nambiar. Shivarajkumar's elder daughter made her only screen appearance in the movie, credited as Baby Nirupama Shivarajkumar. The film was re-released in digital with 2K resolution & 7.1 surround sound in October 2017.

Pandora International

Pandora International is a maker of hardware and software systems for video editing, Telecine Control and Colour Correction. Pandora was founded in 1985 By Steve Brett and Martin Greenwood, later Aine Marsland joined the team and took over the administration of the Company. Pandora International devices are able to colour-correct video and 16 mm and 35 mm motion picture film in real time. Pandora International is based in Greenhithe, Kent, England.

Pleasantville (film)

Pleasantville is a 1998 comedy-drama film written, co-produced, and directed by Gary Ross. It stars Tobey Maguire, Jeff Daniels, Joan Allen, William H. Macy, J. T. Walsh, and Reese Witherspoon, with Don Knotts, Paul Walker, and Jane Kaczmarek in supporting roles. The story centers on two siblings who wind up trapped in a 1950s TV show, set in a small Midwest town, where residents are seemingly perfect. In their attempts to fit in, the two become more aware of social issues such as racism and freedom of speech.

The film was J.T. Walsh's final performance, and was dedicated to his memory.

Red Digital Cinema

Red Digital Cinema is an American company that manufactures digital cinematography cameras and accessories.

The company’s headquarters are in Irvine, California, with studios in Hollywood, California. It has offices in London, Shanghai and Singapore, retail stores in Hollywood, New York and Miami as well as various authorized resellers and service centers around the world.


Remaster (also digital remastering and digitally remastered) refers to changing the quality of the sound or of the image, or both, of previously created recordings, either audiophonic, cinematic, or videographic.

Shoah (film)

Shoah is a 1985 French documentary film about the Holocaust, directed by Claude Lanzmann. Over nine hours long and 11 years in the making, the film presents Lanzmann's interviews with survivors, witnesses and perpetrators during visits to German Holocaust sites across Poland, including extermination camps.Released in Paris in April 1985, Shoah won critical acclaim and several prominent awards, including the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Non-Fiction Film and the BAFTA Award for Best Documentary. Simone de Beauvoir hailed it as a "sheer masterpiece", while documentary maker Marcel Ophüls called it "the greatest documentary about contemporary history ever made". The film was not well received in Poland; the Polish government argued that it accused Poland of "complicity in Nazi genocide".Shoah premiered in New York at the Cinema Studio in October 1985 and was broadcast in the United States by PBS over four nights in 1987. In 2000 it was released on VHS and in 2010 on DVD. Lanzmann's 350 hours of raw footage, along with the transcripts, are available on the website of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.The entire 566-minute film was digitally restored and remastered by The Criterion Collection over 2012–13 in 2k resolution, from the original 16mm negatives. The monaural audio track was remastered without compression. A Blu-ray edition in three disks was then produced from these new masters, including three additional films by Lanzmann.


SxS (S-by-S) is a flash memory standard compliant to the Sony and SanDisk-created ExpressCard standard. According to Sandisk and Sony, the cards have transfer rates of 800 Mbit/s and burst transfer rate of up to 2.5 Gbit/s over the ExpressCard's PCI Express interface. Sony uses these cards as the storage medium for their XDCAM EX line of professional video cameras.

Take This Hammer (film)

Take This Hammer is a documentary film produced and directed by KQED (TV)'s Richard O. Moore for National Educational Television in 1963. The film first aired on February 4, 1964 in the Bay Area, at 7:30pm on Ch.9 KQED.

It features KQED's mobile film unit following author and activist James Baldwin in the spring of 1963, as he's driven around San Francisco to meet with members of the local African American community. He is escorted by Youth For Service's Executive Director Orville Luster and trying to establish: "The real situation of Negroes in the city, as opposed to the image San Francisco would like to present." He declares: "There is no moral distance ... between the facts of life in San Francisco and the facts of life in Birmingham. Someone's got to tell it like it is. And that's where it's at." Baldwin has frank exchanges with local people on the street and meets with community leaders in the Bayview and Western Addition neighborhoods. He also reflects on the racial inequality that African Americans are forced to confront and at one point tries to lift the morale of a young man, by expressing his conviction that: "There will be a Negro president of this country but it will not be the country that we are sitting in now."

A 16mm print of Take This Hammer was digitally restored in 2009 by the San Francisco Bay Area Television Archive and screened at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in August with an introduction by Moore, who discussed the film with his cinematographer, Academy Award-winning documentary maker Irving Saraf.In January 2011, Moore pointed out that nearly fifteen minutes of somewhat controversial statements from kids at Hunters Point were cut from his film. This was a concession that he deeply regretted. It was made following complaints from the KQED Board. They felt that the lengthy sequences with young Black Muslims were excessive and that the film should not be broadcast. Cutting the sequences shifted the attention to Baldwin and away from the Black Muslims. In the interests of getting the film broadcast, Moore agreed to the cuts. This cleared the way for both local and national broadcast. It also placed a great strain on his relationship with James Baldwin. He was genuinely surprised at the intensity of the anger expressed by the youth and felt that this should be the major emphasis of the film. The long monologue at the end of the film shifted the attention back to Baldwin. This may have made it more of an "artful" documentary but at the expense of, once again, ignoring the plight of young, urban African Americans. A 16mm film print featuring Moore's original edit (59 minutes long) was identified in the KQED Film Collection at the San Francisco Bay Area Television Archive in June 2013 which contained 15 minutes of extra footage, mostly featuring scenes of African American youth speaking with Baldwin about their lives and the police, on the streets of San Francisco. Movette Film Transfer of San Francisco remastered this 16mm positive film print in August 2013 in 2K resolution (2048x1556 pixels), using a Kinetta film scanner.Moore also noted that there are no full credits at the end of the film. The person who made the connection with Baldwin possible was Mary Ann Pollard. Those involved with the KQED Film Unit were Irving Saraf, Phil Greene, and sound engineer Hank McGill. It was McGill's Corvair station wagon that was rigged up for filming in motion. They didn't have a wireless camera and recorder, but did have Irving squeezed into the trunk (the Corvair engine was in the rear) and Phil was on his stomach in the rear sharing space with a Magnasync.On February 5, 2014 there was a free public screening of Take this Hammer (the director's cut) at the Bayview Opera House on Third Street in San Francisco, to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the film's first television broadcast. This community event was organized and co-sponsored by the Center for Political Education (CPE), the San Francisco Bay Area Television Archive, the Bayview Branch of the San Francisco Public Library and POWER (People Organized to Win Employment Rights). The San Francisco Arts Commission also assisted with producing this event.In March and April 2014 sound editor John Nutt digitally restored the film's optical soundtrack, to improve the audio quality for long term preservation. This was made publicly available online in April.

Vivo (technology company)

Vivo Communication Technology Co. Ltd. (commonly referred to as Vivo, named after the Esperanto word for "life") is a Chinese technology company owned by BBK Electronics that makes smartphones, smartphone accessories, software, and online services. It was founded in 2009 in Dongguan, China. The company develops software for their phones such as the Vivo App Store, iManager included in their proprietary Android-based operating system called Funtouch OS.

Vivo joined the ranks of the top 10 smartphone makers in the first quarter of 2015 with a global market share of 2.7%. With research and development centers in Shenzhen and Nanjing, the company employs 1,600 R&D personnel as of January 2016.


XAVC is a recording format that was introduced by Sony on October 30, 2012. XAVC is a format that will be licensed to companies that want to make XAVC products.

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