28th Bomb Squadron

The 28th Bomb Squadron is a squadron of the United States Air Force. It is assigned to the 7th Operations Group, Global Strike Command, stationed at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas. The squadron is equipped with the Rockwell B-1B Lancer.[1]

The 28th is one of the oldest and most decorated units in the United States Air Force, being organized as the 28th Aero Squadron on 22 June 1917 at Camp Kelly, Texas. The squadron deployed to France and fought on the Western Front during World War I as a pursuit squadron. The unit was demobilized after the war in 1919.[4]

Organized in 1921 as the 28th Squadron (Bombardment) in the permanent United States Army Air Service, the squadron served in the Philippines during the Inter-War period, engaging in combat during the 1941-42 Battle of the Philippines at the beginning of World War II. Withdrawn to Australia, it fought in the Dutch East Indies campaign before returning to the United States and being re-equipped with Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombers. It returned to the Pacific Theater of Operations in early 1945 to carry out strategic bombing missions over the Japanese Home Islands.[3]

It carried out B-29 bombardment missions over North Korea during the Korean War. During the Cold War, it served as a Boeing B-47 Stratojet and Boeing B-52 Stratofortress squadron as part of Strategic Air Command.[3]

28th Bomb Squadron
28th Bomb Squadron - Rockwell B-1B Lancer Lot V 86-0123
28th Bomb Squadron B-1B Lancer[note 1]
Active1917–1919; 1921–1922; 1922–1944; 1944–1983; 1987–present
Country United States
Branch United States Air Force
TypeSquadron
RoleBombardment, formerly pursuit
Part ofAir Force Global Strike Command.svg  Global Strike Command
Garrison/HQDyess Air Force Base, Texas
Tail Code"DY"
EngagementsWorld War I
Southwest Pacific Theater
Korean War[1]
Decorations
  • Streamer PUC Army

    Distinguished Unit Citation (9x)
  • US Air Force Outstanding Unit Award - Stremer

    Air Force Outstanding Unit Award (6x)
  • Presidential Unit Citation (Philippines) Streamer

    Philippine Presidential Unit Citation
  • Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation Streamer

    Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation[1]
Insignia
28th Bomb Squadron emblem (approved 26 March 1996)[1]
28th Bomb Squadron
28th Aero Squadron emblem (approved by AEF 18 November 1918,[2] approved 14 February 1924 for 28th Bombardment Squadron[1][3])
28th Aero Squadron - Emblem
Aircraft flown
BomberB-1B Lancer

Mission

The 28th flies the Rockwell B-1B Lancer intercontinental strategic bomber. It is the largest bomb squadron in the Air Force. The squadron's mission is to provide all B-1 initial qualification, requalification, and instructor upgrade training for Global Strike Command.

History

World War I

28th Aero Squadron - Foucaucourt - Full
28th Aero Squadron, unit photograph, Foucaucourt Airdrome, France, 18 November 1918

Established in 1917 as the 28th Aero Squadron after the United States' entry into World War I. Formed at Camp Kelly, Texas,[1] then sent to Quebec for combat flying training with units of the Royal Flying Corps. Deployed on the RMS Olympic to the Western Front in France and served with the British Second and American Fifth Armies from 20 March until c. 24 June 1918 (C flight participated in Somme Defense from 21 March to 6 April 1918). The 28th also saw combat as a pursuit unit with the First United States Army from 2 September 1918 until 10 November 1918. The squadron returned from France in June 1919 and was demobilized.[1] During World War I, it had two aces in its ranks, Martinus Stenseth and Thomas Cassady.[5]

Inter-war years

After World War I, the 28th Squadron (Bombardment), was constituted as a new unit on 30 August 1921. It was organized on 20 September at Mather Field, California and assigned to the Ninth Corps Area. The squadron was equipped with Dayton-Wright DH-4s and was used for aerial forest fire patrols along the western side of the Sierra Mountains and Sacramento, California area. On 19 January 1922, it was consolidated with its World War I predecessor unit, the 28th Aero Squadron, giving it a history dating to 22 June 1917. The unit was inactivated on 28 June 1922 with the closure of Mather Field.[6]

The squadron was reactivated on 1 September 1922 at Clark Field, Philippine Islands and assigned to the Philippine Department. It was moved to Kindley Field, on Corregidor Island and again equipped with DH-4s. Assigned to the 4th Group (Composite) (later 4th Composite Group), the 28th was redesignated the 28th Bombardment Squadron on 25 January 1923.[1][6] Along with the 2d Observation and 3d Pursuit Squadrons, the 28th provided the bombardment capability of the Air Service in the Philippines during the 1920s and 1930s. Its mission was tactical training for coastal defense. Exercises and maneuvers with Army ground forces and Naval forces were a regular and important part of its mission. The squadron was moved to the Manila area in 1922, operating from time to time from either Clark or Nichols Fields.[7]

Along with the venerable DH-4, the 28th was equipped with the Martin NBS-1 bomber (also known as the MB-2) built during the final months of World War I. The MB-2 was the standard bomber of the Air Service throughout the 1920s, the squadron being upgraded to the Keystone LB-5 in 1929, then the Keystone B-3 in 1931. Also, the 28th flew the Loening OA-1 amphibian which it operated from Manila Bay. The obsolete Keystones were replaced by the Martin B-10 in 1937. In June 1938, the squadron moved to Clark Field.[1]

As a result of the rising tensions with the Japanese Empire in 1940, the defenses of the Philippines were judged to be abysmal, and a reinforcement effort was made to defend the islands against any Japanese aggression. The 28th Squadron received Douglas B-18 Bolos in early 1941, and later, some early-model Boeing B-17C Flying Fortresses. On 1 November, it was assigned to the incoming 19th Bombardment Group in a reorganization of the Far East Air Force (FEAF) assets in the Philippines. The 28th, however, was filled with new pilots fresh out of flight training that were sent to reinforce the Philippines. The incoming 19th Group used the 28th as a fourth squadron, deploying two of its squadrons (the 30th and 93d) from March Field, California to the Philippines between 16 October and 4 November 1941 with more modern B-17Es, and the 14th Bombardment Squadron, which had arrived in September as its third squadron. The 28th also had eighteen B-18s on the line at Clark.[7]

By 1 December 1941, the 19th Bombardment Group had all four of its squadrons at Clark Field. It was decided to disperse the Group and move the 14th-or-30th and 93d squadrons south to Del Monte Field on Mindanao. Del Monte, however, was little more than a grass field cut out of a pineapple farm with no supporting hangars, supplies, shops or other infrastructure to support the bombers.[7][8]

On 7 December, there were 35 B-17s in the Philippines, with the 19th and 14th Squadrons at Clark Field on Luzon with a total of 19 planes (B-17Ds and B-17Es), and two squadrons at Del Monte 500 miles to the south with the other 16 B-17Es. A fifth squadron, the 38th Reconnaissance Squadron with four B-17Cs and two new B-17Es was inbound from Hamilton Field, California to Pearl Harbor on their way to the Philippines to reinforce the American force there, and was expected to arrive in a week.[7][8]

World War II

Battle of the Philippines

After the Pearl Harbor Attack on 7 December 1941 in Hawaii, Clark Field was put on alert for a Japanese attack. FEAF Commanding General Lewis H. Brereton sought permission from theater commander General Douglas MacArthur to conduct air raids against Japanese forces on Formosa, but was refused. It was a little before 0800 when Brereton returned to Air Headquarters at Nielson Field. As he entered his office he asked what decision the staff had reached, but on being told said, "No, We can't attack till we're fired on" and explained that he had been directed to prepare the B-17s for action but was not to undertake offensive action till ordered. Later, about 1100 on 8 December[note 2] a combat strike was approved by FEAF against Formosa.[7]

Just as the B-17s were on the line, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service attacked Clark Field and practically destroyed the Army Air Corps capability of conducting an offensive action against the enemy. Damage to the physical structures at Clark Field was immense. This included the barracks which housed the personnel of the 28th. As a result, the entire squadron was ordered to bivouac in a nearby rifle pit. Confusion was the order of the day. A limited few were assigned to help repair and salvage parts of the remaining planes. There was very little for the remaining squadron personnel to do.[7]

With almost all of the squadron's aircraft destroyed at Clark, the men of the ground echelon were pressed into service as infantry under 5th Interceptor Command. On Christmas Eve of 1941, the 28th evacuated Clark Field and went by train to Bataan. The squadron was bivouacked approximately two miles east of Corregidor Island.[7]

On 29 December, the 28th received orders to travel to the port of Mariveles. During its journey to the port, men of the squadron witnessed the Japanese air force attempting to bomb Corregidor. Arriving at the port of Mariveles, they were instructed to board the inter-island steamer, the SS Mayon. That evening, about 21:00 the ship sailed from the port. It traveled all night, and at daylight, anchored off the Island of Mindoro in an attempt to keep away from the enemy naval forces.[7]

However, that area was not a sanctuary, inasmuch as a Japanese patrol bomber spotted the Mayon and attempted to bomb it. The plane dropped six bombs without making a serious hit on the ship. At nightfall, the ship once again initiated its journey southward. The next morning, it anchored in a small cove for protection once again. There was an enormous amount of life preservers and debris on the water on this cove. It was later learned that the Japanese had sunk the sister ship of the Mayon, named the SS Panay, where the Mayon anchored. That night, the ship sailed once more and arrived at the port of Bago, Mindanao the next morning.[7]

At Bago, the men of the 28th were issued some old British Lee–Enfield rifles fully coated with cosmoline. After cleaning their rifles, the men embarked on buses at Malaybalay and stayed overnight. The next day, the enlisted men of the 28th, along with a few officers, were transported further southward by bus to Carmen Ferry on the Pulangi River. They were approximately forty miles from the city of Davao, where the Japanese armed forces were entrenched. its orders were to guard the ferry and patrol the Pulangi River.[7]

On 16 April 1941, the personnel of the 28th Bomb Squadron were ordered north to Maramag, Mindanao. Maramag was the planned site of a secret airfield which was hopefully to be used by FEAF. However, this part of the Philippine Islands defense plans were never fully developed due to enemy action. On 7 May 1942, most of the personnel of the 28th, along with servicemen from other Air Corps units of the 19th Group, were ordered to embark for an area in northern Mindanao known as Alanib. At Alanib, the entire group started on a twenty three kilometer hike to another area in the center of Mindanao named Bosok. This area was not accessible by truck. The group's assignment was to prepare entrenchments for Filipino troops to guard a back trail which could have permitted the Japanese armed forces on Mindanao. The American force, having reached approximately one kilometer from its destination of Bosok, was ambushed by a Japanese patrol. The infiltration had already begun. Fortunately, there were few casualties during the encounter. However, having only shovels and no weapons, the entire force proceeded to backtrack toward Alanib, the embarkation point. The Japanese patrol was in hot pursuit. However, there were U.S. Army trucks at Alanib when the men arrived. The drivers of the trucks informed the men of the 28th that all of the American armed forces in the Philippine Islands had been ordered to surrender as of that day.[7]

At Alanib, the ground echelon of the 28th Bombardment Squadron surrendered to the Japanese as ordered on 10 May 1942, although some presumably joined guerrilla forces and continued fighting as unorganized resistance during the Japanese Occupation. The trucks transported the men of the 28th to Maramag and then to a prisoner of war camp at Malaybaly, Mindanao. After their surrender, a number of the 28th personnel died in Japanese Prisoner of war camps and on the Japanese Hell ships en route to Japan.[7]

The surviving squadron aircraft were sent to Del Monte Field on Mindanao, but were unable to operate effectively against the invading Japanese forces. From Del Monte, the few aircraft began reconnaissance and bombardment operations against Japanese shipping and landing parties until 17 December when badly in need of depot maintenance, the 28th began displacing south to Darwin, Australia. The air echelon of squadron retreated to Australia, reforming at Batchelor Airfield near Darwin, Northern Territory.[9]

Squadron deployed aircraft from Australia to Java in January 1942 to support Allied forces during the Dutch East Indies Campaign, carrying out bombing missions against the advancing Japanese forces. Allied withdraw from Java forced squadron to return to Australia in March.[9]

In Australia, squadron was reformed as part of Fifth Air Force, receiving aircraft and crews from the United States which had arrived in Australia after the Pearl Harbor Attack. Flew combination of B-17C/D/E aircraft; participated in the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942, and raided enemy transportation and communications targets as well as troop concentrations during the Japanese invasion of Papua New Guinea. The squadron bombed enemy airdromes, ground installations, and shipping near Rabaul, New Britain in August 1942.[9]

By late 1942, the USAAF decided that no more B-17s would be sent to the Pacific, and that units would be withdrawn or re-equipped in the Pacific in favor of the longer-ranged Consolidated B-24 Liberator. In addition, the combat losses by Eighth Air Force in Europe were reaching such magnitude that the entire B-17 production was urgently needed for replacements and training in that theater.[9]

Leaving its remaining B-17 aircraft in Australia, squadron personnel returned to the United States in December 1942.[9] The men of the 28th Squadron distinguished themselves during the Battle of the Philippines and the Dutch East Indies campaign by severely disrupting the timetable of the Japanese armed forces in conquering Southeast Asia. This gave the United States government and its Allies sufficient time to arm Australia, halt the Japanese advance in Southeast Asia, and then proceed with the task of winning the war.

B-29 Superfortress operations against Japan

Reformed as a B-17 heavy bomber Replacement Training Unit assigned to Second Air Force in Texas. The squadron conducted replacement training from 1 February 1943 until 1 April 1944, when it was inactivated. Shortly before inactivation, the squadron was designated the 28th Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy.[1]

The squadron was activated the same day as a Boeing B-29 Superfortress very heavy bombardment squadron. When training was completed moved to North Field (Guam) in the Mariana Islands of the Central Pacific Area in January 1945 and assigned to XXI Bomber Command, Twentieth Air Force. Its mission was the strategic bombardment of the Japanese Home Islands and the destruction of its war-making capability.

Flew "shakedown" missions against Japanese targets on Moen Island, Truk, and other points in the Carolines and Marianas. The squadron began combat missions over Japan on 25 February 1945 with a firebombing mission over Northeast Tokyo. The squadron continued to participate in wide area firebombing attack, but the first ten-day blitz resulting in the Army Air Forces running out of incendiary bombs. Until then the squadron flew conventional strategic bombing missions using high explosive bombs.

The squadron continued attacking urban areas until the end of the war in August 1945, its subordinate units conducted raids against strategic objectives, bombing aircraft factories, chemical plants, oil refineries, and other targets in Japan. The squadron flew its last combat missions on 14 August when hostilities ended. Afterwards, its B 29s carried relief supplies to Allied prisoner of war camps in Japan and Manchuria

Remained on Guam after the war conducted sea-search, photographic mapping, and training missions in the western Pacific.

Deployed to Kadena Air Base, Okinawa in June 1950 as a result of the Korean War. Flew strategic bombing missions over North Korea; targets included an oil refinery and port facilities at Wonsan, a railroad bridge at Pyongyang, and Yonpo Airfield. After United Nations ground forces pushed the communists out of South Korea, the squadron turned to strategic objectives in North Korea, including industrial and hydroelectric facilities. It also continued to attack bridges, marshalling yards, supply centers, artillery and troop positions, barracks, port facilities, and airfields.

Continued bombardment operations until the June 1953 armistice in Korea; returned to the United States in May 1954; the squadrons B-29s being sent to reclamation.

Strategic Air Command

USAF B-1 Lancers deploying countermeasures
28th Bomb Squadron B-1B Lancers release chaff and flares while maneuvering during a training mission 24 Feb 2010

Reactivated in May 1954 with new Boeing B-47 Stratojet medium bombers and personnel at Pinecastle Air Force Base, near Orlando, Florida under Strategic Air Command (SAC). Engaged in training operations and participated in numerous SAC exercises and deployments with the B-47 until 1961 when the B-47s began to be phased out of SAC. Re-equipped with Boeing B-52H Stratofortresses in 1962 at Homestead Air Force Base, Florida. Flew intercontinental training missions with the Stratofortress, and maintained nuclear alert. Re-equipped with B-52G model in 1968 and moved to Robins Air Force Base. Deployed personnel and aircraft several times to forward bases in the Western Pacific, carrying out combat missions over Indochina under Operation Arc Light, Operation Linebacker I and the Linebacker II raids of 1972–73 at the end of the Vietnam War. Squadron reformed at Robins in 1973 and returned to nuclear alert status. Inactivated in 1983 as part of the phaseout of the B-52G from the SAC inventory.

Reactivated in 1987 and re-equipped with the Rockwell B-1B Lancer strategic bomber. Stationed initially at McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas, the squadron moved to Dyess Air Force Base, Texas in 1994 and transferred to the 7th Wing when McConnell was realigned as a tanker base. Currently, the 28th conducts weapons system training for B-1 crews. Each year, it trains more than 200 active duty crewmembers.

Lineage

28th Aero Squadron
  • Organized as the 28th Aero Squadron on 22 June 1917
Redesignated 28th Aero Squadron (Pursuit) on 15 July 1918
Demobilized on 16 June 1919
Reconstituted and consolidated with the 28th Squadron (Bombardment) as the 28th Squadron (Bombardment) on 9 January 1922[1]
28th Bomb Squadron
  • Authorized as the 22d Squadron (Bombardment) on 30 August 1921
Organized on 20 September 1921
Consolidated with the 28th Aero Squadron on 9 January 1922
Inactivated on 28 June 1922
  • Activated on 1 September 1922
Redesignated 28 Bombardment Squadron on 25 January 1923
Redesignated 28th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) on 6 December 1939
Redesignated 28th Bombardment Squadron (Heavy) on 16 November 1941
Redesignated 28th Bombardment Squadron, Very Heavy on 28 March 1944
Inactivated on 1 April 1944
  • Activated on 1 April 1944
Redesignated 28th Bombardment Squadron, Medium on 10 August 1948
Redesignated 28th Bombardment Squadron, Heavy on 1 July 1961
Inactivated on 1 October 1983
  • Activated on 1 July 1987
Redesignated 28th Bomb Squadron on 1 September 1991[1]

Assignments

  • Post Headquarters, Hazelhurst Field, 15–17 June 1919[1][4]
  • Ninth Corps Area, 20 September 1921 – 28 June 1922
  • Philippine Department, 1 September 1922
  • 4th Group (Composite) (later 4th Composite Group), 2 December 1922
  • 19th Bombardment Group, 16 November 1941 – 1 April 1944 (ground echelon attached to 5th Interceptor Command, c. 24 December 1941 – May 1942)
  • 19th Bombardment Group, 1 April 1944
  • 19th Bombardment Wing, 1 June 1953 – 1 October 1983
  • 384th Bombardment Wing, 1 July 1987
  • 384th Operations Group, 1 September 1991
  • 384th Bomb Group, 1 January 1994
  • 7th Operations Group, 1 October 1994 – present[1]

Stations

  • Camp Kelly (later Kelly Field), Texas, 22 June 1917
  • Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 25 August 1917
Detachments at Deseronto, Ontario and Camp Borden, Ontario
  • Liverpool, England, 5 March 1918
  • Romsey, Hampshire, England, 6 March 1918
  • Le Havre, France, 19 March 1918
  • St Marie-Cappel, France, 20 March 1918
  • Hazebrouck Airdrome, France, 20 March 1918
Ground Echelon separated into Flights for support training with RAF

Headquarters and "A" Flight

Ruisseauville Airdrome, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, 5–23 June 1918

"B" Flight

Triozinnes Airdrome, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, 21 March-7 April 1918

"C" Flight

Villers-Bretonneux Airdrome, Picardy, 20–25 March 1918
Hazebrouck Airdrome, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, 25 March-8 April 1918
Ruisseauville Airdrome, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, 8 April-23 June 1918
Ground echelon in Luzon and Mindanao, Philippines, c. 24 Dec 1941 – May 1942
Detachment operated from Perth Airport, Australia, c. 28 Mar-18 May 1942
  • Longreach Airport, Australia, c. 5 May 1942
  • Mareeba Airfield, Australia, 24 Jul-c. 18 Nov 1942
  • Pocatello Army Air Field, Idaho, c. 30 Dec 1942
  • Pyote Army Air Base, Texas, 24 Jan 1943 – 1 Apr 1944
  • Great Bend Army Air Field, Kansas, 1 Apr-8 Dec 1944
  • North Field, Guam, Mariana Islands, 16 Jan 1945
  • Kadena AB]], Okinawa, 27 Jun 1950 – 14 May 1954
  • Pinecastle Air Force Base, Florida, c. 28 May 1954
  • Homestead Air Force Base, Florida, c. 25 Jun 1956
  • Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, 25 Jul 1968 – 1 Oct 1983
  • McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas, 1 Jul 1987
  • Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, 1 Oct 1994 – present[10]

Aircraft

  • Curtiss JN-4, 1917
  • SPAD S.XIII, 1918–1919
  • SPAD S.VII, 1918–1919
  • Dayton-Wright DH-4, 1921–1922, 1922 – c. 1928
  • Martin NBS–1, 1924–1930
  • Keystone LB-5, 1929–1931
  • Loening OA-1, 1929–1931
  • Keystone B-3, 1931–1937
  • Martin B-10, 1937–1941
  • Douglas B-18 Bolo, 1941
  • Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, 1941–1944
  • Consolidated LB-30, 1941–1942
  • Consolidated B-24 Liberator, 1941–1942
  • Boeing B-29 Superfortress, 1944–1954
  • Boeing B-47 Stratojet, 1954–1961
  • Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, 1962–1983
  • Rockwell B-1 Lancer, 1988 – present[1]

See also

References

Notes

Explanatory notes
  1. ^ Aircraft is Rockwell B-1B Lancer, Lot V, serial 86-123.
  2. ^ 7 December in Hawaii was 8 December in the Philippines.
  3. ^ Maurer and Robertson say August 1918.
  4. ^ Maurer and Robertson say December 1918.
Citations
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Robertson, Patsy (March 7, 2008). "Factsheet 28 Bomb Squadron (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  2. ^ "World War I Aero Squadrons". Cross and Cockade Journal. Society of World War I Aero Historians. Vol. 5 (Number 2): 145. 1964.
  3. ^ a b c Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 141-143
  4. ^ a b Gorrell
  5. ^ Franks & Dempsey, p. 86
  6. ^ a b Clay,
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Edmonds,
  8. ^ a b Baugher, Joseph (September 1, 1999). "B-17 in Pacific Theater". joebaugher.com. Retrieved April 21, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e 5TH Air Force USAAF in Australia, 1942–1945
  10. ^ Station information in Maurer and Robertson, except as noted.

Bibliography

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

External links

127th Command and Control Squadron

The 127th Command and Control Squadron (127 CACS) was a unit of the Kansas Air National Guard 184th Intelligence Wing stationed at McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita, Kansas. The 127th was a non-flying squadron operating the Distributed Common Ground System. The unit was inactivated on 29 September 2014.

The squadron is a descendant organization of the Kansas National Guard 127th Observation Squadron, established on 30 July 1940. It is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II.

184th Intelligence Wing

The 184th Intelligence Wing (184 IW) is a unit of the Kansas Air National Guard, stationed at McConnell Air Force Base, Wichita, Kansas. If activated to federal service, the Wing is gained by the United States Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency.

The 127th Command and Control Squadron assigned to the Wings 184th Regional Support Group, is a descendant organization of the 127th Observation Squadron, established on 30 July 1940. It is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II.

28th Aero Squadron

The 28th Aero Squadron was a Air Service, United States Army unit that fought on the Western Front during World War I.

The squadron was assigned as a Day Pursuit (Fighter) Squadron as part of the 3d Pursuit Group, First United States Army. Its mission was to engage and clear enemy aircraft from the skies and provide escort to reconnaissance and bombardment squadrons over enemy territory. It also attacked enemy observation balloons, and perform close air support and tactical bombing attacks of enemy forces along the front lines. After the 1918 Armistice with Germany, the squadron returned to the United States in June 1919 and was demobilized.The current United States Air Force unit which holds its lineage and history is the 28th Bomb Squadron, assigned to the 7th Operations Group, Dyess Air Force Base, Texas.

2nd Air Refueling Squadron

The 2nd Air Refueling Squadron, sometimes written as 2d Air Refueling Squadron, is a unit of the United States Air Force. It is part of the 305th Air Mobility Wing at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, New Jersey. The 2nd Air Refueling Squadron is the second-oldest squadron in the Air Force, having over 100 years of service to the nation. Deployed to the Philippines after World War I, during the 1941-1942 Battle of the Philippines, it was wiped out, with the Japanese forcing some of the personnel to endure the Bataan Death March. It was re-formed as an air refueling squadron by Strategic Air Command in 1949. Today, it operates the KC-10 Extender aircraft, conducting aerial refueling missions.

384th Air Expeditionary Group

The 384th Air Expeditionary Group (384 AEG) is a provisional United States Air Force unit assigned to the Air Combat Command. The 384 AEG may be activated or inactivated at any time.

Its last assignment was with to the United States Central Command Air Forces, being stationed at Shaikh Isa Air Base, Bahrain. It was inactivated on 3 September 2003.

During World War II, its predecessor unit, the 384th Bombardment Group was a VIII Bomber Command B-17 Flying Fortress unit in England. Assigned to RAF Grafton Underwood in early 1943, the group dropped the last Eighth Air Force bombs of the war on 25 April 1945.

384th Air Expeditionary Wing

The 384th Air Expeditionary Wing is an inactive unit of the United States Air Force. Its last assignment was with the United States Central Command Air Forces, being stationed at Shaikh Isa Air Base, Bahrain. It was inactivated in 2004. The wing's mission is largely undisclosed. However, it is known that one of its missions was aerial refueling of combat aircraft.

7th Bomb Wing

The 7th Bomb Wing (7 BW) is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Global Strike Command Eighth Air Force. It is stationed at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, where it is also the host unit.

The 7 BW is one of only two B-1B Lancer strategic bombardment wings in the United States Air Force, the other being the 28th Bomb Wing at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota.

Its origins date to the 1918 establishment of the 1st Army Observation Group (later 7th Bombardment Group), one of the 15 original combat air groups formed by the United States Army before World War II.

The 7th Operations Group carries the lineage and history of its highly decorated World War II predecessor unit. It operated initially in the Philippines as a B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber unit assigned to Fifth Air Force but after the fall of the Philippines in early 1942, operated primarily with the Tenth Air Force in India as a B-24 Liberator unit. Active for over 60 years, the 7 BW was a component wing of Strategic Air Command's heavy bomber deterrent force throughout the Cold War.

The 7th Bomb Wing is commanded by Colonel Brandon Parker. Its Vice Commander is Colonel David Doss. Its Command Chief is Chief Master Sergeant Raymond "Kenny" Mott.

7th Operations Group

The 7th Operations Group is the operational flying component of the United States Air Force 7th Bomb Wing, stationed at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas. The 7th Operations Group currently flies the B-1 Lancer.

The 7th Operations Group is a direct successor organization of the 7th Bombardment Group, one of the 15 original combat air groups formed by the United States Army before World War II.

Activated in 1921, it inherited the lineage of the 1st Army Observation Group, which was established and organized, on 6 September 1918. The 7th Bombardment Group was deploying to the Philippines when the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Six of the group's B-17 Flying Fortress aircraft which had left Hamilton Field, California on 6 December 1941 reached Hawaii during the enemy attack, but were able to land safely. The unit later served in India during World War II.

In the postwar era, the 7d Bombardment Group was one of the first USAAF units assigned to the Strategic Air Command on 1 October 1946, prior to the establishment of the United States Air Force. Equipped with low-hour B-29 Superfortress surplus World War II aircraft, the group was inactivated in 1952 when the parent wing adopted the Tri-Deputate organization and assigned all of the groups squadrons directly to the wing.

Reactivated as the 7th Operations Group in 1991 when the 7th Bomb Wing adopted the USAF Objective organization plan.

Air Force Global Strike Command

Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC) is a Major Command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. AFGSC provides combat-ready forces to conduct strategic nuclear deterrence and global strike operations in support of combatant commanders. It is subordinated to the USSTRATCOM.

Air Force Global Strike Command is the direct descendant unit of the Cold War-era Strategic Air Command (SAC). It holds the lineage, history and honors of SAC.

Dyess Air Force Base

Dyess Air Force Base (AFB) (IATA: DYS, ICAO: KDYS, FAA LID: DYS) is a United States Air Force base located approximately 7 miles (11 km) southwest of Abilene, Texas.

The host unit at Dyess is the 7th Bomb Wing (7 BW) assigned to the Global Strike Command Eighth Air Force. The 7 BW is one of only two B-1B Lancer strategic bomber wings in the United States Air Force, the other being the 28th Bomb Wing at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota.

Dyess AFB was established in 1942 as Abilene Army Air Base (AAB). It is named in honor of Texas native and Bataan Death March survivor Lieutenant Colonel William Dyess. The 7th Bomb Wing is commanded by Colonel Brandon Parker. The Vice Commander is Colonel David Doss and the Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sergeant Raymond K. Mott.Dyess AFB is a 6,409-acre (25.94 km2) base with over 13,000 military and civilian people. It is home to the 7th Bomb Wing, which consists of four groups. Two squadrons, the 9th and 28th Bomb Squadrons, fly the B-1B. In addition, the 28th Bomb Squadron is the Air Force schoolhouse for all B-1B aircrew members.

The base is located in the southwest corner of Abilene, TX and is about 200 miles (320 km) west of Dallas. The base employs more than 5,000 people, making it the single largest employer in the area. Dyess AFB has nearly 200 facilities on base, plus 988 units of family housing, and encompasses 6,117 acres (24.75 km2) of land. The base has a total economic impact of nearly $310 million yearly on the local community.

Far East Air Force (United States)

The Far East Air Force (FEAF) was the military aviation organization of the United States Army in the Philippines just prior to and at the beginning of World War II. Formed on 16 November 1941, FEAF was the predecessor of the Fifth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Air Force.

Initially the Far East Air Force also included aircraft and personnel of the Philippine Army Air Corps. Outnumbered operationally more than three-to-one by aircraft of the Japanese Navy and Army, FEAF was largely destroyed during the Philippines Campaign of 1941–42. When 14 surviving B-17 Flying Fortresses and 143 personnel of the heavy bombardment force were withdrawn from Mindanao to Darwin, Australia in the third week of December 1941, Headquarters FEAF followed it within days. The B-17s were the only combat aircraft of the FEAF to escape capture or destruction.FEAF, with only 16 Curtiss P-40s and 4 Seversky P-35 fighters remaining of its original combat force, was broken up as an air organization and moved by units into Bataan 24–25 December. 49 of the original 165 pursuit pilots of FEAF's 24th Pursuit Group were also evacuated during the campaign, but of non-flying personnel, only one of 27 officers and 16 wounded enlisted men escaped the Philippines. Nearly all ground and flying personnel were employed as infantry at some point during their time on Bataan, where most surrendered on 9 April 1942.The surviving personnel and a small number of aircraft received from the United States were re-organized in Australia in January 1942, and on 5 February 1942 redesignated as "5 Air Force". With most of its aircraft based in Java, the FEAF was nearly destroyed a second time trying to stem the tide of Japanese advances southward.

Garrett Harencak

Major General Garrett Harencak is the Commander, Air Force Recruiting Service. Previously, he served as the Assistant Chief of Staff for Strategic Deterrence and Nuclear Integration, Headquarters U. S. Air Force. Prior this position, Harencak served as commander of the Air Force Nuclear Weapons Center (AFNWC), Air Force Material Command at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico. The AFNWC is responsible for the entire scope of U.S. Air Force nuclear weapons support functions and in addition to its headquarters at Kirtland, comprises several other units in the U.S and abroad.

Hunter Harris Jr.

Hunter Harris Jr. (November 27, 1909 – March 5, 1987) was a United States Air Force four-star general who served as Commander in Chief, Pacific Air Forces (CINCPACAF) from 1964 to 1967.

James Kowalski

James M. Kowalski (born October 30, 1957) was the Deputy Commander, United States Strategic Command, Offut AFB, Nebraska. His grandparents were born near Wadowice in Poland.

He was responsible for organizing, training, equipping and maintaining all U.S. intercontinental ballistic missile and nuclear-capable bomber forces. The command's mission is to develop and provide combat-ready forces for nuclear deterrence and global strike operations—safe, secure and effective—to support the President of the United States and combatant commanders. The command comprises more than 23,000 professionals operating at various locations around the globe. The command's six wings control the nation's entire inventory of Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missiles (3 wings), B-2 (and B-1, 1 wing) and B-52 (2 wings) bomber aircraft.

General Kowalski entered active duty in 1980 through the ROTC program at the University of Cincinnati. He held a variety of operational commands, including a bomb squadron, an operations group, a bomb wing and an air control wing over his 35-year career. Gen Kowalski retired from active duty on 1 September 2015.

His contingency and wartime experience include command of the 2nd Operations Group when they deployed B-52s for combat during operations Noble Anvil and Allied Force, and command of the 28th Bomb Wing when they deployed B-1Bs for Operation Iraqi Freedom. From January 2003 to May 2003, General Kowalski commanded the 405th Air Expeditionary Wing in Southwest Asia where he led a combined wing of B-1Bs, E-3s and KC-135s to provide strike, battle management, and air refueling for operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom and Southern Watch. His previous staff assignments include Headquarters Air Combat Command, Headquarters U.S. Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Prior to his current assignment, he served as Commander, Air Force Global Strike Command.

John S. Mills

John S. Mills (1906 in Appleton, Wisconsin – July 4, 1996), was a Major General in the United States Air Force. He attended Lawrence College.

Keystone B-3

The Keystone B-3A was a bomber aircraft developed for the United States Army Air Corps by Keystone Aircraft in the late 1920s.

Martin NBS-1

The Martin NBS-1 was a military aircraft of the United States Army Air Service and its successor, the Air Corps. An improved version of the Martin MB-1, a scout-bomber built during the final months of World War I, the NBS-1 was ordered under the designation MB-2 and is often referred to as such. The designation NBS-1, standing for "Night Bomber-Short Range", was adopted by the Air Service after the first five of the Martin bombers were delivered.

The NBS-1 became the standard frontline bomber of the Air Service in 1920 and remained so until its replacement in 1928–1929 by the Keystone Aircraft series of bombers. The basic MB-2 design was also the standard against which prospective U.S. Army bombers were judged until the production of the Martin B-10 in 1933.

McConnell Air Force Base

McConnell Air Force Base (IATA: IAB, ICAO: KIAB, FAA LID: IAB) is a United States Air Force base located four miles (6 km) southeast of the central business district of Wichita, a city in Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. The airbase was named in honor of the brothers Fred and Thomas McConnell of Wichita, who had both been Air Force pilots and veterans of World War II. It is the home of Air Mobility Command's 22d Air Refueling Wing (22 ARW), Air Force Reserve Command's 931st Air Refueling Wing (931 ARW), and the Kansas Air National Guard's 184th Intelligence Wing (184 IW).

McConnell's primary mission is to provide global reach by conducting air refueling and airlift where and when needed. The Commander of the 22d Air Refueling Wing is Colonel Josh Olson, the Vice-Commander is Colonel Mark Baran and the Command Chief is Chief Master Sergeant Jaime Capps.

Rockwell B-1 Lancer

The Rockwell B-1 Lancer is a supersonic variable-sweep wing, heavy bomber used by the United States Air Force. It is commonly called the "Bone" (from "B-One"). It is one of three strategic bombers in the U.S. Air Force fleet as of 2018, the other two being the B-2 Spirit and the B-52 Stratofortress.

The B-1 was first envisioned in the 1960s as a platform that would combine the Mach 2 speed of the B-58 Hustler with the range and payload of the B-52, and would ultimately replace both bombers. After a long series of studies, Rockwell International (now part of Boeing) won the design contest for what emerged as the B-1A. This version had a top speed of Mach 2.2 at high altitude and the capability of flying for long distances at Mach 0.85 at very low altitudes. The combination of the high cost of the aircraft, the introduction of the AGM-86 cruise missile that flew the same basic profile, and early work on the stealth bomber all significantly affected the need for the B-1. This led to the program being canceled in 1977, after the B-1A prototypes had been built.

The program was restarted in 1981, largely as an interim measure until the stealth bomber entered service. This led to a redesign as the B-1B, which had lower top speed at high altitude of Mach 1.25, but improved low-altitude performance of Mach 0.96. The electronics were also extensively improved during the redesign, and the airframe was improved to allow takeoff with the maximum possible fuel and weapons load. The B-1B began deliveries in 1986 and formally entered service with Strategic Air Command (SAC) as a nuclear bomber in 1986. By 1988, all 100 aircraft had been delivered.

In the early 1990s, following the Gulf War and concurrent with the disestablishment of SAC and its reassignment to the newly formed Air Combat Command, the B-1B was converted to conventional bombing use. It first served in combat during Operation Desert Fox in 1998 and again during the NATO action in Kosovo the following year. The B-1B has supported U.S. and NATO military forces in Afghanistan and Iraq. The Air Force had 66 B-1Bs in service as of September 2012. The B-1B is expected to continue to serve into the 2030s, with the Northrop Grumman B-21 Raider to begin replacing the B-1B after 2025. The B-1s currently in inventory will be retired by 2036.

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