The 28 May 1926 coup d'état, sometimes called 28 May Revolution or, during the period of the authoritarian Estado Novo (English: New State), the National Revolution (Portuguese: Revolução Nacional), was a military coup of a nationalist origin, that put an end to the unstable Portuguese First Republic and initiated 48 years of authoritarian rule in Portugal. The regime that immediately resulted from the coup, the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship), would be later refashioned into the Estado Novo, which in turn would last until the Carnation Revolution in 1974.
The chronic political instability and government's neglect of the army created opportunities for military plots. Already in 1925 there were two failed coup attempts on April 18 and July 19. The plotters were acquitted by military court. During winter of 1925 and spring 1926 a group of junior officers planned a new coup and were looking for a senior officer to be the figurehead of their movement. They decided on General Manuel Gomes da Costa, who agreed to join the plotters on May 25.
The revolution started in Braga, commanded by General Manuel Gomes da Costa, followed immediately in Porto, Lisbon, Évora, Coimbra and Santarém. The revolution triumphed when General Gomes da Costa marched on Lisbon along with 15,000 men, being acclaimed by the people of the city.
|28 May 1926 coup d'état|
Gomes da Costa and his troops march victorious into Lisbon on 6 June 1926
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António de Eça de Queiroz or de Queirós (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔnju dɨ ˈɛsɐ dɨ kɐi̯ˈɾɔʃ]) (28 December 1891 – 16 May 1968) was a Portuguese monarchist politician and agitator and an official in the Estado Novo of António de Oliveira Salazar. He was married to Maria Cristina Guimarães Rino (Alcobaça, Alcobaça, Casa do Retiro, c. 1890 – Alcobaça, Alcobaça, 1960), without issue.Constitution of Portugal
The present Constitution of Portugal was adopted in 1976 after the Carnation Revolution. It was preceded by a number of constitutions including ones created in 1822 (following the Liberal Revolution of 1820), 1838 (after the Liberal Wars), 1911 (following the 5 October 1910 revolution), and 1933 (after the 28 May 1926 coup d'état).Coup of 1926
Coup of 1926 might refer to several historical events:
May Coup in Poland (May 12–14)
28 May 1926 coup d'état in Portugal
1926 Lithuanian coup d'état (December 17)First Portuguese Republic
The First Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: Primeira República Portuguesa; officially: República Portuguesa, Portuguese Republic) spans a complex 16-year period in the history of Portugal, between the end of the period of constitutional monarchy marked by the 5 October 1910 revolution and the 28 May 1926 coup d'état. The latter movement instituted a military dictatorship known as Ditadura Nacional (national dictatorship) that would be followed by the corporatist Estado Novo (new state) regime of António de Oliveira Salazar.
The sixteen years of the First Republic saw nine presidents and 44 ministries, and have been described as consisting of "continual anarchy, government corruption, rioting and pillage, assassinations, arbitrary imprisonment and religious persecution".History of Portugal
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis. The oldest human fossil is the skull discovered in the Cave of Aroeira in Almonda. Later Neanderthals roamed the northern Iberian peninsula. Homo sapiens arrived in Portugal around 35,000 years ago.
Pre-Celtic tribes such as the Cynetes lived in the Algarve and Lower Alentejo regions before the 6th century BC, developed the city of Tartessos and the written Tartessian language, and left many stelae in the south of the country. Early in the first millennium BC, waves of Celts from Central Europe invaded and intermarried with the local populations to form several ethnic groups and many tribes. Their presence is traceable, in broad outline, through archaeological and linguistic evidence. Although they dominated much of the northern and central area, they were unable to establish in the south, which retained its non-Indo-European character until the Roman conquest. Some small, semi-permanent coastal settlements were founded by Phoenician-Carthaginians on the southern coast.
The Roman invasion in the 3rd century BC lasted several centuries, and developed the Roman provinces of Lusitania in the south and Gallaecia in the north. Numerous Roman sites include works of engineering, baths, temples, bridges, roads, circuses, theatres, layman's homes, coins, sarcophagi and ceramics. As elsewhere in Western Europe, there was a sharp decline in urban life during the Dark Ages following the fall of Rome. Germanic tribes (that the Romans referred to as Barbarians) controlled the territory between the 5th and 7th centuries. These included the Kingdom of the Suebi centred at Braga and the Visigothic Kingdom in the south. Under the Visigoths a new class emerged, a nobility, which played a tremendous social and political role during the Middle Ages. The Church also began to play a very important part within the state, but since the Visigoths did not know Latin the Catholic bishops continued the Roman system of governance. The clergy started to emerge as a high-ranking class.
In 711 an invasion by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, comprising Berbers from North Africa and Arabs from the Middle East plus other Muslims from all around the Islamic world, conquered the Visigoth Kingdom and founded the Islamic state of Al Andalus. The Umayyads reigned supreme and advanced through Iberia and France until the Battle of Tours (732) but endured across Iberia until the fall of the Kingdom of Granada (Spain) in 1492. But Lisbon, Gharb Al-Andalus, and the rest of what would become Portugal, was reconquered by the early 12th century. At the end of the 9th century, a small minor county based in the area of Portus Cale was established under King Alfonso III of Asturias, and by the 10th century the Counts were known as the Magnus Dux Portucalensium (Grand Duke of the Portuguese). (Portucale, Portugale, Portugalia) The Kingdom of Asturias was later divided so that northern "Portugal" became part of the Kingdom of León. As a vassal of the Kingdom of León, Portugal grew in power and territory and occasionally gained de facto independence during weak Leonese reigns. In 1071 Garcia II of Galicia was declared King of Portugal and in 1095, Portugal broke away from the Kingdom of Galicia.
At the end of the 11th century, the Burgundian knight Henry became count of Portugal and defended its independence by merging the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra. Henry's son Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal on 24 June 1128 and King of Portugal in 1139. In 1179 a papal bull officially recognised Afonso I as king. The Algarve was conquered from the Moors in 1249, and in 1255 Lisbon became the capital. Portugal's land boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the 13th century. The Treaty of Windsor (1386) created an alliance between Portugal and England that remains in effect to this day.
From the late Middle Ages, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal ascended to the status of a world power during Europe's "Age of Discovery" as it built up a vast empire, including possessions in South America, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. Over the following two centuries, Portugal kept most of its colonies, but gradually lost much of its wealth and status as the Dutch, English, and French took an increasing share of the spice and slave trades by surrounding or conquering the widely scattered Portuguese trading posts and territories.
Signs of military decline began with two disastrous battles: the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in Morocco in 1578 and Spain's abortive attempt to conquer England in 1588 by means of the Spanish Armada – Portugal was then in a dynastic union with Spain and contributed ships to the Spanish invasion fleet. The country was further weakened by the destruction of much of its capital city in an earthquake in 1755, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and the loss of its largest colony, Brazil, in 1822. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, nearly two
million Portuguese left Portugal to live in Brazil and the United States.In 1910, there was a revolution that deposed the monarchy. Amid corruption, repression of the church, and the near bankruptcy of the state, a military coup in 1926 installed a dictatorship that remained until another coup in 1974. The new government instituted sweeping democratic reforms and granted independence to all of Portugal's African colonies in 1975.
Portugal is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). It entered the European Economic Community (now the European Union) in 1986.Integralismo Lusitano
Integralismo Lusitano (English: "Lusitanian Integralism") was a Portuguese integralist political movement, founded in Coimbra in 1914, that advocated traditionalism but not conservatism. It was against parliamentarism; instead, it favored decentralization, national syndicalism, the Roman Catholic Church, and the monarchy. It was especially active during the Portuguese First Republic. Lusitanian Integralism is a variant of Integralism that evolved in Portugal; the term Lusitania is derived from the Latin term for Portugal.
Initially supportive of the last king, Manuel II, they nonetheless refused to back him after 1920, following the attempts to restore the monarchy initiated in Monsanto Forest Park (Lisbon) and during the Monarchy of the North. Instead, they supported Manuel's cousin, Miguel of Braganza.
Integralismo Lusitano's notable members included António Sardinha, Alberto de Monsaraz, José Pequito Rebelo, José Hipólito Vaz Raposo, João Ameal, Leão Ramos Ascensão, Luís de Almeida Braga, and Francisco Rolão Preto. Preto later asserted himself as leader of the National Syndicalists (Movimento Nacional-Sindicalista), and he became an opponent of António de Oliveira Salazar (and the Estado Novo party).
The leadership remained active during the 1917-1918 rule when it supported the leadership of Sidónio Pais. But, it also backed the Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship), established following the 28 May 1926 coup d'état.
When Manuel II died without heirs in 1932. The Integralismo Lusitano movement rallied all monarchist movements behind the descendents of Miguel (who was exiled after the Liberal Wars).José Augusto Alves Roçadas
José Augusto Alves Roçadas (6 April 1865 in Vila Real, Portugal - 28 June 1926) was an officer of the Portuguese Army and a colonial administrator.
In 1907 troops under his command in Portuguese Angola put down a revolt by the Ovambo at the Battle of Mufilo.
As a colonial administrator, Alves Roçadas served as Governor of the District of Huíla in Portuguese Angola (1905 - 1908), Governor of Macau (1908-1909) and Governor-General of Angola (1909-1910).
During World War I, Alves Roçadas served as the commanding officer of Portuguese forces in southern Angola, leading them in combat in the German invasion of Portuguese Africa against the invading German forces.After the war, he participated in the 28 May 1926 coup d'état, together with Generals Manuel Gomes da Costa, Sinel de Cordes and Óscar Carmona, thus creating the Ditadura Nacional.
First destined to take up a post in the new government, he fell ill and died a month after the coup.João José Sinel de Cordes
João José Sinel de Cordes (Barcarena (Oeiras), 18 August 1867 – Lisbon, 29 January 1930) was a Portuguese general and politician.
A confidant of Sidónio Pais, he became the chief of the General Staff of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps in France on 1 March 1918.He participated in the 28 May 1926 coup d'état, together with Generals Manuel Gomes da Costa, Alves Roçadas and Óscar Carmona, thus creating the Ditadura Nacional. After Gomes da Costa's overthrow and exile, he became Minister of Finance on three occasions (9 July 1926, 19 December 1927, and 7 April 1928).List of Prime Ministers of Portugal
The Prime Minister of the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: Primeiro-Ministro da República Portuguesa) is the head of the country's Government. He/she coordinates the actions of all ministers, represents the Government as a whole, reports his actions and is accountable to the Assembly of the Republic, and keeps the President of the Republic informed.
There is no limit to the number of mandates as Prime Minister. He/she is appointed by the President of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party which receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named Prime Minister.
The official residence of the Prime Minister is a mansion next to São Bento Palace, which, in confusion, is also often called "São Bento Palace", although many Prime Ministers didn't live in the palace during their full mandate.List of ambassadors of Thailand to Italy
The Thai Ambassador in Rome is the official representative of the Government in Bangkok to the Government of Italy and concurrently to the governments in Athens (Greece), Jerusalem (Israel), Nicosia (Cyprus), San Marino, Tirana (Albania) and the Order of Malta.Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa
Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa, GOTE, GCA, GOA, commonly known as Manuel Gomes da Costa (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐnuˈɛɫ ˈɡomɨʒ dɐ ˈkɔʃtɐ]), or just Gomes da Costa (January 14, 1863 in Lisbon – December 17, 1929 in Lisbon), was a Portuguese army officer and politician, the tenth President of the Portuguese Republic and the second of the Ditadura Nacional.May 28
May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 217 days remaining until the end of the year.Military history of Portugal
The military history of Portugal is as long as the history of the country, from before the emergence of the independent Portuguese state.Portuguese Revolution
The Portuguese Revolution may refer to
The Liberal Revolution of 1820
The April Revolt
The Revolution of Maria da Fonte
The 5 October 1910 revolution
The 28 May 1926 coup d'état
The Carnation RevolutionPortuguese transition to democracy
Portugal's experience with democracy before the Carnation Revolution of 1974 had not been particularly successful. Its First Republic lasted only sixteen years, from 1910 to 1926. Under the republic, parliamentary institutions worked poorly and were soon discredited. Political corruption and economic mismanagement were widespread. The 28 May 1926 coup d'état ended the First Republic and ushered in first the Ditadura Nacional and then the "Estado Novo" ("New State") period.Revolutionary wave
A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is a series of revolutions occurring in various locations within a similar time span. In many cases, past revolutions and revolutionary waves have inspired current ones, or an initial revolution has inspired other concurrent "affiliate revolutions" with similar aims.
The causes of revolutionary waves have been studied by historians and political philosophers, including Robert Roswell Palmer, Crane Brinton, Hannah Arendt, Eric Hoffer, and Jacques Godechot.Marxists see revolutionary waves as evidence that a world revolution is possible. For Rosa Luxemburg, "The most precious thing… in the sharp ebb and flow of the revolutionary waves is the proletariat's spiritual growth. The advance, by leaps and bounds, of the intellectual stature of the proletariat affords an inviolable guarantee of its further progress in the inevitable economic and political struggles ahead."The phrase "revolutionary wave" has also been used by non-Marxist writers and activists, including Justin Raimondo and Michael Lind, to describe discrete revolutions happening within a short time span.Slavery in Angola
Slavery in Angola existed since the late 15th century when Portugal established contacts with the peoples living in what is the Northwest of the present country, and founded several trade posts on the coast. A number of those peoples, like the Imbangala and the Mbundu, were active slave traders for centuries (see African slave trade). In the late 16th century, Kingdom of Portugal's explorers founded the fortified settlement of Luanda, and later on minor trade posts and forts on the Kwanza River as well as on the Atlantic coast southwards until Benguela. The main component of their trading activities consisted in a heavy involvement in the Atlantic slave trade. Slave trafficking was abolished in 1836 by the Portuguese authorities.Teófilo Duarte
Teófilo Duarte (6 October 1898 – 16 May 1958) was a Portuguese colonial administrator, a military officer and a politician. He was a supporter of the Sidonist movement and the Estado Novo.He was born on 6 October 1898 in Idanha-a-Nova, eastern Portugal. An army officer, he was governor of Cape Verde from 9 March 1918 to 1919. Having participated in movements against the democratic governments, he was dismissed from the Portuguese Army in 1920, only to be reinstated after the 28 May 1926 coup d'état. He was governor of Portuguese Timor from 30 September 1926 to 22 December 1928. He encouraged Portuguese immigration to the colony, including political deportees. Under his rule, forced labour took a rise in East Timor.He was Minister of Colonies from 4 February 1947 to 2 August 1950 under Prime Minister Salazar. On 1 September 1950, he was awarded with the Grand Cross of the Military Order of Christ.Timeline of Braga
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Braga, Portugal.