27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot

The 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot was an Irish infantry regiment of the British Army, formed in 1689. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 108th (Madras Infantry) Regiment of Foot to form the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers in 1881.

27th Inniskilling Regiment of Foot
27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot Crest
Badge of the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot
Active1689-1881, became Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers
Country Kingdom of England (1689–1707)
 Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1800)
 United Kingdom (1801–1881)
Branch British Army
TypeLine Infantry
SizeRegiment
Garrison/HQSt Lucia Barracks, Omagh
EngagementsBattle of the Boyne (1690)
Battle of Falkirk Muir (1746)
Battle of Culloden (1746)
Battle of Maida (1806)
Siege of Badajoz (1812)
Battle of Salamanca (1812)
Battle of Castalla (1813)
Battle of Vitoria (1813)
Battle of the Pyrenees (1813)
Battle of Ordal (1813)
Battle of Nivelle (1813)
Battle of Orthez (1814)
Battle of Toulouse (1814)
Battle of Waterloo (1815)

History

Early years

Battle of Castalla 1813 Print
Battle of Castalla, 13 April 1813

The regiment was raised as local militia at Enniskillen by Colonel Zachariah Tiffin as Zacharaiah Tiffin's Regiment of Foot in June 1689, to fight against James II in the Williamite War in Ireland.[1] The regiment served successfully, most notably at the Battle of Newtownbutler in July 1689,[2] and it gained a place on the English establishment in 1690 as a regular infantry regiment.[3] As such it then fought at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690,[4] at the Battle of Aughrim in July 1691[5] and at the Siege of Limerick in August 1691.[6] A contingent from the regiment took part in the Siege of Namur in August 1695 during the Nine Years' War.[7]

The regiment was deployed to the West Indies in late 1739 but returned in December 1740.[8] It formed part of the Government army sent to defeat the Jacobite rising of 1745, participating in the Battle of Falkirk in January 1746 and in the Battle of Culloden in April 1746.[9] At this period they were commonly known as Blakeney's Regiment after the colonel-in-chief.[3] In 1751, the regiment was formally titled the 27th (Enniskillen) Regiment of Foot.[3]

Soldier of 27th regiment 1742
Soldier of 27th regiment, 1742

In 1756 the regiment departed for Canada[10] and fought against the French at the Battle of Carillon in July 1758[11] and the Battle of Ticonderoga in July 1759 during the Seven Years' War.[12] It then took part in the Invasion of Martinique in January 1762 and the capture of Grenada in February 1762.[13] It also took part in the Battle of Havana in June 1762 during the Anglo-Spanish War: the regiment suffered heavy losses and was evacuated to New York.[13] In August 1767 the regiment returned to Ireland.[14]

In September 1775 the regiment returned to North America to take part in the American War of Independence,[14] but as the result of the alliance formed by the French with the American colonists, it again found itself involved in numerous expeditions against the French West Indian possessions.[15] The war with France came to an end in 1783 but broke out again ten years later with the French Revolutionary Wars and the regiment took part in the Flanders Campaign of 1793.[15] In 1796 the 27th took Saint Lucia from the French, and its regimental colour was displayed on the flagstaff of the captured fortress at Morne Fortune for an hour before being replaced by the Union Jack.[16]

Napoleonic Wars

Waterloo - Stele voor het 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot 3-10-2015 12-53-32
Stele to the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot at the battlefield of Waterloo

The 27th Regiment served throughout the Napoleonic Wars including in Egypt where it formed part of Sir Ralph Abercromby's force that fought the Battle of Alexandria against the French in March 1801, the 2nd Battalion formed part of the garrison of that city after its capture. The 1st Battalion served in the Calabrian campaign and fought at Battle of Maida on 4 July 1806. In this engagement the light company fought in James Kempt's brigade while the one grenadier and eight line companies belonged to Lowry Cole's brigade.[17]

The 1st Battalion entered the Peninsular War in November 1812[18] and participated in the Battle of Castalla[19] and the Siege of Tarragona, both in 1813.[20] The 2nd Battalion landed in Spain in December 1812[18] and fought brilliantly at Castalla on 13 April 1813. While formed in a two-deep line, the unit inflicted 369 killed and wounded on the French 121st Line Infantry Regiment in a few minutes. In the same action the entire brigade only lost 70 casualties.[19] On 13 September 1813, the French surprised and cut the 2nd Battalion to pieces at the Battle of Ordal. In this action, the 2nd/27th lost over 360 men killed, wounded, and captured.[21]

The 3rd Battalion disembarked in Lisbon in November 1808. It became part of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington's army and fought at many of the key battles including Badajoz in March 1812, Salamanca in July 1812, Vitoria in June 1813 and the Pyrenees in July 1813 before pursuing the French Army into France and fighting them at Nivelle in November 1813, Orthez in February 1814 and Toulouse in April 1814.[18] The 3rd Battalion belonged to Cole's 4th Division throughout the war.[22] At the Battle of Sorauren (Pyrenees), the 3rd/27th lost two officers and 41 men killed, nine officers and 195 men wounded, and seven men taken prisoner.[23] At Toulouse, the unit lost two officers and 23 men killed, and five officers and 76 men wounded.[24]

Enniskillen Cathedral of St. Macartin North Aisle Regimental Chapel Altar 2012 09 17
The regimental chapel in the north aisle of St Macartin's Cathedral, Enniskillen decorated with the Sovereign's and Regimental Colours of the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot dating from 1859 (in the lower part of the photograph) and the two Colours presented to the 4th (Fermanagh Militia) Battalion in 1886 (in the upper part of the photograph)

The 1st Battalion went on to fight at the Battle of Waterloo as part of John Lambert's 10th Brigade in the 6th Division. At about 6:30 PM, the French captured the key strongpoint of La Haye Sainte farm. After this success, they brought up several cannon and took the Anglo-Allied lines under fire at extremely close range. At this period, the 698-strong battalion was deployed in square at the point where the Ohain road crossed the Charleroi to Brussels highway. At a range of 300 yards (270 m), the French artillery caused the unit enormous casualties within a short time.[25] At day's end, the 3rd Battalion had lost 105 killed and 373 wounded, a total of 478 casualties, without breaking.[26] The unit was described as "lying dead in a square". At the time of Waterloo, the soldiers of the 27th were dressed in red, short-tailed jackets, overall trousers, and a high-fronted shako. The facing colour was buff and it was displayed on the collar, cuffs, and shoulder-straps. The lace on the cuffs and jackets had square-ended loops.[27]

The Victorian era

Between 1837 and 1847 the 27th Regiment was engaged in several of the Xhosa Wars in South Africa. In 1840, the spelling 'Enniskillen' was changed to 'Inniskilling'.[28] From 1854 and 1868 it served in India as part of the suppression of the Indian Mutiny and helped to maintain law and order in North-West India.[29]

As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 27th was linked with the 108th (Madras Infantry) Regiment of Foot, and assigned to district no. 64 at St Lucia Barracks, Omagh.[30] On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 108th (Madras Infantry) Regiment of Foot to form the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers: the "Twenty-Seventh" became the 1st Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, with the 108th (Madras Infantry) Regiment of Foot as the 2nd Battalion.[3]

Battle honours

Inniskilling Monument at Fort Charlotte, Morne Fortune, St. Lucia
Inniskilling Monument at Fort Charlotte, Morne Fortune, St. Lucia, unveiled on 31 August 1932[31]
Morne Fortune historical marker for the Inniskilling Monument
Morne Fortune historical marker for the Inniskilling Monument

Battle honours won by the regiment were:[3]

Regimental Colonels

Colonels of the regiment were:[3]

27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot - (1751)

References

  1. ^ Trimble, p. 17–22
  2. ^ Trimble, p. 19
  3. ^ a b c d e f "27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot". regiments.org. Archived from the original on 24 February 2006. Retrieved 8 September 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  4. ^ Trimble, p. 22
  5. ^ Trimble, p. 23
  6. ^ Trimble, p. 24
  7. ^ Trimble, p. 28
  8. ^ Trimble, p. 30
  9. ^ Trimble, p. 31
  10. ^ Trimble, p. 32
  11. ^ Trimble, p. 33
  12. ^ Trimble, p. 35
  13. ^ a b Trimble, p. 36
  14. ^ a b Trimble, p. 37
  15. ^ a b Trimble, p. 40
  16. ^ Trimble, p. 49
  17. ^ Smith, 221
  18. ^ a b c Glover, 360
  19. ^ a b Smith, 414
  20. ^ Smith, 425
  21. ^ Gates, 406-407
  22. ^ Glover, 380-386
  23. ^ Smith, 435
  24. ^ Smith, 520
  25. ^ Hamilton-Williams, 336-337
  26. ^ Smith, 543
  27. ^ Haythornthwaite, 113-114
  28. ^ Royle, Trevor (2014). Britain's Lost Regiments. Aurum Press. ISBN 978-1781311882.
  29. ^ "27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot". National Army Museum. Retrieved 6 November 2016.
  30. ^ "Training Depots". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  31. ^ Devaux, Robert (1975). Saint Lucia Historic Sites. Saint Lucia National Trust. p. 9.

Sources

External links

108th (Madras Infantry) Regiment of Foot

The 108th Regiment of Foot (Madras Infantry) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised by the Honourable East India Company in 1766. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot to form the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers.

27th Regiment

27th Regiment may refer to:

27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot, infantry regiment of the British Army

27th Marine Regiment (United States), deactivated infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps

27th Infantry Regiment, unit of the United States Army established in 1901

27th Connecticut Infantry Regiment

27th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment

27th Illinois Infantry Regiment

27th Indiana Infantry Regiment

27th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment

27th Regiment Kentucky Volunteer Infantry

27th Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment

27th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry Regiment

27th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment

27th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment

27th Punjabis, infantry regiment of the British Indian Army

27th Lancers, temporary cavalry regiment of the British Army from 1941 to 1945

Abraham Josias Cloëté

General Sir Abraham Josias Cloëté KCB (1794–1886) was a senior officer in the British Army.

He was born at Cape Town,the son of Peter Laurence Cloëté, member of the council of the Cape of Good Hope and on 29 January 1809 joined the British Army as a cornet in the 16th Hussars.

He transferred to the 15th Hussars on their return from Corunna, serving with them during the Burdett riots of 1810 and the Luddite disturbances in the Midlands and Lancashire of the following years. In 1813 he exchanged as a captain to the 21st Light Dragoons at the Cape, where he acted as aide-de-camp to the newly appointed governor, Lord Charles Somerset. Whilst stationed there he commanded a military detachment, made up of volunteers from regiments at the Cape, which occupied the remote desert island of Tristan da Cunha soon after the arrival of the Emperor Napoleon on Saint Helena and also fought a duel with the transexual army surgeon James Barry. He rose through the ranks to lieutenant (17 May 1810) and captain (5 November 1812).

In 1817 he went with his regiment to India, serving with a squadron employed as a field force in Cuttack, on the frontiers of Orissa and Bihar, during the Third Anglo-Maratha War of 1817–19. The 21st Dragoons (except a detachment on Saint Helena) were disbanded in England in May 1819 and Cloëté was placed on half-pay.

In 1820 he was occupied as deputy-assistant quartermaster-general, in superintending the landing and settling of a large body of government immigrants, known as 1820 Settlers, on the eastern frontier of the Cape Colony. In 1822 he was sent home with important despatches, made brevet major on 21 November 1822, and appointed town-major of Cape Town, a post he held until 1840. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 10 January 1837 and given the honour of KH. In 1840 he was appointed deputy quartermaster-general at the Cape, and retained the post until 1854, by which time he had been promoted Colonel (11 November 1851).

In 1842 he was sent with reinforcements from Cape Town to relieve a small force under Captain Smith of the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot, which was besieged by insurgent Boers near Port Natal (now Durban), when his firm action not only prevented battle, but prepared the way for permanent settlement of the subsequent colony of Natal. He was quartermaster-general in the Xhosa Wars of 1846, was mentioned in despatches, and in 1848 made C.B. He was chief of the staff with the army in the field in the Kaffir war of 1851–3, including the operations in the Basuto country, and at the Battle of Berea, where he commanded a division. He was knighted for his services in 1854.

Promoted major-general on the staff (19 January 1856), he commanded the troops in the Windward and Leeward Islands from 1855 to 1861. He was given the colonelcy for life of the 19th Foot in 1861 and made KCB in 1862. He became Lieutenant-general on 12 February 1863 and full General on 25 October 1871.He was placed on the retired list in 1877 and died at his London home in 1886. He had married, on 8 May 1857, Anne Woolcombe, the granddaughter of the late Rear-admiral Sir Thomas Louis, baronet, with whom he had a son and a daughter.

Battle of Newtownbutler

The Battle of Newtownbutler took place near Enniskillen in County Fermanagh, Ireland, now in Northern Ireland, in 1689 and was part of the Williamite War in Ireland between the forces of William III and Mary II and those of King James II.

Charles Carnegie (politician)

Charles Carnegie DL, JP (14 May 1833 – 12 September 1906), styled The Honourable from 1855, was a British Liberal politician.He was a younger son of Sir James Carnegie, 5th Baronet (and de jure 8th Earl of Southesk), and his wife Charlotte, second daughter of Reverend Daniel Lysons. As his elder brother James was confirmed as 9th Earl of Southesk in 1855, Carnegie received the precedence and the style of an earl's younger son.He entered the British Army as a 2nd lieutenant of the 23rd Regiment of Foot (Royal Welsh Fusiliers) in 1850. Three years later Carnegie was promoted to a lieutenant of the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot. He retired in 1855 and was returned to Parliament for Forfarshire in 1860, a seat he held until 1872. Carnegie was appointed Inspector of Constabulary for Scotland in 1872, and served until 1884. From then until his death he was a Justice of the Peace. He also a Deputy Lieutenant for Forfarshire.

Gabriel Christie (British Army officer)

Gabriel Christie (16 September 1722 – 26 January 1799) was a British Army General from Scotland, who settled in Montreal after the French and Indian War. Following the British Conquest of New France, he invested in land and became one of the largest landowners in the British Province of Quebec (1763-1791).

Invasion of Martinique (1762)

The British expedition against Martinique was a military action that took place in January and February 1762. It was part of the Seven Years' War.

James Craufurd (British Army officer)

General James Robertson Craufurd (1804–1888) was a senior British Army officer.

List of Waterloo Battlefield locations

The Waterloo Battlefield is located in the municipalities of Braine-l'Alleud and Lasne and Waterloo, about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Brussels, and about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the town of Waterloo. The ordering of the places in the list is north to south and west to east.

Lowry Cole

Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole, GCB (1 May 1772 – 4 October 1842), styled The Honourable from birth, was an Irish British Army general and politician.

Matthew Keogh

Matthew Keogh or Keugh or Keough (c. 1744 – 25 June 1798) was Governor of Wexford during the Irish rebellion of 1798.

He was born in Ireland around 1744 and joined the British Army as a private soldier. He was promoted to Ensign and gazetted to the King's 60th Regiment of Foot in 1763. He was promoted to Lieutenant in the King's 45th Regiment of Foot in 1765 and finally transferred to the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot in 1772, retiring as a captain-lieutenant in 1774. He saw action in North America.

When the Wexford Rebellion began in 1798 he was living in Wexford as a freeman of the town, possibly engaged in shipping. He had been appointed a Justice of the Peace for County Wexford but deprived of his seat on the bench in 1796 for alleged revolutionary sympathies. On 31 May 1798, when the rebel forces of the United Irishmen occupied the town of Wexford, a representative Directory, or Council of the People, was formed to administer the town and county. Matthew Keogh was elected Cathaoirleach or presiding officer, effectively Military Governor of the county. He subsequently failed however, in spite of his good intentions, to prevent a mob from slaughtering nearly 100 local loyalists with pikes after mock trials on Wexford bridge on 20 June.

When the British force retook the town a few days later he was put on trial with other local leaders and sentenced to death. The sentence was carried out on 25 June 1798 when he and the other defendants were hanged on Wexford bridge and their bodies thrown into the River Slaney. Keogh's corpse was beheaded and his head stuck on a spike at the courthouse.

Morne Fortune

Morne Fortune is a hill and residential area located south of Castries, Saint Lucia, in the West Indies.

Originally known as Morne Dubuc, it was renamed Morne Fortuné in 1765 when the French moved their military headquarters and government administration buildings here from Vigie Height. A fort was constructed here by the French, Citadelle du Morne Fortuné, completed in 1784. The fort was first captured by the British on 1 April 1794, but recaptured by the French in June 1795. It was captured again by the British on 24 May 1796. A memorial to the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot still stands commemorating the battle. France regained possession in 1802 with the Treaty of Amiens, but Commodore Samuel Hood defeated French Governor Brig. Gen. Antoine Noguès in June 1803, and the fort remained a British one until independence in 1979.Fort Charlotte was named on 4 April 1794 by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn to honor Queen Charlotte.

The Apostle's Battery was manned on 16 Dec. 1888 by the 1st West India Regiment when the port became a coaling station. On 12 Nov. 1890, 4 RML 10 inch 18 ton guns were manned by the Royal Artillery. The fort was abandoned in 1905, and a Secondary School occupies the site.The original fortifications also still stand on the summit, and the old military buildings are in a listed historical area. The Saint Lucia National Trust operates this area.

Morne Fortune also hosts the Saint Lucian campus of the University of the West Indies as well as Sir Arthur Lewis Community College.

Government House, the official residence of the Governor-General of Saint Lucia, is on the northern side of Morne Fortune. There are fine views of Castries available from there.

Philip Skene

Philip Wharton Skene (5 February 1725 in London, England – 10 June 1810 near Stoke Goldington, Buckinghamshire) was a Scottish officer in the British army, New York state "patroon", and a figure in the Saratoga campaign of the American Revolution.

Randal Rumley

Major-General Randal Rumley (1811 - 13 September 1884) was a British Army officer who became Commander-in-Chief, Scotland.

Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers

The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers was an Irish line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1968. The regiment was formed in 1881 by the amalgamation of the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot and the 108th Regiment of Foot.

It saw service in the Second Boer War, the First World War and the Second World War. In 1968 it was amalgamated with the other regiments in the North Irish Brigade, the Royal Ulster Rifles, and the Royal Irish Fusiliers (Princess Victoria's) into the Royal Irish Rangers.

Royal Irish Rangers

The Royal Irish Rangers (27th (Inniskilling), 83rd and 87th) was a regular infantry regiment of the British Army with a relatively short existence, formed in 1968 and later merged with the Ulster Defence Regiment in 1992 to form the Royal Irish Regiment.

St Lucia Barracks, Omagh

St Lucia Barracks, Omagh is a former military base in Omagh, Northern Ireland.

William Blakeney, 1st Baron Blakeney

Lieutenant-General William Blakeney, 1st Baron Blakeney KB (1671/1672 – 10 September 1761) was an Irish soldier known for his unsuccessful defence of the Spanish island of Menorca following the Battle of Menorca in 1756.

William Francis Patrick Napier

General Sir William Francis Patrick Napier KCB (7 December 1785 – 12 February 1860) was an Irish soldier in the British Army and a military historian.

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