The Twenty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1839, during the first two years of Martin Van Buren's presidency.
|25th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (1827)
|March 4, 1837 – March 4, 1839|
|Senate President||Richard M. Johnson (D)|
|Senate President pro tem||William R. King (D)|
|House Speaker||James K. Polk (D)|
242 members of the House
3 non-voting delegates
|Special: March 4, 1837 – March 10, 1837|
1st: September 4, 1837 – October 16, 1837
2nd: December 4, 1837 – July 9, 1838
3rd: December 3, 1838 – March 3, 1839
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress|| (Jacksonian)
|Final voting share||67.3%||30.8%||1.9%|
|Beginning of the next congress||28||19||0||47||5|
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||14|| (Jacksonian)
|Final voting share||3.0%||48.9%||3.0%||45.1%||0.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||6||124||0||109||2||241||1|
This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.
Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1838; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1840; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1842.
The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Richard E. Parker (D)||Resigned March 4, 1837, after accepting a seat on the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals||William H. Roane (D)||Elected March 14, 1837|
|John McKinley (D)||Resigned April 22, 1837, after being appointed Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court||Clement C. Clay (D)||Elected June 19, 1837|
|John P. King (D)||Resigned November 1, 1837||Wilson Lumpkin (D)||Elected November 22, 1837|
|Joseph Kent (W)||Died November 24, 1837||William D. Merrick (W)||Elected January 4, 1838|
|John Black (W)||Resigned January 22, 1838||James F. Trotter (D)||Appointed January 22, 1838|
|Felix Grundy (D)||Resigned July 4, 1838, after being appointed United States Attorney General||Ephraim H. Foster (W)||Elected September 17, 1838|
|James F. Trotter (D)||Resigned July 10, 1838||Thomas H. Williams (D)||Appointed November 12, 1838, and subsequently elected|
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Mississippi At-large||Vacant||Rep-elect Claiborne presented credentials July 18, 1837||John F. H. Claiborne (D)||Seated July 18, 1837|
|Mississippi At-large||Vacant||Rep-elect Gholson presented credentials July 18, 1837||Samuel J. Gholson (D)||Seated July 18, 1837|
|Pennsylvania 3rd||Francis J. Harper (D)||Died March 18, 1837||Charles Naylor (W)||Seated June 29, 1837|
|Tennessee 4th||James I. Standifer (W)||Died August 20, 1837||William Stone (W)||Seated September 14, 1837|
|Ohio 17th||Elisha Whittlesey (W)||Resigned October 20, 1837||Charles D. Coffin (W)||Seated December 20, 1837|
|Mississippi At-large||John F. H. Claiborne (D)||Seat declared vacant February 5, 1838||Seargent S. Prentiss (W)||Seated May 30, 1838|
|Mississippi At-large||Samuel J. Gholson (D)||Seat declared vacant February 5, 1838||Thomas J. Word (W)||Seated May 30, 1838|
|Pennsylvania 9th||Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D)||Resigned February 9, 1838, after being appointed Minister to Austrian Empire||George M. Keim (D)||Seated March 17, 1838|
|Maine 3rd||Jonathan Cilley (D)||Killed in a duel February 24, 1838, by Rep. William J. Graves||Edward Robinson (W)||Seated April 28, 1838|
|Maine 5th||Timothy J. Carter (D)||Died March 14, 1838||Virgil D. Parris (D)||Seated May 29, 1838|
|Maryland 4th||Isaac McKim (D)||Died April 1, 1838||John P. Kennedy (W)||Seated April 25, 1838|
|Virginia 13th||John M. Patton (D)||Resigned April 7, 1838||Linn Banks (D)||Seated April 28, 1838|
|Alabama 3rd||Joab Lawler (W)||Died May 8, 1838||George W. Crabb (W)||Seated October 5, 1835|
|Ohio 19th||Daniel Kilgore (D)||Resigned July 4, 1838||Henry Swearingen (D)||Seated December 3, 1838|
|Ohio 16th||Elisha Whittlesey (W)||Resigned July 9, 1838||Joshua R. Giddings (W)||Seated December 3, 1838|
|New York 22nd||Andrew D. Bruyn (D)||Died July 27, 1838||Cyrus Beers (D)||Seated December 3, 1838|
|New York 29th||William Patterson (W)||Died August 14, 1838||Harvey Putnam (W)||Seated November 7, 1838|
|Iowa Territory At-large||New seat||Iowa Territory seated its first delegate September 10, 1838||George Wallace Jones (D)||Seated September 10, 1838|
|Massachusetts 2nd||Stephen C. Phillips (W)||Seat declared vacant September 28, 1838||Leverett Saltonstall (W)||Seated December 15, 1838|
|Maine 1st||John Fairfield (D)||Resigned December 24, 1838, after being elected Governor of Maine||Vacant||Not filled this congress|
|Wisconsin Territory At-large||George Wallace Jones (D)||Lost contested election January 14, 1839||James D. Doty (D)||Seated January 14, 1839|
|Louisiana 2nd||Eleazar W. Ripley (D)||Died March 2, 1839||Vacant||Not filled this congress|
Lists of committees and their party leaders.
The 1836 United States elections elected the members of the 25th United States Congress. The election saw the emergence of the Whig Party, which succeeded the National Republican Party in the Second Party System as the primary opposition to the Democratic Party. The Whigs chose their name in symbolic defiance to the leader of the Democratic Party, "King" Andrew Jackson, and supported a national bank and the American System. Despite the emergence of the Whigs as a durable political party, Democrats retained the Presidency and a majority in both houses of Congress.
In the Presidential election, the Whigs ran multiple candidates designed to deny the Democratic candidate a majority of the electoral vote, and carried a scattering of states in the South, West, and Northeast. However, Democratic Vice President Martin Van Buren still took a majority of the popular and electoral vote, defeating Whig candidates William Henry Harrison of Ohio, Hugh Lawson White of Tennessee, Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, and Willie Person Mangum of North Carolina. Virginia's electors refused to vote for Richard Mentor Johnson, Van Buren's running mate, leaving Johnson short of a majority of electoral votes for vice president. The Senate elected Johnson in a contingent election, the only time the Senate has ever chosen the vice president. Van Buren was the last sitting vice president to win election as president until George H.W. Bush's election in 1988.
In the House, Whigs won moderate gains, but Democrats retained a solid majority in the chamber.In the Senate, Democrats picked up a large number of seats, boosting their majority.1836 and 1837 United States House of Representatives elections
Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 25th Congress were held at various dates in different states from July 1836 to November 1837.
Though Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected President in November 1836, Democrats lost seats. The newly organizing Whigs benefited from regional candidacies and issues and voter fatigue with outgoing two-term President Andrew Jackson. Jackson, a flamboyant public personality with a record of high-profile leadership and historic military success, often clashed with Congress and the Supreme Court. By comparison, Van Buren, a brilliant partisan organizer and political operative, was less charismatic in looks and demeanor. Voter support for the minor Anti-Masonic and Nullifier parties ebbed, but remained significant. One Independent, John Pope, was elected from Kentucky.1837 Pennsylvania's 3rd congressional district special election
On June 29, 1837, a special election was held in Pennsylvania's 3rd congressional district to fill a vacancy left by the death of Francis J. Harper (D) on March 18, 1837.1837 State of the Union Address
The 1837 State of the Union Address was given by the eighth president of the United States, Martin Van Buren, on December 5, 1837. It was presented to the 25th United States Congress by a clerk, because it was not yet the custom for the President to deliver it himself. He began with, "We have reason to renew the expression of our devout gratitude to the Giver of All Good for His benign protection. Our country presents on every side the evidences of that continued favor under whose auspices it, has gradually risen from a few feeble and dependent colonies to a prosperous and powerful confederacy."1837 United States Senate election in New York
The 1837 United States Senate election in New York was held on February 7, 1837, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.1838 Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district special election
On March 8, 1838, a special election was held in Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district to fill a vacancy left by the resignation of Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D) on February 9, 1838Amasa J. Parker
Amasa Junius Parker (June 2, 1807 – May 13, 1890) was a U.S. Representative from New York and a justice of the New York Supreme Court.Churchill C. Cambreleng
Churchill Caldom Cambreleng (October 24, 1786 – April 30, 1862) was an American businessman and politician from New York. He is notable for his service in the United States House of Representatives from 1821 to 1839, including terms as chairman of several high profile committees. In addition, he served as U.S. Minister to Russia from 1840 to 1841.Henry A. Foster
Henry Allen Foster (May 7, 1800 – May 11, 1889) was an American lawyer and politician from New York. He was a United States Senator from 1844 to 1845.Hiram Gray
Hiram Gray (July 10, 1801 in Salem, Washington County, New York – May 6, 1890 in Elmira, Chemung County, New York) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.Horace Everett
Horace Everett (July 17, 1779 – January 30, 1851) was an American politician. He served as a United States Representative from Vermont.John Calhoon
John Calhoon (1797–?) was a United States Representative from Kentucky. He was born in Henry County, Kentucky in 1797. He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and practiced.
Calhoon was a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1820, 1821, 1829, and 1830. He was unsuccessful candidate for election to the Twentieth Congress. He received the credentials of an election as an Adams candidate to the Twentieth Congress, held November 5–7, 1827, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of United States Representative William S. Young, but, in order to avoid a contest, resigned and, together with his opponent, Thomas Chilton, petitioned the Governor of Kentucky for a new election. He was again unsuccessful in this election.
Calhoon was elected as an Anti-Jacksonian to the Twenty-fourth Congress and as a Whig to the Twenty-fifth Congress (March 4, 1835 – March 3, 1839) and was not a candidate for reelection to the Twenty-sixth Congress. After leaving Congress, he moved to St. Louis, Missouri in 1839 and resumed the practice of law. He returned to Kentucky and was appointed judge of the fourteenth judicial district in January 1842.
He is the namesake of Calhoun, Kentucky, the seat of McLean County.John Chambers (politician)
John Chambers (October 6, 1780 – September 21, 1852) was a U.S. Representative from Kentucky and the second Governor of the Iowa Territory.Leverett Saltonstall I
Leverett Saltonstall (June 13, 1783 – May 8, 1845), was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts who also served as Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, President of the Massachusetts Senate, the first Mayor of Salem, Massachusetts and a Member of the Board of Overseers of Harvard College.Saltonstall was a great-grandfather of Massachusetts Governor and U.S. Senator Leverett Saltonstall (1892-1979).List of United States Senators in the 25th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 25th United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1837, to March 3, 1839.
Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1838 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.List of United States federal legislation, 1789–1901
This is a chronological, but incomplete, list of United States federal legislation passed by the 1st through 56th United States Congresses, between 1789 and 1901. For the main article on this subject, see List of United States federal legislation. Additional lists can be found at List of United States federal legislation: Congress of the Confederation, List of United States federal legislation, 1901–2001 and List of United States federal legislation, 2001–present.List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 25th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 25th United States Congress listed by seniority.
As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 25th Congress (March 4, 1837 – March 3, 1839). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.
Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.
Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.Mark H. Sibley
Mark Hopkins Sibley (1796 -– September 8, 1852) was an American politician from New York.United States House of Representatives ban on head covering
The United States House of Representatives ban on head covering is an 1837 simple resolution that is a sumptuary rule restricting Representatives from wearing any headgear during sessions. It originally represented a break from the British House of Commons hat-wearing tradition. After 181 years, in 2018 a partial repeal to allow religious accommodation for a number of faiths that practice head covering was proposed with the election of Ilhan Omar, who wears a hijab.
United States Congresses (and year convened)