256-bit

In computer architecture, 256-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 256 bits (32 octets) wide. Also, 256-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size.

There are currently no mainstream general-purpose processors built to operate on 256-bit integers or addresses, though a number of processors do operate on 256-bit data. CPUs feature SIMD instruction sets (Advanced Vector Extensions and the FMA instruction set etc.) where 256-bit vector registers are used to store several smaller numbers, such as eight 32-bit floating-point numbers, and a single instruction can operate on all these values in parallel. However, these processors do not operate on individual numbers that are 256 binary digits in length, only their registers have the size of 256-bits. Binary digits are found together in 128-bit collections.

Uses

Sharp PC-MM2 frontal view
Laptop computer using an Efficeon processor
  • 256 bits is a common key size for symmetric ciphers in cryptography, such as Advanced Encryption Standard.
  • Modern GPU chips move data across a 256-bit memory bus.
  • 256-bit processors could be used for addressing directly up to 2256 bytes. Already 2128 (128-bit) would greatly exceed the total data stored on Earth as of 2010, which has been estimated to be around 1.2 zettabytes (over 270 bytes).[1]
  • The Efficeon processor was Transmeta's second-generation 256-bit VLIW design which employed a software engine to convert code written for x86 processors to the native instruction set of the chip.[2][3]
  • Increasing the word size can accelerate multiple precision mathematical libraries. Applications include cryptography.
  • Researchers at the University of Cambridge use a 256-bit capability pointer, which includes capability and addressing information, on their CHERI capability system.[4]

History

The DARPA funded Data-Intensive Architecture (DIVA) system incorporated processor-in-memory (PIM) 5-stage pipelined 256-bit datapath, complete with register file and ALU blocks in a "WideWord" processor in 2002.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Miller, Rich (4 May 2010). "Digital Universe nears a Zettabyte". Data Center Knowledge. Archived from the original on 6 May 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  2. ^ "Transmeta Efficeon TM8300 Processor" (PDF). Transmeta Corporation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 February 2019.
  3. ^ Williams, Martyn (29 May 2002). "Transmeta Unveils Plans for TM8000 Processor". PC World. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010.
  4. ^ Watson, Robert N. M.; Neumann, Peter G.; Woodruff, Jonathan; Anderson, Jonathan; Anderson, Ross; Dave, Nirav; Laurie, Ben; Moore, Simon W.; Murdoch, Steven J.; Paeps, Philip; Roe, Michael; Saidi, Hassen (3 March 2012). "CHERI: a research platform deconflating hardware virtualization and protection" (PDF). Unpublished workshop paper for RESoLVE’12, March 3, 2012, London, UK. SRI International Computer Science Laboratory.
  5. ^ Draper, Jeffrey; Sondeen, Jeff; Chang Woo Kang (October 2002). Implementation of a 256-bit WideWord Processor for the Data-Intensive Architecture (DIVA) Processing-In-Memory (PIM) Chip (PDF). International Solid-State Circuits Conference. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2017.
ARIA (cipher)

In cryptography, ARIA is a block cipher designed in 2003 by a large group of South Korean researchers. In 2004, the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards selected it as a standard cryptographic technique.

The algorithm uses a substitution-permutation network structure based on AES. The interface is the same as AES: 128-bit block size with key size of 128, 192, or 256 bits. The number of rounds is 12, 14, or 16, depending on the key size. ARIA uses two 8×8-bit S-boxes and their inverses in alternate rounds; one of these is the Rijndael S-box.

The key schedule processes the key using a 3-round 256-bit Feistel cipher, with the binary expansion of 1/π as a source of "nothing up my sleeve numbers".

Advanced Encryption Standard

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈrɛindaːl]), is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.AES is a subset of the Rijndael block cipher developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen, who submitted a proposal to NIST during the AES selection process. Rijndael is a family of ciphers with different key and block sizes.

For AES, NIST selected three members of the Rijndael family, each with a block size of 128 bits, but three different key lengths: 128, 192 and 256 bits.

AES has been adopted by the U.S. government and is now used worldwide. It supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES), which was published in 1977. The algorithm described by AES is a symmetric-key algorithm, meaning the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data.

In the United States, AES was announced by the NIST as U.S. FIPS PUB 197 (FIPS 197) on November 26, 2001. This announcement followed a five-year standardization process in which fifteen competing designs were presented and evaluated, before the Rijndael cipher was selected as the most suitable (see Advanced Encryption Standard process for more details).

AES became effective as a federal government standard on May 26, 2002, after approval by the Secretary of Commerce. AES is included in the ISO/IEC 18033-3 standard. AES is available in many different encryption packages, and is the first (and only) publicly accessible cipher approved by the National Security Agency (NSA) for top secret information when used in an NSA approved cryptographic module (see Security of AES, below).

Advanced Vector Extensions

Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX, also known as Sandy Bridge New Extensions) are extensions to the x86 instruction set architecture for microprocessors from Intel and AMD proposed by Intel in March 2008 and first supported by Intel with the Sandy Bridge processor shipping in Q1 2011 and later on by AMD with the Bulldozer processor shipping in Q3 2011. AVX provides new features, new instructions and a new coding scheme.

AVX2 expands most integer commands to 256 bits and introduces fused multiply-accumulate (FMA) operations. AVX-512 expands AVX to 512-bit support using a new EVEX prefix encoding proposed by Intel in July 2013 and first supported by Intel with the Knights Landing processor, which shipped in 2016.

CLEFIA

CLEFIA is a proprietary block cipher algorithm, developed by Sony. Its name is derived from the French word clef, meaning "key". The block size is 128 bits and the key size can be 128 bit, 192 bit or 256 bit. It is intended to be used in DRM systems. It is among the cryptographic techniques recommended candidate for Japanese government use by CRYPTREC revision in 2013.

FR-V (microprocessor)

The Fujitsu FR-V (Fujitsu RISC-VLIW) is one of the very few processors ever able to process both a very long instruction word (VLIW) and vector processor instructions at the same time, increasing throughput with high parallel computing while increasing performance per watt and hardware efficiency. The family was presented in 1999. Its design was influenced by the VPP500/5000 models of the Fujitsu VP/2000 vector processor supercomputer line.Featuring a 1–8 way very long instruction word (VLIW, Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD), up to 256 bit) instruction set it additionally uses a 4-way single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) vector processor core. A 32-bit RISC instruction set in the superscalar core is combined with most variants integrating a dual 16-bit media processor also in VLIW and vector architecture. Each processor core is superpipelined as well as 4-unit superscalar.

A typical integrated circuit integrates a system on a chip and further multiplies speed by integrating multiple cores. Due to the very low power requirements it is a solution even for battery-powered applications.

GOST (hash function)

The GOST hash function, defined in the standards GOST R 34.11-94 and GOST 34.311-95 is a 256-bit cryptographic hash function. It was initially defined in the Russian national standard GOST R 34.11-94 Information Technology – Cryptographic Information Security – Hash Function. The equivalent standard used by other member-states of the CIS is GOST 34.311-95.

This function must not be confused with a different Streebog hash function, which is defined in the new revision of the standard GOST R 34.11-2012.The GOST hash function is based on the GOST block cipher.

Iraqi block cipher

In cryptography, the Iraqi block cipher was a block cipher published in C source code form by anonymous FTP upload around July 1999, and widely distributed on Usenet. It is a five round unbalanced Feistel cipher operating on a 256 bit block with a 160 bit key.

A comment suggests that it is of Iraqi origin. However, like the S-1 block cipher, it is generally regarded as a hoax, although of lesser quality than S-1. Although the comment suggests that it is Iraqi in origin, all comments, variable and function names and printed strings are in English rather than Arabic; the code is fairly inefficient (including some pointless operations), and the cipher's security may be flawed (no proof).

Because it has a constant key schedule the cipher is vulnerable to a slide attack. However, it may take 264 chosen texts to create a single slid pair, which would make the attack unfeasible. It also has a large number of fixed points, although that is not

necessarily a problem, except possibly for hashing modes. No public attack is currently available. As with S-1, it was David Wagner who first spotted the security flaws.

JH (hash function)

JH is a cryptographic hash function submitted to the NIST hash function competition by Hongjun Wu. Though chosen as one of the five finalists of the competition, JH ultimately lost to NIST hash candidate Keccak. JH has a 1024-bit state, and works on 512-bit input blocks. Processing an input block consists of three steps:

XOR the input block into the left half of the state.

Apply a 42-round unkeyed permutation (encryption function) to the state. This consists of 42 repetitions of:

Break the input into 256 4-bit blocks, and map each through one of two 4-bit S-boxes, the choice being made by a 256-bit round-dependent key schedule. Equivalently, combine each input block with a key bit, and map the result through a 5→4 bit S-box.

Mix adjacent 4-bit blocks using a maximum distance separable code over GF(24).

Permute 4-bit blocks so that they will be adjacent to different blocks in following rounds.

XOR the input block into the right half of the state.The resulting digest is the first 224, 256, 384 or 512 bits from the 1024-bit final value.

It is well suited to a bit slicing implementation using the SSE2 instruction set, giving speeds of 16.8 cycles per byte.

Jaguar (microarchitecture)

The AMD Jaguar Family 16h is a low-power microarchitecture designed by AMD. It is used in APUs succeeding the Bobcat Family microarchitecture in 2013 and being succeeded by AMD's Puma architecture in 2014. It is two-way superscalar and capable of out-of-order execution. It is used in AMD's Semi-Custom Business Unit as a design for custom processors and is used by AMD in four product families: Kabini aimed at notebooks and mini PCs, Temash aimed at tablets, Kyoto aimed at micro-servers, and the G-Series aimed at embedded applications. Both the PlayStation 4 and the Xbox One use chips based on the Jaguar microarchitecture, with more powerful GPUs than AMD sells in its own commercially available Jaguar APUs.

Kalyna (cipher)

Kalyna (Ukrainian: Калина, Viburnum opulus) is a symmetric block cipher. It supports block sizes of 128, 256 or 512 bits; the key length is either equal to or double the block size.

Kalyna was adopted as the national encryption standard of Ukraine in 2015 (standard DSTU 7624:2014) after holding Ukrainian national cryptographic competition. Kalyna is a substitution-permutation network and its design is based on the Rijndael (AES) encryption function having quite different key schedule, another set of four different S-boxes and increased MDS matrix size.

Kalyna has 10 rounds for 128-bit keys, 14 rounds for 256-bit keys and 18 rounds for 512-bit keys. Independent researchers proposed some attacks on reduced-round variants of Kalyna, but all of them have a very high complexity and none of them are practical.

Nvidia Quadro

Quadro is Nvidia's brand for graphics cards intended for use in workstations running professional computer-aided design (CAD), computer-generated imagery (CGI), digital content creation (DCC) applications, scientific calculations and machine learning.

The GPU chips on Quadro-branded graphics cards are identical to those used on GeForce-branded graphics cards. The Quadro cards differ substantially in their ECC memory and enhanced floating point precision, which tremendously reduce the risks of calculation errors.

The Nvidia Quadro product line directly competes with AMD's Radeon Pro line of professional workstation cards.

Octuple-precision floating-point format

In computing, octuple precision is a binary floating-point-based computer number format that occupies 32 bytes (256 bits) in computer memory. This 256-bit octuple precision is for applications requiring results in higher than quadruple precision. This format is rarely (if ever) used and very few environments support it.

Panama (cryptography)

Panama is a cryptographic primitive which can be used both as a hash function and a stream cipher, but its hash function mode of operation has been broken and is not suitable for cryptographic use. Based on StepRightUp, it was designed by Joan Daemen and Craig Clapp and presented in the paper Fast Hashing and Stream Encryption with PANAMA on the Fast Software Encryption (FSE) conference 1998. The cipher has influenced several other designs, for example MUGI and SHA-3.The primitive can be used both as a hash function and a stream cipher. The stream cipher uses a 256-bit key and the performance of the cipher is very good reaching 2 cycles per byte.

SC2000

In cryptography, SC2000 is a block cipher invented by a research group at Fujitsu Labs. It was submitted to the NESSIE project, but was not selected. It was among the cryptographic techniques recommended for Japanese government use by CRYPTREC in 2003, however, has been dropped to "candidate" by CRYPTREC revision in 2013.

The algorithm uses a key size of 128, 192, or 256 bits. It operates on blocks of 128 bits using 6.5 or 7.5 rounds of encryption. Each round consists of S-box lookups, key additions, and an unkeyed two-round Feistel network. There are 3 S-boxes: a 4×4-bit one used at the beginning of each round, and a 5×5-bit one and 6×6-bit one used in the Feistel network.

No analysis of the full SC2000 has been announced, but a reduced version of 4.5 rounds is susceptible to linear cryptanalysis, and a reduced version of 5 rounds is susceptible to differential cryptanalysis.In 2014 Alex Biryukov and Ivica Nikolić found a weakness in the key schedule of SC2000 which allows an attacker to find colliding keys which result in identical encryptions in just 239 time for 256 bit keys. They proved that there are 268 colliding key pairs and the whole set can be found in 258 time.

Selectron tube

The Selectron was an early form of digital computer memory developed by Jan A. Rajchman and his group at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) under the direction of Vladimir K. Zworykin. It was a vacuum tube that stored digital data as electrostatic charges using technology similar to the Williams tube storage device. The team was never able to produce a commercially viable form of Selectron before magnetic-core memory became almost universal, and it remains practically unknown today.

Snefru

Snefru is a cryptographic hash function invented by Ralph Merkle in 1990 while working at Xerox PARC. The function supports 128-bit and 256-bit output. It was named after the Egyptian Pharaoh Sneferu, continuing the tradition of the Khufu and Khafre block ciphers.

The original design of Snefru was shown to be insecure by Eli Biham and Adi Shamir who were able to use differential cryptanalysis to find hash collisions. The design was then modified by increasing the number of iterations of the main pass of the algorithm from two to eight. Although differential cryptanalysis can break the revised version with less complexity than brute force search (a certificational weakness), the attack requires operations and is thus not currently feasible in practice.

Twofish

In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits. It was one of the five finalists of the Advanced Encryption Standard contest, but it was not selected for standardization. Twofish is related to the earlier block cipher Blowfish.

Twofish's distinctive features are the use of pre-computed key-dependent S-boxes, and a relatively complex key schedule. One half of an n-bit key is used as the actual encryption key and the other half of the n-bit key is used to modify the encryption algorithm (key-dependent S-boxes). Twofish borrows some elements from other designs; for example, the pseudo-Hadamard transform (PHT) from the SAFER family of ciphers. Twofish has a Feistel structure like DES. Twofish also employs a Maximum Distance Separable matrix.

Back in 2000, on most software platforms Twofish was slightly slower than Rijndael (the chosen algorithm for Advanced Encryption Standard) for 128-bit keys, but somewhat faster for 256-bit keys. But after Rijndael was chosen as the Advanced Encryption Standard, Twofish has become much slower than Rijndael on the CPUs that support the AES instruction set.Twofish was designed by Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, and Niels Ferguson; the "extended Twofish team" who met to perform further cryptanalysis of Twofish and other AES contest entrants included Stefan Lucks, Tadayoshi Kohno, and Mike Stay.

The Twofish cipher has not been patented and the reference implementation has been placed in the public domain. As a result, the Twofish algorithm is free for anyone to use without any restrictions whatsoever. It is one of a few ciphers included in the OpenPGP standard (RFC 4880). However, Twofish has seen less widespread usage than Blowfish, which has been available longer.

WolfSSL

wolfSSL is a small, portable, embedded SSL/TLS library targeted for use by embedded systems developers. It is an open-source implementation of TLS (SSL 3.0, TLS 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, and DTLS 1.0 and 1.2) written in the C language. It includes SSL/TLS client libraries and an SSL/TLS server implementation as well as support for multiple APIs, including those defined by SSL and TLS. wolfSSL also includes an OpenSSL compatibility interface with the most commonly used OpenSSL functions.A predecessor of wolfSSL, yaSSL is a C++ based SSL library for embedded environments and real time operating systems with constrained resources.

WxSQLite3

wxSQLite3 is a C++ wrapper around the public domain SQLite 3.x database and is specifically designed for use in programs based on the wxWidgets library.

wxSQLite3 does not try to hide the underlying database, in contrary almost all special features of the current SQLite version 3.18.0 are supported, like for example the creation of user defined scalar or aggregate functions. Since SQLite stores strings in UTF-8 encoding, the wxSQLite3 methods provide automatic conversion between wxStrings and UTF-8 strings. This works best for the Unicode builds of wxWidgets. In ANSI builds the current locale conversion object (wxConvCurrent) is used for conversion to/from UTF-8. Special care has to be taken if external administration tools are used to modify the database contents, since not all of these tools operate in Unicode resp. UTF-8 mode.

Since version 1.7.0 optional support for key based database encryption (128 bit AES) is also included. Starting with version 1.9.6 of wxSQLite3 the encryption extension is compatible with the SQLite amalgamation source and includes the extension functions module. Support for 256 bit AES encryption has been added in version 1.9.8.

Since version 3.5.0 the SQLite library is an integrated part of wxSQLite3.

Since version 4.0.0 wxSQLite3 supports to select the encryption scheme at runtime. In addition to the wxSQLite3 legacy schemes, AES 128 Bit and AES 256 Bit, two other encryption schemes, namely sqleet (aka ChaCha20 - Poly1305) and SQLCipher (aka AES 256 Bit - SHA1/SHA256/SHA512 - all SQLCipher variants from version 1 up to version 4 supported), can be selected.

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