24th United States Congress

The Twenty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1835, to March 4, 1837, during the seventh and eighth years of Andrew Jackson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Jacksonian majority.

24th United States Congress
23rd ←
→ 25th
USCapitol1827A
March 4, 1835 – March 4, 1837
Senate PresidentMartin Van Buren (J)
Senate President pro temWilliam R. King (J)
House SpeakerJames K. Polk (J)
Members52 senators
242 members of the House
3 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityJacksonian
House MajorityJacksonian
Sessions
1st: December 7, 1835 – July 4, 1836
2nd: December 5, 1836 – March 3, 1837

Major events

for Richard M. Johnson
Democratic
for Francis Granger
Whig

Anti-Jacksonians:

Jacksonians:

Anti-Jacksonians:

Jacksonians:

Major legislation

[Data unknown/missing.]

Treaties

States admitted and territories formed

Party summary

Senate

During this congress two Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Arkansas and Michigan.

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Anti-
Jacksonian

(AJ)
Jacksonian
(J)
Nullifier
(N)
End of the previous congress 26 20 2 48 0
Begin 24 21 2 47 1
End 19 31 520
Final voting share 36.5% 59.6% 3.8%
Beginning of the next congress 19
(Whig)
33
(Democratic)
0 52 0

House of Representatives

During this congress one House seat was added for each of the new states of Arkansas and Michigan.

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Anti-
Jacksonian

(AJ)
Anti-
Masonic

(AM)
Jacksonian
(J)
Nullifier
(N)
States' Rights
(SR)
End of the previous congress 64 26 141 8 0 239 1
Begin 75 16 140 7 0 238 2
End 79 15 139 1 2411
Final voting share 32.8% 6.2% 57.7% 2.9% 0.4%
Beginning of the next congress 100
(as Whigs)
7 121
(as Democrats)
6 0 234 0

Leadership

Van Buren
President of the Senate
Martin Van Buren
William Rufus DeVane King 1839 portrait
President pro tempore
William R. King

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1838; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1840; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1836.

Alabama

Arkansas

Connecticut

Delaware

Georgia

Illinois

Indiana

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

  • 1. Lucius Lyon (J), from January 26, 1837 (newly admitted state)
  • 2. John Norvell (J), from January 26, 1837 (newly admitted state)

Mississippi

Missouri

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

Ohio

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Tennessee

Vermont

Virginia

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Polkpolk
Speaker of the House
James K. Polk

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • Replacements: 11
    • Anti-Jacksonians: 5-seat net loss
    • Jacksonians: 10-seat net gain
  • Deaths: 3
  • Resignations: 8
  • Interim appointments: 0
  • Seats of newly admitted states: 4
  • Total seats with changes: 16
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Louisiana
(2)
Vacant Senator-elect Charles E.A. Gayarre had resigned on account of ill-health.
Successor was elected January 13, 1836.
Robert C. Nicholas (J) January 13, 1836
Connecticut
(1)
Nathan Smith (AJ) Died December 6, 1835
Successor eas elected December 21, 1835.
John M. Niles (J) December 21, 1835.
Illinois
(3)
Elias Kane (J) Died December 12, 1835
Successor was appointed December 30, 1835.
William Lee D. Ewing (J) December 30, 1835
Virginia
(1)
John Tyler (AJ) Resigned February 29, 1836
Successor was elected March 4, 1836.
William C. Rives (J) March 4, 1836
Maine
(1)
Ether Shepley (J) Resigned March 3, 1836
Successor was appointed December 7, 1836.
Judah Dana (J) December 7, 1836
New Hampshire
(3)
Isaac Hill (J) Resigned May 30, 1836, to become Governor of New Hampshire.
Successor was elected June 8, 1836.
John Page (J) June 8, 1836
Delaware
(1)
Arnold Naudain (AJ) Resigned June 16, 1836
Successor was elected June 17, 1836.
Richard H. Bayard (AJ) June 17, 1836
Virginia
(2)
Benjamin W. Leigh (AJ) Resigned July 4, 1836
Successor was elected December 12, 1836.
Richard E. Parker (J) December 12, 1836
Arkansas
(2)
New seats Arkansas was admitted to the Union.
Its new Senators were elected September 18, 1836.
William S. Fulton (J) September 18, 1836.
Arkansas
(3)
Ambrose H. Sevier (J) September 18, 1836.
Maryland
(3)
Robert H. Goldsborough (AJ) Died October 5, 1836
Successor was elected December 31, 1836.
John S. Spence (AJ) December 31, 1836
North Carolina
(3)
Willie P. Mangum (AJ) Resigned November 26, 1836
Successor was elected December 5, 1836.
Robert Strange (J) December 5, 1836
Delaware
(2)
John M. Clayton (AJ) Resigned December 29, 1836
Successor was elected January 9, 1837.
Thomas Clayton (AJ) January 9, 1837
Louisiana
(3)
Alexander Porter (AJ) Resigned January 5, 1837, due to ill health.
Successor was elected January 12, 1837.
Alexandre Mouton (J) January 12, 1837
Michigan
(1)
New seats Michigan was admitted to the Union.
Its new Senators were elected January 6, 1837.
Lucius Lyon (J) January 26, 1837.
Michigan
(2)
John Norvell (J) January 26, 1837.

House of Representatives

  • Replacements: 18
    • Anti-Jacksonians: 5-seat net gain
    • Anti-Masonics: 1-seat net loss
    • Jacksonians: 2-seat net loss
    • Nullifiers: No net change
  • Deaths: 5
  • Resignations: 13
  • Contested election: 0
  • Seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 24
District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
South Carolina 6th Vacant Rep. Warren R. Davis died during previous congress Waddy Thompson, Jr. (AJ) Seated September 10, 1835
Georgia At-large Vacant Rep. James M. Wayne resigned in previous congress Jabez Y. Jackson (J) Seated October 5, 1835
Georgia At-large William Schley (J) Resigned July 1, 1835, after being nominated for Governor of Georgia Jesse F. Cleveland (J) Seated October 5, 1835
Georgia At-large James C. Terrell (J) Resigned July 8, 1835, due to ill health Hopkins Holsey (J) Seated October 5, 1835
Georgia At-large John W. A. Sanford (J) Resigned July 25, 1835, to assist in the Cherokee Indian removal Thomas Glascock (J) Seated October 5, 1835
New York 3rd Campbell P. White (J) Resigned October 2, 1835 Gideon Lee (J) Seated November 4, 1835
Connecticut At-large Zalmon Wildman (J) Died December 10, 1835 Thomas T. Whittlesey (J) Seated April 29, 1836
South Carolina 4th James H. Hammond (N) Resigned February 26, 1836, because of ill health Franklin H. Elmore (N) Seated December 10, 1836
New York 17th Samuel Beardsley (J) Resigned March 29, 1836 Rutger B. Miller (J) Seated November 9, 1836
North Carolina 12th James Graham (AJ) Seat declared vacant March 29, 1836 James Graham (AJ Seated December 5, 1836
Pennsylvania 24th John Banks (AM) Resigned March 31, 1836 John J. Pearson (AJ) Seated December 5, 1836
South Carolina 8th Richard I. Manning (J) Died May 1, 1836 John P. Richardson (J) Seated December 19, 1836
Arkansas Territory
At-large
Ambrose H. Sevier (J) Seat was eliminated when Arkansas achieved statehood June 15, 1836
Connecticut At-large Andrew T. Judson (J) Resigned July 4, 1836, after being appointed to seat on the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut Orrin Holt (J) Seated December 5, 1836
Mississippi At-large David Dickson (AJ) Died July 31, 1836 Samuel J. Gholson (J) Seated December 1, 1836
Arkansas
At-large
Vacant Arkansas was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836 Archibald Yell (J) Seated August 1, 1836
Georgia At-large George W. Towns (J) Resigned September 1, 1836 Julius C. Alford (AJ) Seated January 2, 1837
New York 30th Philo C. Fuller (AJ) Resigned September 2, 1836 John Young (AJ) Seated November 9, 1836
Georgia At-large John E. Coffee (J) Died September 25, 1836 William C. Dawson (AJ) Seated November 7, 1836
Pennsylvania 13th Jesse Miller (J) Resigned October 30, 1836 James Black (J) Seated December 5, 1836
New Jersey At-large Philemon Dickerson (J) Resigned November 3, 1836, after being chosen Governor of New Jersey William Chetwood (AJ) Seated December 5, 1836
Indiana 6th George L. Kinnard (J) Died November 26, 1836 William Herod (AJ) Seated January 25, 1837
Virginia 2nd John Y. Mason (J) Resigned January 11, 1837 Vacant Not filled this congress
Michigan Territory
At-large
George Wallace Jones (J) Seat was eliminated when Michigan achieved statehood January 26, 1837
Michigan
At-large
Vacant Michigan was admitted to the Union on January 26, 1837 Isaac E. Crary (J) Seated January 26, 1837
Wisconsin Territory
At-large
Vacant Wisconsin Territory was organized on April 3, 1836 George Wallace Jones (J) Seated January 26, 1837

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

  1. ^ "U.S. Senate: Richard Mentor Johnson, 9th Vice President (1837-1841)". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  2. ^ "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875". memory.loc.gov. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

1834 United States elections

The 1834 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic President Andrew Jackson's second term. Members of the 24th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Taking place during the Second Party System, elections were contested between Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party and opponents of Jackson, including the remnants of the National Republican Party. During this election, the anti-Jackson faction began to transition into the Whig Party. Arkansas and Michigan joined the union during the 24th Congress. Democrats retained the majority in the House, and won control of the Senate.

In the House, the anti-Jackson faction picked up some seats from the Anti-Masonic Party, but the Democrats retained a commanding majority.In the Senate, the Democrats picked up a moderate number of seats and gained control of the majority with the aid of Democratic Vice President Martin Van Buren, who cast the tie-breaking vote.

1836 Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district special election

On November 4, 1836, a special election was held in Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district to fill a vacancy left by the resignation of Jesse Miller (J).

1836 Pennsylvania's 24th congressional district special election

On October 11, 1836, a special election was held in Pennsylvania's 24th congressional district to fill a vacancy left by the resignation of John Banks (AM) on April 2. This election was held at the same time as the general elections for the 25th Congress

1836 State of the Union Address

The 1836 State of the Union Address was given by Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States, on December 5, 1836. He did not personally deliver the address to the 24th United States Congress, but a clerk did. He concluded it with, "All that has occurred during my Administration is calculated to inspire me with increased confidence in the stability of our institutions; and should I be spared to enter upon that retirement which is so suitable to my age and infirm health and so much desired by me in other respects, I shall not cease to invoke that beneficent Being to whose providence we are already so signally indebted for the continuance of His blessings on our beloved country."

Campbell P. White

Campbell Patrick White (November 30, 1787 – February 12, 1859) was a U.S. Representative from New York.

Edward Darlington

Edward Darlington (September 17, 1795 – November 21, 1884) was a three term member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania from the Anti-Masonic Party. His cousins Isaac Darlington and William Darlington were also both members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Edward Darlington was born in Middletown Township, Pennsylvania and grew up on a dairy farm. He taught school from 1817 to 1820. He studied law with Samuel Edwards and was admitted to the bar in 1821 and entered practice in Chester, Pennsylvania.

In 1824, Darlington was appointed deputy attorney general for Delaware County and served until 1830.In 1832, Darlington was elected as a member of the Anti-Masonic Party to the 23rd United States Congress.In 1834, he was re-elected to the same office in the 24th United States Congress. Darlington served in Congress from 1833 to 1839.. He was chairman of the United States House Committee on Expenditures on Public Buildings during the Twenty-fourth Congress. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1838.

He resumed the practice of law and served as attorney for county commissioners from 1846 to 1856. He moved to Media, Pennsylvania, in 1851 and served as district attorney of Delaware County from 1851 to 1854.

Darlington was a director of the Delaware County National Bank,In 1842, Darlington was appointed director of the Delaware County Mutual Insurance Company.He died in Media and was interred in Chester Rural Cemetery in Chester, Pennsylvania.

Eighth and Ninth Circuits Act of 1837

The Eighth and Ninth Circuits Act of 1837 (5 Stat. 176) was a federal statute which increased the size of the Supreme Court of the United States from seven justices to nine, and which also reorganized the circuit courts of the federal judiciary. The newly created Eighth and Ninth circuits were designed to alleviate the judicial needs of newly-created western states. The Act became law on March 3, 1837, at the end of the Jackson administration.

Be it enacted, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Supreme Court of the United States shall hereafter consist of a chief justice, and eight associate judges, any five of whom shall constitute a quorum; and for this purpose there shall be appointed two additional justices of said court, with the like powers, and to take the same oaths, perform the same duties, and be entitled to the same salary, as the other associate judges.

Gideon Lee

Gideon Lee (April 27, 1778 – August 21, 1841) was an American politician who was the 60th Mayor of New York City and United States Representative from New York.

James C. Terrell

James C. Terrell (November 7, 1806 – December 1, 1835) was a United States Representative and lawyer from Georgia.

Terrell was born in Franklin County, Georgia, in 1806. He attended studied law, gained admittance to the state bar and practiced law in Carnesville, Georgia. He served in the Georgia House of Representatives from 1830 to 1834. He was elected as a Union Representative from Georgia to the 24th United States Congress and served from March 4, 1835, until his resignation on July 8, 1835 due to failing health. He died later that year on December 1, 1835.

Jesse Franklin Cleveland

Jesse Franklin Cleveland (October 25, 1804 – June 22, 1841) was a United States Representative and businessman from Georgia.

Cleveland was born in Greenville, South Carolina, in 1804. He attended school in South Carolina before moving to Georgia. From 1831 to 1843, Cleveland served in the Georgia Senate. In 1835, Cleveland was elected as a Jacksonian Representative from Georgia to the 24th United States Congress to complete the term left vacant when William Schley resigned to become Governor of Georgia. Cleveland was reelected to the 25th Congress and his congressional service spanned from October 5, 1835, until March 3, 1839.

After his congressional service, Cleveland moved to Charleston, South Carolina in 1839 and ran a business. He also served as a director of the Bank of South Carolina. Cleveland died on June 22, 1841 and was buried in cemetery of St. Michael’s Church.

John McKeon

John McKeon (March 29, 1808, Albany, New York – November 22, 1883, New York City) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.

John W. A. Sanford

John W. A. Sanford (August 28, 1798 – September 12, 1870) was a United States Representative and farmer from Georgia.

Sanford was born near Milledgeville, Georgia, in 1798. He attended Yale University and was a farmer. In 1832, he was elected a major general, 3rd Division Georgia Militia, by the Georgia Legislature. In 1834, Sanford was elected as a Jacksonian Representative from Georgia to the 24th United States Congress, but he resigned before the end of his term to participate in the removal of the Cherokee from the state. His congressional service spanned from March 4, 1835, to July 2, 1835.

After serving in the Creek War of 1836 as a major general, Sanford was elected to the Georgia Senate in 1837; however, he resigned before that session of the state Senate began. From 1841 to 1843, Sanford was the Secretary of State of Georgia. He also was a member of the state convention of 1850. Sanford served as secession commissioner from Georgia to the State of Texas in 1861. Sanford died in Milledgeville on September 12, 1870, and was buried in Memory Hill Cemetery in Milledgeville.

John Young (governor)

John Young (June 12, 1802 – April 23, 1852) was an American politician. He served in the United States House of Representatives and as Governor of New York.

List of United States Senators in the 24th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 24th United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1835, to March 3, 1837.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1836 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of United States federal legislation, 1789–1901

This is a chronological, but incomplete, list of United States federal legislation passed by the 1st through 56th United States Congresses, between 1789 and 1901. For the main article on this subject, see List of United States federal legislation. Additional lists can be found at List of United States federal legislation: Congress of the Confederation, List of United States federal legislation, 1901–2001 and List of United States federal legislation, 2001–present.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 24th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 24th United States Congress listed by seniority.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 24th Congress (March 4, 1835 – March 3, 1837). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

Seaton Grantland

Seaton Grantland (June 8, 1782 – October 18, 1864) was a United States Representative from Georgia. He was born in New Kent County, Virginia. He pursued an academic course and studied law. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Milledgeville, Georgia.

Grantland was elected as a Jacksonian Democrats to the 24th United States Congress and reelected as a Democrat to the 25th Congress (March 4, 1835 – March 3, 1839). He was a presidential elector on the Whig ticket in 1840. He died at his home, "Woodville," near Milledgeville in 1864. He was buried in Memory Hill Cemetery in Milledgeville.

Waddy Thompson Jr.

Waddy Thompson Jr. (January 8, 1798 – November 23, 1868) was a U.S. Representative from South Carolina and U.S. Minister to Mexico, 1842-44.

Born in Pickensville, Ninety-Six District, South Carolina—near Easley in present Pickens County—Thompson was reared in Greenville. He graduated from South Carolina College in 1814 when he was 16; and he was admitted to the bar in 1819, beginning practice in Edgefield, South Carolina and marrying Emmala Butler, the daughter one of the state's richest plantation owners. About 1824 the couple moved to Greenville, where Thompson became politically active. He served as member of the South Carolina House of Representatives from 1826 to 1829. Thompson was elected solicitor of the western circuit in 1830.Fervently supporting the theory of Vice President John C. Calhoun that a state could nullify an act of the U.S. Congress, in 1832 Thompson introduced a resolution in the South Carolina General Assembly calling for a convention to nullify the "Tariff of Abominations." The nullification crisis dissipated the following year; but in the meantime Thompson was appointed brigadier general of South Carolina militia, and he was thereafter referred to as "General Thompson."In 1835, Thompson was elected as an Anti-Jacksonian to the 24th United States Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Warren R. Davis. He was reelected as a Whig to the 25th and 26th Congresses serving from September 10, 1835, to March 3, 1841. Thompson served as chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs in the 26th Congress.

In 1842 President John Tyler appointed Thompson Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Mexico, where he served from February 10, 1842 to March 9, 1844. Thompson quickly learned enough Spanish to make his first speech to Mexican cabinet members in that language. He became friendly with Mexican president Antonio López de Santa Anna and succeeded in having 300 Texan prisoners freed. Two years after his return to the United States, Thompson published Recollections of Mexico, and he opposed the Mexican War.Thompson returned to Greenville and managed plantations in Edgefield and Madison, Florida—the latter of which was 1,300 acres and employed 80 slaves. After his wife died in 1848, he married Cornelia Jones of Wilmington, North Carolina and eventually moved to Paris Mountain, near Greenville, where he owned a 1,000 acres and built two large identical houses, one for himself and the other for his wife—though the couple seemed to be on good terms. Thompson filled his house with Mexican memorabilia and employed a full-time gardener to care for exotic plants and shrubs he had collected.By the time of the Civil War, Thompson had become a Unionist, but the conclusion of the war nevertheless ruined him. In 1866 he sold his Paris Mountain property and moved to his Florida plantation. The Florida legislature appointed him solicitor general of a circuit in 1868, but in 1868 he died while in Tallahassee, and he was buried in the churchyard of St. John's Episcopal Church there.

William Mason (U.S. politician)

William Mason (September 10, 1786 – January 13, 1860) was a United States Representative from New York.

Mason was born in Lebanon, Connecticut on September 10, 1786. He studied medicine in Vermont and practiced in Preston, New York; surgeon of the Chenango County Company, New York Volunteers, in 1812; clerk of Chenango County in 1820 – 1821; member of the New York State Assembly in 1821 and 1822; elected as a Jacksonian to the 24th United States Congress (March 4, 1835 – March 3, 1837); died in Norwich, New York on January 13, 1860; interment in Mount Hope Cemetery.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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