24-bit

In computer architecture, 24-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 24 bits (3 octets) wide. Also, 24-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size.

Notable 24-bit machines include the CDC 924 – a 24-bit version of the CDC 1604, CDC lower 3000 series, SDS 930 and SDS 940, the ICT 1900 series, and the Datacraft minicomputers/Harris H series.[1]

The term SWORD is sometimes used to describe a 24-bit data type with the S prefix referring to sesqui.

The IBM System/360, announced in 1964, was a popular computer system with 24-bit addressing and 32-bit general registers and arithmetic. The early 1980s saw the first popular personal computers, including the IBM PC/AT with an Intel 80286 processor using 24-bit addressing and 16-bit general registers and arithmetic, and the Apple Macintosh 128K with a Motorola 68000 processor featuring 24-bit addressing and 32-bit registers.

The eZ80 is a microprocessor and microcontroller family, with 24-bit registers and therefore 24-bit linear addressing, that is binary compatible with the 8/16-bit Z80.

The 65816 is a microprocessor and microcontroller family with 16-bit registers and 24-bit bank switched addressing. It is binary compatible with the 8-bit 6502.[2]

The range of unsigned integers that can be represented in 24 bits is 0 to 16,777,215 (FFFFFF16 in hexadecimal). The range of signed integers that can be represented in 24 bits is −8,388,608 to 8,388,607.

Several fixed-point digital signal processors have a 24-bit data bus, selected as the basic word length because it gave the system a reasonable precision for the processing audio (sound). In particular, the Motorola 56000 series has three parallel 24-bit data buses, one connected to each memory space: program memory, data memory X, and data memory Y.[3]

Engineering Research Associates (later merged into UNIVAC) designed a series of 24-bit drum memory machines including the Atlas, its commercial version the UNIVAC 1101, the ATHENA computer, the UNIVAC 1824 guidance computer, etc. Those designers selected a 24-bit word length because the Earth is roughly 40 million feet in diameter, and an intercontinental ballistic missile guidance computer needs to do the Earth-centered inertial navigation calculations to an accuracy of a few feet.[4]

See also

  • Catena, a term used for a 24-bit unit of data on the Bull Gamma 60 computer

References

  1. ^ Savard, John. "Real Machines with 24-bit and 48-bit words". Archived from the original on 7 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
  2. ^ Brett Tabke. "A 6502 Programmer's Introduction to the 65816". Commodore World magazine, Issue #16. 1996.
  3. ^ 24-BIT. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR. FAMILY
  4. ^ "UNIVAC 24-bit computer genealogy"
32-bit

In computer architecture, 32-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 32 bits (4 octets) wide. Also, 32-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

8-bit color

8-bit color graphics is a method of storing image information in a computer's memory or in an image file, such that each pixel is represented by one 8-bit byte. The maximum number of colors that can be displayed at any one time is 256.

There are two forms of 8-bit color graphics. The most common uses a separate palette of 256 colors, where each of the 256 entries in the palette map is given red, green, and blue values. In most color maps, each color is usually chosen from a palette of 16,777,216 colors (24 bits: 8 red, 8 green, 8 blue). But in the original VGA card's 320x200 mode, 256 on-screen colors could be chosen from a palette of 262,144 colors (18 bits: 6 red, 6 green, 6 blue). Some older cards prior to the VGA (like the Professional Graphics Controller) can only choose the 256-color palette from 4,096 colors (12 bits: 4 red, 4 green, 4 blue).

The other form is where the 8 bits directly describe red, green, and blue values, typically with three bits for red, three bits for green and two bits for blue. This second form is often called 8-bit truecolor, as it does not use a palette at all, and is thus more similar to the 15-bit, 16-bit, and 24-bit truecolor modes.

Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Data R R R G G G B B

Most 8-bit image formats store a local image palette of 256 colors in addition to the raw image data. If such an image is to be displayed on 8-bit graphics hardware, the graphics hardware's global palette will be overwritten with the local image palette. This can result in other images on the screen having wildly distorted colors due to differences in their palettes.

For this reason, on 8-bit graphics hardware, programs such as web browsers must address this issue when simultaneously displaying multiple images from different sources. Each image may have its own palette, but the colors in each image will be remapped to a single palette, probably using some form of dithering.

Currently, most graphics hardware runs in 24-bit truecolor or 32-bit truecolor (24-bit truecolor and an 8-bit alpha channel), and this problem is largely a thing of the past. However, some remote desktop software (Virtual Network Computing, Remote Desktop Protocol) can switch to 8-bit color to conserve bandwidth.

Apple Icon Image format

The Apple Icon Image format is the icon format used in Apple Inc.'s macOS. It supports icons of 16 × 16, 32 × 32, 48 × 48, 128 × 128, 256 × 256, 512 × 512, and 1024 × 1024 pixels, with both 1- and 8-bit alpha channels and multiple image states (example: open and closed folders). The fixed-size icons can be scaled by the operating system and displayed at any intermediate size.

Audio bit depth

In digital audio using pulse-code modulation (PCM), bit depth is the number of bits of information in each sample, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample. Examples of bit depth include Compact Disc Digital Audio, which uses 16 bits per sample, and DVD-Audio and Blu-ray Disc which can support up to 24 bits per sample.

In basic implementations, variations in bit depth primarily affect the noise level from quantization error—thus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dynamic range. However, techniques such as dithering, noise shaping and oversampling mitigate these effects without changing the bit depth. Bit depth also affects bit rate and file size.

Bit depth is only meaningful in reference to a PCM digital signal. Non-PCM formats, such as lossy compression formats, do not have associated bit depths.

Aviation transponder interrogation modes

The aviation transponder interrogation modes are the standard formats of pulsed sequences from an interrogating Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) or similar Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) system. The reply format is usually referred to as a "code" from a transponder, which is used to determine detailed information from a suitably equipped aircraft.

In its simplest form, a "Mode" or interrogation type is generally determined by pulse spacing between two or more interrogation pulses. Various modes exist from Mode 1 to 5 for military use, to Mode A, B, C and D, and Mode S for civilian use.

Base64

In computer science Base64 is a group of binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation. The term Base64 originates from a specific MIME content transfer encoding. Each Base64 digit represents exactly 6 bits of data. Three 8-bit bytes (i.e., a total of 24 bits) can therefore be represented by four 6-bit Base64 digits.

Color depth

Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences), also known as bit depth, is either the number of bits used to indicate the color of a single pixel, in a bitmapped image or video framebuffer, or the number of bits used for each color component of a single pixel. For consumer video standards, such as High Efficiency Video Coding (H.265), the bit depth specifies the number of bits used for each color component. When referring to a pixel, the concept can be defined as bits per pixel (bpp), which specifies the number of bits used. When referring to a color component, the concept can be defined as bits per component, bits per channel, bits per color (all three abbreviated bpc), and also bits per pixel component, bits per color channel or bits per sample (bps). Color depth is only one aspect of color representation, expressing the precision with which colors can be expressed; the other aspect is how broad a range of colors can be expressed (the gamut). The definition of both color precision and gamut is accomplished with a color encoding specification which assigns a digital code value to a location in a color space.

High Fidelity Pure Audio

High Fidelity Pure Audio, occasionally abbreviated as HFPA, is a marketing initiative, spearheaded by the Universal Music Group, for audio-only Blu-ray optical discs. Launched in 2013 as a potential successor to the compact disc (CD), it has been compared with DVD-A and SACD, which had similar aims.HFPA is encoded as 24-bit/96 kHz or 24-bit/192 kHz linear PCM ("high-resolution audio"), optionally losslessly compressed with Dolby TrueHD or DTS-HD Master Audio.HFPA discs are compatible with existing Blu-Ray players.Pure Audio Blu-ray refers to a different initiative (but with some goals in common) launched by msm-studios in Germany in 2009.

Image file formats

Image file formats are standardized means of organizing and storing digital images. Image files are composed of digital data in one of these formats that can be rasterized for use on a computer display or printer. An image file format may store data in uncompressed, compressed, or vector formats. Once rasterized, an image becomes a grid of pixels, each of which has a number of bits to designate its color equal to the color depth of the device displaying it.

LDAC (codec)

LDAC is an audio coding technology developed by Sony, which allows streaming audio over Bluetooth connections up to 990 kbit/s at 24 bit/96 kHz (also called high-resolution audio). It is used by various Sony products, including headphones, smartphones, portable media players, active speakers and home theaters. LDAC is a lossy codec, which employs a hybrid coding scheme based on the MDCT to provide more efficient data compression. Its main competitor is Qualcomm's aptX-HD technology.Starting from Android 8.0 "Oreo", LDAC is part of the Android Open Source Project, enabling every OEM to integrate this standard into their own Android devices freely.As encoder library is open source the implementation for linux is already present in bluez-alsa and pulseaudio-modules-bt. Now it works in Fedora 29.

List of Nokia products

The following is a list of products branded by Nokia.

Neo Geo (system)

The Neo Geo (Japanese: ネオジオ, Hepburn: Neojio), stylised as NEO・GEO, also written as NEOGEO, is a cartridge-based arcade system board and fourth-generation home video game console released on April 26, 1990, by Japanese game company SNK Corporation. It was the first system in SNK's Neo Geo family. The Neo Geo was marketed as 24-bit; its CPU is technically a 16/32-bit 68000-based system with an 8/16-bit Z80 coprocessor, while its GPU chipset has a 24-bit graphics data bus.

The Neo Geo originally launched as the MVS (Multi Video System) coin-operated arcade machine. The MVS offers owners the ability to put up to six different cartridges into a single cabinet, a unique feature that was also a key economic consideration for operators with limited floorspace, as well as saving money in the long-run. With its games stored on self-contained cartridges, a game cabinet can be exchanged for a different game title by swapping the game's ROM cartridge and cabinet artwork. A home console version was also made, called AES (Advanced Entertainment System). It was originally launched as a rental console for video game stores in Japan (called Neo Geo Rental System), with its high price causing SNK not to release it for home use – this was later reversed due to high demand and it came into the market as a luxury console. The AES had the same raw specs as the MVS and had full compatibility, thus managed to bring a true arcade experience to home users. The Neo Geo was revived along with the brand overall in December 2012 through the introduction of the Neo Geo X handheld and home system.The Neo Geo was a very powerful system when released, more powerful than any video game console at the time, and many arcade systems such as rival Capcom's CPS, which did not surpass it until the CP System II in 1993. The Neo Geo MVS was a success during the 1990s, due to the cabinet's low cost, six ROM slots and compact size. Several successful video game series were released for the platform, such as Fatal Fury, Art of Fighting, Samurai Shodown, The King of Fighters and Metal Slug. The AES had a very niche market in Japan, though sales were very low in the U.S. due to its high price for both the hardware and software; but it has since gained a cult following and is now considered a collectable. Neo Geo hardware production lasted seven years, discontinued in 1997, whereas game software production lasted until 2004, making Neo Geo the longest supported arcade system of all time. The AES console was succeeded by the Neo Geo CD and the MVS arcade by the Hyper Neo Geo 64. As of March 1997, the Neo Geo and the Neo Geo CD combined had sold 980,000 units worldwide. In 2009, the Neo Geo was ranked 19th out of the 25 best video game consoles of all time by video game website IGN.

PlayStation technical specifications

The PlayStation technical specifications describe the various components of the original PlayStation video game console.

Pono (digital music service)

Pono (, Hawaiian word for "proper") was a portable digital media player and music download service for high-resolution audio. It was developed by musician Neil Young and his company PonoMusic, which raised money for development and initial production through a crowd-funding campaign on Kickstarter. Production and shipments to backers started in October 2014, and shipments to the general public began in Q1 2015.

Pono's stated goal to present songs "as they first sound during studio recording sessions", using "high-resolution" 24-bit 192 kHz audio instead of "the compressed audio inferiority that MP3s offer"— received mixed reactions, with some describing Pono as a competitor to similar music service such as HDtracks, but others doubting its potential for success.In April 2017 it was announced that Pono was discontinued after the company that was running the store, Omnifone, was purchased by Apple in 2016 and almost immediately shut down. Alternative plans were later abandoned (although the Ponomusic website has remained "under construction" as of 2018.)

Pro Tools

Pro Tools is a digital audio workstation developed and released by Avid Technology (formerly Digidesign) for Microsoft Windows and macOS which can be used for a wide range of sound recording and sound production purposes. Pro Tools can run as standalone software, or operate using a range of external analog/digital converters and internal PCI Local Bus (PCI) or PCIe audio cards with on-board digital signal processors (DSP) to provide effects such as reverb, equalization and compression. Like all digital audio workstation software, Pro Tools can perform the functions of a multitrack tape recorder and audio mixer, along with additional features that can only be performed in the digital domain, such as non-destructive editing, using the Undo feature.

Audio and MIDI tracks are graphically represented in a timeline; here, both can be recorded, imported and edited in a non-linear, non-destructive fashion. Audio effects and virtual instruments can be added, adjusted and processed in real-time in a virtual mixer. 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit float audio bit depths at sample rates up to 192 kHz are supported. Pro Tools handles WAV, AIFF, AIFC, mp3, and formerly SDII audio files. It has also incorporated video editing capabilities, so users can import and manipulate high definition video file formats such as XDCAM, MJPG-A, PhotoJPG, DV25, QuickTime, and more. It features time code, tempo maps, elastic audio, automation and surround sound abilities. The Pro Tools TDM mix engine, supported until 2011, employed 24-bit fixed-point arithmetic for plug-in processing and 48-bit for mixing; current HDX hardware systems, HD Native and native systems use 32-bit floating point resolution for plug-ins and 64-bit floating point summing.

Qobuz

Qobuz (pronounced 'co-buzz') is a French commercial music streaming and downloading service. It was founded in 2007 by Yves Riesel and has expanded to a limited range of overseas markets, including the United Kingdom, the Netherlands , Germany, Italy and Spain. It is presently on trial in the USA and due to launch in May 2019. It offers a tiered subscription service but, unlike its competitor Spotify, does not provide free-of-charge streaming other than for a trial period.At the end of 2015, after a period of financial uncertainty, Qobuz attracted a new investor which allowed the service to continue operating .Qobuz is the first music service in the world to offer 24-Bit Hi-Res files for streaming to its Qobuz Sublime (annual) and qobuz Studio (monthly) subscribers.

QuickTime Animation

QuickTime Animation format (also known as QuickTime RLE) is a video compression format and codec created by Apple Computer to enable playback of RGB video in real time without expensive hardware. It is generally found in the QuickTime container with the FourCC 'rle '. It can perform either lossless or lossy compression and is one of the few video codecs that supports an alpha channel. Supported color depths are 1-bit (monochrome), 15-bit RGB, 24-bit RGB, 32-bit ARGB, as well as palettized RGB. As a result of reverse-engineering of the format, a decoder is implemented in XAnim as well as an encoder and decoder in libavcodec.

Ricoh 5A22

The Ricoh 5A22 is a microprocessor produced by Ricoh for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) video game console. The 5A22 is based on the 8/16-bit CMD/GTE 65c816, itself a version of the WDC 65C816 (used in the Apple IIGS personal computer). It has an 8-bit data bus, a 16-bit accumulator, a 24-bit address bus, and is based on the MOS Technology 6502 family of processors.

Transponder (aeronautics)

A transponder (short for transmitter-responder and sometimes abbreviated to XPDR, XPNDR, TPDR or TP) is an electronic device that produces a response when it receives a radio-frequency interrogation. Aircraft have transponders to assist in identifying them on air traffic control radar. Collision avoidance systems have been developed to use transponder transmissions as a means of detecting aircraft at risk of colliding with each other.Air traffic control units use the term "squawk" when they are assigning an aircraft a transponder code, e.g., "Squawk 7421". Squawk thus can be said to mean "select transponder code" or "squawking xxxx" to mean "I have selected transponder code xxxx".The transponder receives interrogation from the Secondary Surveillance Radar on 1030 MHz and replies on 1090 MHz.

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architectures
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