20th parallel south

The 20th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 20 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific Ocean and South America.

Line across the Earth
20th parallel south

Around the world

Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 20° south passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
20°0′S 0°0′E / 20.000°S 0.000°E Atlantic Ocean
20°0′S 13°1′E / 20.000°S 13.017°E  Namibia
20°0′S 21°0′E / 20.000°S 21.000°E  Botswana
20°0′S 26°55′E / 20.000°S 26.917°E  Zimbabwe
20°0′S 33°1′E / 20.000°S 33.017°E  Mozambique
20°0′S 34°45′E / 20.000°S 34.750°E Indian Ocean Mozambique Channel
20°0′S 44°28′E / 20.000°S 44.467°E  Madagascar
20°0′S 48°47′E / 20.000°S 48.783°E Indian Ocean
20°0′S 57°35′E / 20.000°S 57.583°E  Mauritius
20°0′S 57°38′E / 20.000°S 57.633°E Indian Ocean
20°0′S 119°5′E / 20.000°S 119.083°E  Australia Western Australia
20°0′S 119°22′E / 20.000°S 119.367°E Indian Ocean
20°0′S 119°44′E / 20.000°S 119.733°E  Australia Western Australia
Northern Territory
20°0′S 148°16′E / 20.000°S 148.267°E Coral Sea
20°0′S 148°26′E / 20.000°S 148.433°E  Australia Queensland - Gloucester Island
20°0′S 148°28′E / 20.000°S 148.467°E Coral Sea Passing south of Marion Reef in  Australia's Coral Sea Islands Territory
Passing just south of the Ilots du Mouillage,  New Caledonia
Passing just north of Île Baaba,  New Caledonia
Passing between the islands of Tanna and Anatom,  Vanuatu
20°0′S 170°0′E / 20.000°S 170.000°E Pacific Ocean Passing between the islands of Vatoa and Ono-i-Lau,  Fiji
Passing through the Ha'apai island group,  Tonga
20°0′S 158°8′W / 20.000°S 158.133°W  Cook Islands Island of Atiu
20°0′S 158°4′W / 20.000°S 158.067°W Pacific Ocean Passing between the atolls of Hereheretue and Anuanuraro,  French Polynesia
Passing between the atolls of Ahunui and Vanavana,  French Polynesia
20°0′S 70°7′W / 20.000°S 70.117°W  Chile
20°0′S 68°33′W / 20.000°S 68.550°W  Bolivia
20°0′S 61°53′W / 20.000°S 61.883°W  Paraguay
20°0′S 58°10′W / 20.000°S 58.167°W  Bolivia
20°0′S 57°52′W / 20.000°S 57.867°W  Brazil Mato Grosso do Sul
São Paulo
Minas Gerais - for about 10 km
São Paulo
Minas Gerais
São Paulo - for about 16 km
Minas Gerais - for about 11 km
São Paulo - for about 14 km
Minas Gerais
Espírito Santo
20°0′S 39°44′W / 20.000°S 39.733°W Atlantic Ocean

See also

19th parallel south

The 19th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 19 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific Ocean and South America.

20th parallel

20th parallel may refer to:

20th parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere

20th parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere

21st parallel south

The 21st parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 21 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific Ocean and South America.

Administrator of the Northern Territory

The Administrator of the Northern Territory is an official appointed by the Governor-General of Australia to represent the government of the Commonwealth in the Northern Territory. He or she performs functions similar to those of a state governor.

Strictly speaking, the appointment of an Administrator is made by the Governor-General-in-Council, that is, the Governor-General acting on the advice of the Commonwealth Government, rather than the advice of the Government of the Northern Territory. The Northern Territory received self-government on 1 July 1978, in accordance with the provisions of the Northern Territory (Self-Government) Act 1978 (Cth). Since then, the practice has arisen that in making an appointment the Governor-General-in-Council will act on the recommendation of the Northern Territory Government.

Unlike an Australian State Governor, the Administrator is not the direct representative of the Queen in the Territory but is instead appointed by the Queen's representative in the Commonwealth, the Governor-General, to administer the Territory in accordance with the Act. In practice, however, the Administrator performs a similar constitutional role to that of a state governor and can be considered the Queen's indirect representative in the Territory.

The Administrator formally appoints the Chief Minister of the Northern Territory and the members of the Cabinet after every election. In all but a few cases, he or she is required by convention to act on the Cabinet's advice. The Administrator gives royal assent to all bills passed by the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly. Although the Governor-General (in practice, the Commonwealth Government) has the power to veto any territorial bill, in practice this right is almost never exercised.

The office of the Deputy of the Administrator was created in 1997.

In 2014, the Governor-General granted current, future and living former Administrators the title of 'The Honourable' for life, following the lead of Governors-General and Governors of New South Wales in granting the title.The present Administrator is Vicki O'Halloran, AM.

Ashburton River (Western Australia)

The Ashburton River is located within the Pilbara region of Western Australia.

Caert van't Landt van d'Eendracht

Caert van't Landt van d'Eendracht ("Chart of the Land of Eendracht") is a 1627 map by Hessel Gerritsz. One of the earliest maps of Australia, it shows what little was then known of the west coast, based on a number of voyages beginning with the 1616 voyage of Dirk Hartog, when he named Eendrachtsland after his ship.

The map is oriented with north to the left and shows lines of latitude from 20th parallel south to the 35th parallel south and also shows the Tropic of Capricorn. The top left of the map shows a river labelled Willems revier, besocht by 't volck van 't Schip Mauritius in Iulius A° 1618 ("Willem's River, visited by the crew of the ship Mauritius in July 1618"). The identity of this river, now referred to as Willem River, is unknown; it is possibly the Ashburton River.In the bottom left corner is a feature labelled Hier ist Engels schip de Trial vergaen in Iunias, A° 1622 ("Here the English ship Trial was wrecked in June 1622"). This is possibly the first appearance on a map of the Tryal Rocks, the identity of which was not determined until the 1960s.Other than these two features, the leftmost third of the map shows a fairly straight, featureless coastline, set in between the 21st parallel south and the 26th parallel south, labelled 'T Landt van de Eendracht, opghedaen by Dirck Hartogs met 't Schip d'Eendracht in October A° 1616 ("The Land of Eendracht", discovered by Dirk Hartog of the Eendracht in October 1616"). The way this is written on the map in such bold figures implies that the Dutch were naming the entire country (land). Right on the 26th parallel south latitude is written "Dirk Hartog rec" showing what is now known as Dirk Hartog Island, as part of mainland Western Australia.

The middle third of the map has two main features. One, labelled Fr. Houtman's abrolhos, shows the archipelago discovered by Frederick de Houtman in 1619, and now known as the Houtman Abrolhos. Although this map was not the first to show the Houtman Abrolhos, it represents the earliest known publication of the name.

The other feature, labelled Tortelduyff ("Turtledove"), lies slightly to the south (that is, to the right) of the Houtman Abrolhos. Now known as Turtle Dove Shoal, the name is thought to signify that the shoal was first discovered by the ship Tortelduif, which is recorded as having arrived at Batavia, Dutch East Indies on 21 June 1623. Gerritsz's 1627 Caert is the earliest known map to show this feature.

The rightmost third of the map shows a section of coastline labelled 't Landt van de Leeuwin beseylt A° 1622 in Maert. ("Land made by the ship Leeuwin in March 1622.") This is thought to represent the coast between present-day Hamelin Bay and Point D’Entrecasteaux. Portions of this coastline are labelled Duynich landt boven met boomen ende boseage ("Dunes with trees and forest"), Laegh ghelijck verdroncken landt ("Low land like flood liable land") and Laegh duynich landt ("Low land with dunes"). This section of coastline is significant because the Leeuwin's log book is lost, and very little is known of this ship's voyage, other than what is revealed by this map.

Index of Mauritius-related articles

For a list by topic, see list of Mauritius-related topicsThe following is an index of Mauritius-related topics by alphabetical order.

List of circles of latitude

Following is a list of circles of latitude on Earth.

List of proposed states of Australia

Proposals for new Australian states have been numerous since the late 19th and early 20th centuries; however, to date, no states have been added to Australia since Federation in 1901. Many proposals have suggested an Aboriginal state which would resemble the Inuit territory of Nunavut in Canada, while others have suggested incorporating New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, East Timor and New Caledonia as new states. Other proposals suggest making the Northern Territory and/or Australian Capital Territory states.


RMC 136a1 (usually abbreviated to R136a1) is a Wolf–Rayet star located at the center of R136, the central concentration of stars of the large NGC 2070 open cluster in the Tarantula Nebula. It lies at a distance of about 49.97 kiloparsecs (163,000 light-years) in a neighbouring galaxy known as the Large Magellanic Cloud. It has the highest mass and luminosity of any known star, at 315 M☉ and 8.7 million L☉, and is also one of the hottest, at around 53,000 K.

States and territories of Australia

The states and territories are the first-level administrative divisions of the Commonwealth of Australia. They are the second level of government in Australia, located between the federal and local government tiers.

The country comprises six states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania. They retain a degree of sovereignty, being the successors of the previous Australian colonies. The states each have their own parliaments, able to legislate over certain residual and concurrent power areas.

Two of the three internal territories, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), function in reality as states themselves. The ACT and Northern Territory each possess their own level of self-government through their respective legislative assemblies, but instead derive their power from the Commonwealth, theoretically revocable at any time. The third internal territory, the Jervis Bay Territory, is a territory in its own right and is the product of Australia's complex relationship with its capital city. Rather than having the same level of autonomy as the states and the two other internal territories, Jervis Bay instead has services provided by arrangement from New South Wales and the ACT.

Australia also consists of seven external territories. These do not comprise Australia proper, but are nevertheless under Australian sovereignty. Only three of the external territories have a permanent population, and as a result, they are all directly administered by the federal Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities (or the Department of the Environment and Energy in the case of the Australian Antarctic Territory). Norfolk Island was partially self-governing, until this was revoked in 2015.

Willem River

The Willem River or Willem's River was named during the voyage of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) ship Mauritius in 1618, under the command of Supercargo Willem Janszoon and captained by Lenaert Jacobszoon, and is one of the few features named on a nautical chart made in 1627.It seems reasonable that Willem River was almost certainly named after Supercargo Willem Janszoon, the Commander of the ship Mauritius. Janszoon was captain of the Duyfken in 1605–1606, when part of the Gulf of Carpentaria was mapped, during the earliest documented visit to Australia by a vessel from Europe.Caert van't Landt van d'Eendracht ("Chart of the Land of Eendracht") is a 1627 chart made by Hessel Gerritsz and is one of the earliest charts showing the coastline of Western Australia. The Willem River is located to the extreme left (north) end of the coastline on the chart and a closer view is provided below.

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