After the war, it served with the Army Air Service and Army Air Corps as the 20th Bombardment Squadron During the 1920s and 1930s, the squadron was involved in field service testing of new bomber aircraft, notably the Y1B-17 Flying Fortress.
It was a part of Strategic Air Command during the Cold War. As a medium bomber squadron it deployed to stand alert at forward bases in "Reflex" operations. After equipping with Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses stood nuclear alert, but during the Viet Nam War the squadron deployed frequently to perform Operation Arc Light bombing missions. Since 1993, the 20th Bomb Squadron has flown the B-52H Stratofortress long-range strategic bomber, which can perform a variety of missions. Today the squadron is engaged in the Global War on Terrorism.
|20th Bomb Squadron
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Part of||Global Strike Command|
|Garrison/HQ||Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana|
|Decorations||Distinguished Unit Citation|
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Combat "V" Device
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm
20th Bomb Squadron emblem (modified c. 1995)
20th Bombardment Squadron emblem (approved 12 June 1924)
20th Aero Squadron emblem (approved by AEF 18 November 1918)
|Bomber||Boeing B-52 Stratofortress|
The squadron was first organized as the 20th Aero Squadron at Kelly Field, Texas on 17 May 1917. On 29 July 1917, under command of Captain W.W. Wynne, the squadron moved to Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, where it received its first training in the handling of Curtiss JN-4 and Standard J-1 aircraft. It deployed to France where it was assigned to the 1st Day Bombardment Group. Assigned British de Havilland DH-4 aircraft with American Liberty engines, and was engaged in combat during the St. Mihiel offensive and Meuse-Argonne offensive during 1918. After the 1918 Armistice with Germany, the squadron returned to the United States and arrived at Mitchel Field, New York on 2 May 1919. There most of the men were discharged from Army service and returned to civilian life.
After the squadron returned to the United States it re-formed with new personnel at Ellington Field, Houston Texas in June 1919. The 20th equipped with some de Havilland DH-4 bombers and moved to Kelly Field. it was assigned to the new 1st Day Bombardment (later, 2d Bombardment) Group. After the establishment of the permanent United States Army Air Service in 1921, it was redesignated as the 20th Squadron (Bombardment). During this period, the unit also operated some Martin NBS-1s and British Handley Page 0/400s.
In May 1920 the squadron was temporarily assigned to Langley Field, Virginia and became part of the First Provisional Air Brigade under Brigadier General Billy Mitchell. It trained with Handley Page O/400 and Martin MB-2 bombers. Its mission would be to attack captured German ships along the Atlantic coast off Virginia in a service demonstration to determine whether a battleship could be sunk by bombing. The targets were an aged and surplus US battleship and four former German Navy vessels, including the battleship SMS Ostfriesland, obtained in the peace settlement after World War I and scheduled for scuttling.
After the completion of the demonstration, the squadron moved permanently to Langley on 30 June 1922. During the 1920s and 1930s the squadron was used for service testing of new bombardment aircraft as they were developed and improved, primarily Keystone Aircraft light biplane bombers in the 1920s. These planes became the backbone of the Army Air Corps bomber fleet in the latter part of the decade. In 1932 the squadron received and began service testing the Boeing Y1B-9, the first American all-metal monoplane bomber aircraft design. The high speed of the Y1B-9A indicated that open cockpits were now impractical, and that enclosed cockpits would be needed in the future. The Boeing B-9 made obsolete the Keystone Biplane bombers then in service. The Martin B-10 replaced the B-9 in 1936, but the squadron operated the B-10 for only a brief time.
In 1937 the squadron received the new Boeing Y1B-17 four-engine heavy bomber. Twelve Y1B-17s were delivered to the 2d Bombardment Group for evaluation. At this time, the dozen Y1B-17s comprised the entire heavy bombardment strength of the United States. The 20th spent its time working out the defects in the prototype aircraft, working with Boeing engineers to make corrections for the final production model B-17B. One recommendation was the use of a checklist that the pilot and copilot would use together before takeoff, hopefully preventing accidents such as the one which resulted in the loss of the original Boeing Model 299.
Six planes of the squadron took part in a good will flight from Langley to Buenos Aires, Argentina, taking off from Langley on 15 February 1938 and returning on 27 February. They covered a total of 12,000 miles without serious incident. In May 1938, planes of the squadron took part in a demonstration in which they "intercepted" the Italian ocean liner SS Rex while it was still 700 miles out in the Atlantic Ocean. This demonstration of the Y1B-17's range and navigational capabilities, but also showed how useful the plane could be in attacking an enemy invasion force before it came close enough to American shores to do any damage. The Navy was not amused by this particular demonstration, and was furious about what it perceived to be Army intrusion into the Navy's mission. Shortly thereafter, the War Department restricted the activities of the Army Air Corps to a 100-mile range of the US shoreline. The Y1B-17s flew for three years without a serious accident, and were transferred to the 19th Bombardment Group at March Field in October 1940. The squadron received new production Boeing B-17D Fortresses to replace them.
After the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the squadron served on antisubmarine duty along the mid-Atlantic coastline as part of I Bomber Command for several months until it was reorganized as AAF Antisubmarine Command.
The squadron re-equipped with more modern B-17F Flying Fortresses and moved to Ephrata Army Air Field, Washington for transition and combat training in late 1942 and early 1943. It moved to North Africa in April 1943, carrying out bombing missions in Algeria and Tunisia as part of Twelfth Air Force during the North African Campaign. The unit flew many support and air interdiction missions, bombing such targets as marshalling yards, airfields, troop concentrations, bridges, docks, and shipping. The 20th participated in the defeat of Axis forces in Tunisia during April and May 1943; the reduction of Pantelleria and the preparations for Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily, in May through July 1943; and Operation Avalanche, the invasion of Italy in September.
The squadron was transferred to Fifteenth Air Force control in December 1943 and engaged in bombing operations primarily in Italy in support of the Allied drive north toward Rome from January to June 1944. It also supported Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France in August 1944 and the campaigns against German forces in northern Italy from June 1944 until the end of the war. The unit engaged primarily in long-range bombardment of strategic targets after October 1943, attacking oil refineries, aircraft factories, steel plants, and other objectives in Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, and Greece.
En route to bomb a vital aircraft factory at Steyr, Austria during Big Week on 24 February 1944, the group was greatly outnumbered by enemy interceptors, but it maintained its formation and bombed the target, receiving a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for the performance. On the following day, while on a mission to attack aircraft factories at Regensburg, it met similar opposition equally well and was awarded a second DUC. The 20th served as part of the occupation force in Italy after V-E Day and was inactivated in Italy on 28 February 1946.
The squadron was reactivated as a Boeing B-29 Superfortress very heavy bomber squadron under Strategic Air Command in 1947 and assigned to Chatham Air Force Base near Savannah, Georgia, until Hunter Air Force Base was ready to accept the 2d Bombardment Wing. it flew B-29 and later Boeing B-50 Superfortresses during the early postwar era. The 20th participated in electronic countermeasures testing and evaluation from May 1950 until May 1952. Equipped with B-47 Stratojet medium bombers in 1954, flying training missions and standing nuclear alert until the phaseout of the B-47 in 1963.
The squadron moved to Barksdale Air Force Base, where it began to re-equip with the Boeing B-52F Stratofortress in 1963. The squadron was moved to Carswell Air Force Base on 25 June 1965, joining the 9th Bombardment Squadron as the second B-52F squadron at Carswell. During the Vietnam War, the squadron would switch rotations to Andersen AFB, Guam for Operation Arc Light missions over Southeast Asia with the 9th, while the other squadron remained on nuclear alert at Carswell.
The unit continued Arc Light deployments, switching to the B-52D in 1969 until March 1970 when the draw down of the Vietnam War ended forward deployments to Andersen. The squadron continued nuclear alert with the B-52D until 1983, when it re-equipped with B-52Hs, acquiring the aircraft of the 46th Bombardment Squadron at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. During the 1980s it conducted B-52 training missions over bombing range sites and supported the wing mission of aerial bombardment.
The squadron returned to Barksdale in 1992 with the closure of Carswell and became part of the new Air Combat Command. It continued training for global conventional bombardment missions and maintained nuclear operational readiness.
After the September 11 attacks the 20th deployed to the island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean and on 7 October 2001 flew attacks on targets in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom. In February 2003 it deployed to Guam to deter North Korean aggression.
On 21 July 2008, a squadron B-52 aircraft crashed near Guam during a training mission in support of Guam's Liberation Day festivities. All six crewmembers, three of whom were from the 20th, perished.
The 2008 Guam B-52 crash was a fatal crash of a United States Air Force (USAF) B-52H Stratofortress on 21 July 2008. The aircraft, operating out of Andersen Air Force Base, crashed into the Pacific Ocean during a training flight approximately 30 nautical miles (56 km) northwest of Apra Harbor, Guam. The training flight was to include participation in a local municipal celebration of Liberation Day in Hagåtña. All six crew members aboard the aircraft were killed and the aircraft was destroyed.
An investigation by the USAF determined that the crash was likely caused by an improper stabilizer trim setting. The investigation was unable to determine conclusively what had caused the horizontal stabilizer trim to be set improperly, but theorized that the most likely cause was an aircraft system malfunction.20 Squadron
20 Squadron or 20th Squadron may refer to:
No. 20 Squadron RAAF, a unit of the Australian Royal Air Force
No. 20 Squadron RAF, a unit of the United Kingdom Royal Air Force
20th Fighter Squadron, a unit of the United States Air Force
20th Bomb Squadron, a unit of the United States Air Force
20th Intelligence Squadron, a unit of the United States Air Force
20th Reconnaissance Squadron (disambiguation), units of the United States Air Force
20th Special Operations Squadron, a unit of the United States Air Force
20th Space Control Squadron, a unit of the United States Air Force
20th Operational Weather Squadron, a unit of the United States Air Force20th Aero Squadron
The 20th Aero Squadron was a Air Service, United States Army unit that fought on the Western Front during World War I.
The squadron was assigned as a Day Bombardment Squadron, performing long-range bombing attacks on roads and railroads; destruction of materiel and massed troop formations behind enemy lines. It also performed strategic reconnaissance over enemy-controlled territory, and tactical bombing attacks on enemy forces in support of Army offensive operations. After the 1918 Armistice with Germany, the squadron returned to the United States in June 1919 and became part of the permanent United States Army Air Service in 1921, being re-designated as the 20th Squadron.The current United States Air Force unit which holds its lineage and history is the 20th Bomb Squadron, assigned to the 2d Operations Group, Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana.2nd Bomb Wing
The 2d Bomb Wing is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Air Force Global Strike Command and Eighth Air Force. It is stationed at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. The wing is also the host unit at Barksdale. The wing was assigned to the Air Force Global Strike Command in February 2010 as part of the reassignment of Eighth Air Force.
The 2 BW is one of only two B-52H Stratofortress wings in the United States Air Force, the other being the 5th Bomb Wing at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota.
Its 2d Operations Group is the oldest bomb group of the Air Force, having fought on the Western Front as the 1st Day Bombardment Group during World War I, entering combat on 12 September 1918. After the war, it participated in Brigadier General Billy Mitchell's 1921 off-shore bombing test. Active for over 60 years, the 2 BW was a component wing of Strategic Air Command (SAC)'s heavy bomber deterrent force throughout the Cold War.
The 2d Bomb Wing is commanded by Colonel Michael A. Miller. The Command Chief Master Sergeant is Joshua W. Swanger.2nd Operations Group
The 2d Operations Group (2 OG) is the flying component of the United States Air Force 2d Bomb Wing, assigned to the Air Force Global Strike Command Eighth Air Force. The group is stationed at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana.
2 OG is one of two Air Force Global Strike Command groups to fly the B-52H Stratofortess. Its mission is to protect the United States and further its global interests by providing devastating combat capability.
The group is a successor organization to 2d Bombardment Group, one of the 15 original combat air groups formed by the Army before World War II. It is the oldest bomb group of the Air Force, having fought on the Western Front during World War I, entering combat on 12 September 1918. After the war, it participated in Brigadier General Billy Mitchell's 1921 off-shore bombing test. During World War II the group engaged in combat from bases in North Africa and Italy flying B-17 Flying Fortress.
In the postwar era, the 2d Bombardment Group was one of the first USAAF units assigned to the Strategic Air Command on 1 July 1947, prior to the establishment of the United States Air Force. Equipped with low-hour B-29 Superfortress surplus World War II aircraft, the group was inactivated in 1952 when the parent wing adopted the Tri-Deputate organization and assigned all of the groups squadrons directly to the wing.
Reactivated as the 2d Operations Group in 1991 when the 2d Bomb Wing adopted the USAF Objective organization plan.7th Bomb Wing
The 7th Bomb Wing (7 BW) is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Global Strike Command Eighth Air Force. It is stationed at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, where it is also the host unit.
The 7 BW is one of only two B-1B Lancer strategic bombardment wings in the United States Air Force, the other being the 28th Bomb Wing at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota.
Its origins date to the 1918 establishment of the 1st Army Observation Group (later 7th Bombardment Group), one of the 15 original combat air groups formed by the United States Army before World War II.
The 7th Operations Group carries the lineage and history of its highly decorated World War II predecessor unit. It operated initially in the Philippines as a B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber unit assigned to Fifth Air Force but after the fall of the Philippines in early 1942, operated primarily with the Tenth Air Force in India as a B-24 Liberator unit. Active for over 60 years, the 7 BW was a component wing of Strategic Air Command's heavy bomber deterrent force throughout the Cold War.
The 7th Bomb Wing is commanded by Colonel Brandon Parker. Its Vice Commander is Colonel David Doss. Its Command Chief is Chief Master Sergeant Raymond "Kenny" Mott.7th Operations Group
The 7th Operations Group is the operational flying component of the United States Air Force 7th Bomb Wing, stationed at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas. The 7th Operations Group currently flies the B-1 Lancer.
The 7th Operations Group is a direct successor organization of the 7th Bombardment Group, one of the 15 original combat air groups formed by the United States Army before World War II.
Activated in 1921, it inherited the lineage of the 1st Army Observation Group, which was established and organized, on 6 September 1918. The 7th Bombardment Group was deploying to the Philippines when the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Six of the group's B-17 Flying Fortress aircraft which had left Hamilton Field, California on 6 December 1941 reached Hawaii during the enemy attack, but were able to land safely. The unit later served in India during World War II.
In the postwar era, the 7d Bombardment Group was one of the first USAAF units assigned to the Strategic Air Command on 1 October 1946, prior to the establishment of the United States Air Force. Equipped with low-hour B-29 Superfortress surplus World War II aircraft, the group was inactivated in 1952 when the parent wing adopted the Tri-Deputate organization and assigned all of the groups squadrons directly to the wing.
Reactivated as the 7th Operations Group in 1991 when the 7th Bomb Wing adopted the USAF Objective organization plan.Air Force Global Strike Command
Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC) is a Major Command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force, headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. AFGSC provides combat-ready forces to conduct strategic nuclear deterrence and global strike operations in support of combatant commanders. It is subordinated to the USSTRATCOM.
Air Force Global Strike Command is the direct descendant unit of the Cold War-era Strategic Air Command (SAC). It holds the lineage, history and honors of SAC.Barksdale Air Force Base
Barksdale Air Force Base (Barksdale AFB) (IATA: BAD, ICAO: KBAD, FAA LID: BAD) is a United States Air Force base in northwest Louisiana, USA, in Bossier Parish. It is contiguous to Bossier City, Louisiana along the base's western and northwestern edge. Barksdale Air Force Base occupies more than 22,000 acres east of Bossier City and along the southern edge of Interstate Highway 20. More than 15,000 active-duty and Air Force Reserve members serve at Barksdale.
The host unit at Barksdale is the 2d Bomb Wing (2 BW), the oldest bomb wing in the Air Force. It is assigned to the Air Force Global Strike Command's (AFGSC) Eighth Air Force (8 AF). Equipped with about 44 B-52H Stratofortress bombers, 2 BW provides flexible, responsive global combat capability and trains all Air Force Global Strike Command and Air Force Reserve Command Boeing B-52 Stratofortress crews.
The base was established in 1932 as Barksdale Field, named for World War I aviator and test pilot Lieutenant Eugene Hoy Barksdale (1896-1926).Barney M. Giles
Barney McKinney Giles (September 13, 1892 – May 6, 1984) was an American military officer who helped develop strategic bombing theory and practice. Giles stepped outside established bomber doctrine during World War II to develop long-range capabilities for fighter aircraft in use by the United States Army Air Forces. Giles served as commanding general of the Fourth Air Force then as commander of the Twentieth Air Force in the Pacific Ocean Areas. In 1945 Giles was appointed honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by King George VI of the United Kingdom.Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber. The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing, which has continued to provide support and upgrades. It has been operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) since the 1950s. The bomber is capable of carrying up to 70,000 pounds (32,000 kg) of weapons, and has a typical combat range of more than 8,800 miles (14,080 km) without aerial refueling.Beginning with the successful contract bid in June 1946, the B-52 design evolved from a straight wing aircraft powered by six turboprop engines to the final prototype YB-52 with eight turbojet engines and swept wings. The B-52 took its maiden flight in April 1952. Built to carry nuclear weapons for Cold War-era deterrence missions, the B-52 Stratofortress replaced the Convair B-36. A veteran of several wars, the B-52 has dropped only conventional munitions in combat. The B-52's official name Stratofortress is rarely used; informally, the aircraft has become commonly referred to as the BUFF (Big Ugly Fat Fucker).The B-52 has been in active service with the USAF since 1955. As of December 2015, 58 were in active service with 18 in reserve. The bombers flew under the Strategic Air Command (SAC) until it was disestablished in 1992 and its aircraft absorbed into the Air Combat Command (ACC); in 2010 all B-52 Stratofortresses were transferred from the ACC to the newly created Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC). Superior performance at high subsonic speeds and relatively low operating costs have kept the B-52 in service despite the advent of later, more advanced aircraft, including the canceled Mach 3 B-70 Valkyrie, the variable-geometry B-1 Lancer, and the stealth B-2 Spirit. The B-52 completed sixty years of continuous service with its original operator in 2015. After being upgraded between 2013 and 2015, it is expected to serve into the 2050s.Franz Strasser
Franz Strasser (1899 – 10 December 1945) was an Austrian-German former NSDAP Kreisleiter and convicted murderer.Jeffrey B. Cashman
Jeffrey B. Cashman is a brigadier general in the Air National Guard.Keystone B-3
The Keystone B-3A was a bomber aircraft developed for the United States Army Air Corps by Keystone Aircraft in the late 1920s.List of B-52 Units of the United States Air Force
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress has been operational with the United States Air Force since 1955. This list is of the units it was assigned to, and the bases it was stationed.
In addition to the USAF, A single RB-52B (52-008) was flown by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) until it was retired on 17 December 2004. It now is on static display at the west gate of Edwards AFB, California. One other B-52H (61-0025) was flown for many years by the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards, and was transferred to NASA on 30 July 2001 as a replacement for the RB-52B. On 9 May 2008, that aircraft was flown for the last time to Sheppard AFB, Texas where it became a GB-52H maintenance trainer, never to fly again.List of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress variants
The following is an extensive catalogue of the variants and specific unique elements of each variant and/or design stage of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber. For a broader article on the history of the B-17, see B-17 Flying Fortress.List of active United States Air Force aircraft squadrons
This is an organized incomplete list of all of the active aircraft squadrons that currently exist in the United States Air Force, sorted by type. Most squadrons have changed names and designations many times over the years, so they are listed by their current designation.
To see all USAF squadrons, regardless of active or not, go to the List of United States Air Force squadrons.Martin NBS-1
The Martin NBS-1 was a military aircraft of the United States Army Air Service and its successor, the Air Corps. An improved version of the Martin MB-1, a scout-bomber built during the final months of World War I, the NBS-1 was ordered under the designation MB-2 and is often referred to as such. The designation NBS-1, standing for "Night Bomber-Short Range", was adopted by the Air Service after the first five of the Martin bombers were delivered.
The NBS-1 became the standard frontline bomber of the Air Service in 1920 and remained so until its replacement in 1928–1929 by the Keystone Aircraft series of bombers. The basic MB-2 design was also the standard against which prospective U.S. Army bombers were judged until the production of the Martin B-10 in 1933.USS Somers (DD-947)
The sixth USS Somers (DDG-34, ex-DD-947) was a Forrest Sherman-class destroyer when her keel was laid down at the Bath Iron Works on 4 March 1958, she was launched on 30 May, and commissioned on 3 April 1959.
Somers was decommissioned 11 April 1966, and converted at San Francisco Naval Shipyard. On 15 March 1967 she was reclassified as a guided missile destroyer, and was re-commissioned 10 February 1968. She was decommissioned on 19 November 1982 and on 26 April 1988, she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register. On 22 July 1998, she was sunk as target near Hawaii.
Strategic Air Command (SAC)