2019 Pacific typhoon season

The 2019 Pacific typhoon season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout 2019, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, reached tropical storm status on January 1, becoming the earliest-forming tropical storm of the western Pacific Ocean on record, breaking the previous record that was held by Typhoon Alice in 1979. The season's first typhoon, Wutip, reached typhoon status on February 20. Wutip further intensified into a super typhoon on February 23, becoming the strongest February typhoon on record,[1] and the strongest tropical cyclone recorded in February in the Northern Hemisphere.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, while the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E–115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2019 Pacific typhoon season
2019 Pacific typhoon season summary
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedDecember 31, 2018
Last system dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm
NameWutip and Lekima
 • Maximum winds195 km/h (120 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure920 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions24
Total storms11
Typhoons4
Super typhoons2 (unofficial)
Total fatalities152 total
Total damage$7.81 billion (2019 USD)
Related articles

Seasonal forecasts

TSR forecasts
Date
Tropical
storms
Total
Typhoons
Intense
TCs
ACE Ref.
Average (1965–2018) 26 16 9 295 [2]
May 7, 2019 27 17 10 354 [2]
July 5, 2019 25 15 8 260 [3]
August 7, 2019 26 16 8 270 [4]
Other forecasts
Date
Forecast
Center
Period Systems Ref.
February 7, 2019 PAGASA January–March 1–2 tropical cyclones [5]
February 7, 2019 PAGASA April–June 2–4 tropical cyclones [5]
July 15, 2019 PAGASA July–September 6–9 tropical cyclones [6]
July 15, 2019 PAGASA October–December 3–5 tropical cyclones [6]
2019 season Forecast
Center
Tropical
cyclones
Tropical
storms
Typhoons Ref.
Actual activity: JMA 24 11 4
Actual activity: JTWC 12 10 4
Actual activity: PAGASA 9 2 1

During the year, several national meteorological services and scientific agencies forecast how many tropical cyclones, tropical storms, and typhoons will form during a season and/or how many tropical cyclones will affect a particular country. These agencies included the Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) Consortium of University College London, PAGASA and Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau. The first forecast of the year was released by PAGASA on February 7, within its seasonal climate outlook for the period January–June.[5] The outlook noted that one to two tropical cyclones were expected between January and March, while two to four were expected to develop or enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility between April and June. Moreover, PAGASA predicts an 80% chance of a weak El Niño presence during February–March–April period.[5] On May 7, the TSR issued their first forecast for the season, predicting that the 2019 season would be a slightly above average season, producing 27 named storms, 17 typhoons, and ten intense typhoons.[2] One of the factors behind this is due to the possible development of a moderate El Niño anticipated within the third quarter of the year.[2]

On July 5, the TSR released their second forecast for the season, now lowering their numbers and predicting that the season would be a below-average season with 25 named storms, 15 typhoons, and eight intense typhoons.[3] The PAGASA issued their second forecast for the season on July 15, predicting six to nine tropical cyclones expected to develop or enter their area between July and September and about three to five tropical cyclones by September to December. The agency also predicted that the weak El Niño was expected to weaken towards neutral conditions by August and September 2019.[6] On August 7, the TSR released their final forecast for the season, predicting a near-normal season with 26 named storms, 16 typhoons and eight intense typhoons.[4]

Season summary

The season started with Tropical Storm Pabuk active to the east of Thailand, which had formed on the last day of 2018, becoming the earliest-forming tropical storm of the Western Pacific Ocean on record, breaking the previous record held by Typhoon Alice in 1979. The storm tracked westward for three days before crossing over to the North Indian Ocean. A weak tropical depression formed near the Philippines and was named Amang by PAGASA, but quickly degenerated into a remnant low. Typhoon Wutip (Betty) developed on February 18 and became the season's first super typhoon, becoming the strongest February typhoon on record. A month later, Tropical Depression 03W formed and was named "Chedeng" by PAGASA, which later made landfall in Mindanao and dissipated in the Sulu Sea. May was rather inactive with many tropical depressions forming but never intensifying. During late June, tropical activity fired up, as Tropical Depression Dodong formed east of Philippines which absorbed another tropical depression in the South China Sea, and intensified into tropical storm Sepat. Sepat then moved northeast and became extratropical. After Sepat, Tropical Depression 04W (Egay) formed, which dropped rainfall over the drought-stricken Luzon; but soon dissipated due to unfavorable conditions. Another tropical depression formed in the South China Sea in early July, which later became Tropical Storm Mun and made landfall in Vietnam. By late July, the season kickstarted with Tropical Storms Nari and Wipha and Typhoon Francisco, later followed by Typhoon Lekima and Krosa. Lekima and Krosa later became typhoons, with Lekima intensifying into the 2nd super typhoon of the 2019 season. 3 tropical depressions in mid-August was monitored by JMA, but only one of them intensified into Tropical Storm Bailu (Ineng).

The first half of the 2019 season proved unusually quiet. For the first time since reliable records began in 1950, no typhoons existed between February 27 and August 4.[7]

Systems

Tropical Storm Pabuk

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Pabuk 2019-01-04 0640Z
 
Pabuk 2019 track
DurationDecember 31, 2018 – January 4, 2019 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

A tropical disturbance formed over the southern portion of the South China Sea on December 28, 2018,[8] which absorbed the remnants of Tropical Depression 35W (Usman) on December 30.[9] Under high vertical wind shear, the low-pressure area remained disorganized until December 31 when it was upgraded to a tropical depression by both the JMA and the JTWC.[10] As it was designated 36W by the JTWC, it was unofficially the last system of the 2018 typhoon season.[11] At around 06:00 UTC on January 1, 2019, the system was upgraded to the first tropical storm of the 2019 typhoon season and named Pabuk by the JMA, surpassing Typhoon Alice in 1979 to become the earliest-forming tropical storm of the northwest Pacific Ocean on record.[12] At that time, Pabuk was about 650 km (405 miles) southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and drifted westward slowly with a partially exposed low-level circulation center.[13]

Under marginal conditions including warm sea surface temperatures, excellent poleward outflow but strong vertical wind shear, Pabuk struggled to intensify further for over two days until it accelerated west-northwestward and entered the Gulf of Thailand on January 3, where vertical wind shear was slightly weaker. It became the first tropical storm over the gulf since Muifa in 2004. Moreover, it tried to form an eye revealed by microwave imagery.[14] On January 4, the Thai Meteorological Department reported that Pabuk had made landfall over Pak Phanang, Nakhon Si Thammarat at 12:45 ICT (05:45 UTC), although other agencies indicated a landfall at peak intensity between 06:00 and 12:00 UTC.[15] Pabuk became the first tropical storm to make landfall over southern Thailand since Linda in 1997. Shortly after 12:00 UTC, the JMA issued the last full advisory for Pabuk as it exited the basin into the North Indian Ocean.[16][17]

One of the islands in the south of Thailand, Koh Samui, appeared to have been spared much of the brunt of the storm with no confirmed deaths. Beaches were closed, but even with the bad weather approaching, tourists on the popular island in the Gulf of Thailand continued to visit bars and restaurants catering to them.[18]

In Vietnam, Pabuk caused one death,[19] and the losses were estimated at 27.87 billion (US$1.2 million).[20] Eight people in Thailand were killed,[21][22] and the losses in the country were estimated to be 5 billion bahts (US$156 million).[23] Pabuk also killed one person in Malaysia.[24]

Tropical Depression 01W (Amang)

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
01W 2019-01-19 0518Z
 
Amang 2019 track
DurationJanuary 4 – January 22
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1004 hPa (mbar)

The JTWC upgraded a disturbance north of Bairiki to a tropical depression with the designation 01W late on January 4 and expected some intensification,[25] but it failed to develop and the JTWC downgraded it back to a disturbance on January 6.[26] The system continued drifting westwards for two weeks without development. On January 19, the JMA upgraded the low-pressure area to a tropical depression when it was already located about 200 km (120 mi) west of Palau.[27] Tropical Depression 01W (Amang) continued its westward motion for another day, turning northward on January 20, just off the coast of the southern Philippines. On January 21, Tropical Depression 01W abruptly turned southward, making landfall on Samar on January 22, before dissipating shortly afterward.

The depression indirectly triggered landslides and flash floods in Davao Oriental and Agusan del Norte, killing 10 people.[28] Damage in Davao were at 318.99 million (US$6.04 million).[29][30]

Typhoon Wutip (Betty)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Wutip 2019-02-25 0345Z
 
Wutip 2019 track
DurationFebruary 18 – March 2
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  920 hPa (mbar)

A low-pressure area formed just south of the Marshall Islands on February 16. It then began to gradually organize while moving westward, just south of Federated States of Micronesia.[31] The system was upgraded to a tropical depression by the JMA on February 18, with the JTWC following suit on the following day, assigning the storm the identifier 02W. On February 20, the tropical depression intensified into a tropical storm and received the name Wutip from the JMA. On February 21, Wutip strengthened into a severe tropical storm, before intensifying further into a typhoon later that day. On February 23, Wutip intensified further, reaching its initial peak intensity as a Category 4-equivalent super typhoon with maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 250 km/h (155 mph), and a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (mbar), while passing to the southwest of Guam, surpassing Typhoon Higos from 2015 as the strongest February typhoon on record.[1] Wutip underwent an eyewall replacement cycle shortly thereafter, weakening in intensity as it did so while turning to the northwest. The typhoon finished its eyewall replacement cycle on February 24 and resumed strengthening; early on February 25, Wutip reached its peak intensity as a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon, with maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (121 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph), and a minimum central pressure of 920 hPa (27 inHg). This made Wutip the first Category 5-equivalent super typhoon recorded in the month of February.[32] This also made Wutip the strongest typhoon ever recorded in February in the Northern hemisphere. On February 26, Wutip entered a hostile environment with moderate wind shear and began to weaken, concurrently making another turn westward. On February 28, Wutip weakened into a tropical depression and lost most of its convection. On the same day, Wutip was given the name "Betty" by the PAGASA, as the storm entered the Philippine Sea. Soon afterward, Wutip entered a more hostile environment, with very high vertical wind shear (40–50 knots or 74–93 km/h or 46–58 mph) and lower sea surface temperatures, and the storm rapidly weakened until it dissipated on March 2.

Preliminary estimates of damage in Guam and Micronesia were at $3.3 million.[33][34]

Tropical Depression 03W (Chedeng)

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
03W 2019-03-17 0408Z
 
Chedeng 2019 track
DurationMarch 14 – March 20
Peak intensity<55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1006 hPa (mbar)

On March 14, Tropical Depression 03W formed over the Federated States of Micronesia. Over the next couple of days, the system drifted westward, while gradually organizing. Early on March 17, the tropical depression entered the PAGASA's area of responsibility in the Philippine Sea, and consequently, the agency assigned the name Chedeng to the storm, shortly before it made landfall on Palau. At 5:30 PST on March 19, Chedeng made landfall on Malita, Davao Occidental.[35] Chedeng rapidly weakened after making landfall in the Philippines, degenerating into a remnant low on March 19. Chedeng's remnants continued weakening while moving westward, dissipating over the southern Sulu Sea on March 20.

Infrastructural damage in Davao Region were at Php1.2 million (US$23,000).[36]

Tropical Storm Sepat (Dodong)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
Sepat 2019-06-28 0335Z
 
Sepat 2019 track
DurationJune 24 – June 28
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  994 hPa (mbar)

On June 24, the JMA began monitoring on a tropical depression that had formed well to the east of Luzon from the remnants of a separate system. On June 25, the system began curving towards the northeast; the PAGASA also began to issue warnings on the formative disturbance.[37] Rounding the periphery of a subtropical ridge of high pressure, the depression tracked towards the east-northeast through the East China Sea, intensifying some as it encountered an area of high sea surface temperatures and low wind shear.[38][39] On June 26, the cyclone left the PAGASA's area of responsibility.[40] Curved banding developed later that day as the center passed east of Okinawa.[41] Tracing the northwestern periphery of the ridge, the system curved towards the east-northeast, paralleling the southern coast of the main Japanese islands. Supported by favorable sea surface temperatures and outflow, the system was upgraded to a tropical storm at 09:00 UTC on June 27, gaining the name Sepat.[42] A peak intensity with 75 km/h (47 mph) 10-minute sustained winds was attained later that day while Sepat began to acquire extratropical characteristics.[43][44] The next day, the storm fully transitioned into an extratropical system while accelerating eastward 580 km (360 mi) east of Hitachinaka, Japan.[45] Sepat's extratropical remnants continued accelerating towards the northeast, moving into the western Bering Sea on July 1, before eventually dissipating over the Arctic Ocean early on July 5.

This system was not tracked by the JTWC; however, the agency classified the system as a "subtropical storm," with 1-minute sustained winds at 75 km/h (45 mph).[46] Some ferry routes and bullet trains were suspended as the storm passed near Tokyo on June 28, dropping heavy rainfall.[47] Evacuations were advised for most districts in Kagoshima due to an increased risk of landslides. In Hioki, Kagoshima, 164 mm (6.5 in) of rain fell in a six-hour period on the morning of June 28;[48] 240 mm (9.4 in) fell in Kamikatsu, Tokushima, in a 24-hour period.[49] An EF0 tornado damaged 17 structures in Gifu and Ginan.[50][51]

Tropical Depression 04W (Egay)

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
04W 2019-06-30 0441Z
 
Egay 2019 track
DurationJune 27 – July 1
Peak intensity<55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

Early on June 27, a tropical depression formed to the southwest of the Mariana Islands. At around 21:00 Philippine Standard Time (09:00 UTC), the tropical depression entered the PAGASA's area of responsibility in the Philippine Sea, though PAGASA did not recognize the system as a tropical cyclone at the time. On June 28, the JTWC initiated advisories on the system and gave it the identifier 04W. On the next day, PAGASA named the tropical depression “Egay” and the JTWC initiated advisories on Egay as a tropical storm. On June 30, Tropical Depression Egay encountered high wind shear in the Philippine Sea and began weakening soon afterward. On July 1, Egay turned to the north-northwest and reached the southern coast of Taiwan, and both the PAGASA and the JTWC issued their final warnings on the weakening storm; Egay degenerated into a remnant low late that day. Afterward, Egay passed over northern Taiwan and continued its northward motion, before dissipating on the next day, just off the coast of China.

Tropical Storm Mun

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Mun 2019-07-03 0450Z
 
Mun 2019 track
DurationJuly 1 – July 4
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

On July 1, an area of low pressure organized into a tropical depression formed in the South China Sea, near Hainan and the Paracel Islands. The system gradually organized while drifting eastward. On the next day, the tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm, and the JMA named the storm Mun. Later that day, Tropical Storm Mun made landfall on the island of Hainan. However, the JTWC still recognized Mun as a monsoon depression and didn’t upgrade it into a tropical cyclone for another day. Late on July 3, after the storm had nearly crossed the Gulf of Tonkin to the coast of Vietnam, the JTWC upgraded the storm to tropical storm status and initiated advisories on the system, stating that Mun had organized enough to be considered a tropical cyclone. Between 4:30–5:00 a.m. ICT on July 4 (21:30–22:00 UTC on July 3), Mun made landfall in Thái Bình Province in northern Vietnam.[52] Afterward, Mun moved inland while weakening, before dissipating late on July 4.

A bridge in Tĩnh Gia District was damaged by the storm, which killed 2 people and left 3 injured. Damage of an electric pole in Trấn Yên District were at 5.6 billion (US$240,000).[52]

Tropical Storm Danas (Falcon)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Danas 2019-07-19 0400Z
 
Danas 2019 track
DurationJuly 14 – July 21
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

On July 12, an area of low pressure formed near the Mariana Islands. During the next couple of days, the system slowly drifted westward while gradually organizing. Early on July 14, the low-pressure area organized into a tropical depression to the southwest of the Mariana Islands. Later that day, the tropical depression entered the Philippine area of responsibility, and the PAGASA gave the system the name Falcon. Afterward, the system continued organizing while approaching Luzon. On July 16, the tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm, and the JMA named the system Danas. Shortly afterward, at 12:00 UTC that day, the JTWC upgraded Danas to a tropical storm. At 12:30 a.m. on July 17 (PST), PAGASA reported that Danas (Falcon) had made landfall at Gattaran, Cagayan and looped over the landmass. However, Danas's center of circulation still remained off the coast of Luzon, and the JMA and JTWC both stated that Danas did not make landfall at all. Northeasterly wind shear had displaced much of Danas' convection to the west, and an area of low pressure had formed to the east of Luzon. This led to the formation of another area of low pressure over the western Philippines. This low would later develop into Tropical Depression Goring. On July 19, the JMA reported that Danas has reached its peak intensity with winds of 85 km/h (50 mph). Later that day, Danas began to weaken. On July 20, around 13:00 UTC, Danas made landfall on North Jeolla Province, South Korea, before weakening into a tropical depression soon afterward. At 12:45 UTC on July 21, Danas transitioned into an extratropical low in the Sea of Japan, and the JMA issued their final advisory on the storm.

In Philippines, four people were killed after Danas triggered flooding in the country.[53] Agricultural damage in Negros Occidental were calculated at P19 million (US$372,000),[54] while agricultural damage in Lanao Norte reached P277.8 million (US$5.44 million).[55] Danas caused stormy weather across South Korea; however, its effects were relatively minor. Heavy rains amounted to 329.5 mm (12.97 in) in Geomun-do.[56] A man died after being swept away by strong waves in Geochang County.[57] Damage in South Jeolla Province were at W395 million (US$336,000),[58] while damage in Jeju Island up to W322 million (US$274,000).[59] Additionally, Danas also triggered flash flooding in Kyushu. A 11-year-old boy was killed.[60]

Tropical Depression Goring

Tropical depression (JMA)
Goring 2019-07-19 0255Z
 
Goring 2019 track
DurationJuly 17 – July 19
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

On July 17, a tropical depression formed from the western part of Tropical Storm Danas after it was battered by northeast wind shear, over the eastern part of the South China Sea, just off the coast of Luzon. Over the next couple of days, the system moved northeastward, and re-entered the PAGASA's Philippine Area of Responsibility, and was named Goring while the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) on Goring. Goring reached southern Taiwan early on July 19. However, the storm made landfall on Taiwan soon afterward and weakened; as a result, the JTWC cancelled the TCFA and has lowered Goring's chance for development to 'medium'.[61] Goring dissipated by 18:00 UTC on July 19 (July 20 PST), with PAGASA declaring that Goring had degenerated into a low-pressure area and discontinued advisories on the storm, and the JMA ceased advisories as well. The remnant of Goring was then merged with a new low pressure system which would eventually become a Tropical Storm Nari.

Tropical Storm Nari

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Nari 2019-07-26 0130Z
 
Nari 2019 track
DurationJuly 24 – July 28
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  998 hPa (mbar)

On July 21, the JTWC started tracking an area of low pressure associated with remnant of tropical depression Goring for the potential formation of a tropical cyclone. Under favorable conditions, the system organized itself in the next several days. At 00:00 UTC on July 24, it developed into a tropical depression to the west of the Bonin Islands. The storm gradually became more organized while moving north-northwestward. Early on July 25, the JTWC initiated advisories on the storm and gave it the identification "07W". Early on July 26, the tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm, and the JMA named it Nari while it moved northwards. The storm approached southern Japan and as it moved inland, it weakened into a tropical depression. Several hours later, it degenerated into a remnant low. Thus, the JTWC and JMA issued their final advisories on the system.

Tropical Storm Wipha

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Wipha 2019-08-02 0605Z
 
Wipha 2019 track
DurationJuly 30 – August 3
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

On July 30, a tropical depression formed in the South China Sea near Paracel Islands and Hainan. On the next day, it strengthened into a tropical storm, and JMA named it Wipha. By July 31, JTWC upgraded Wipha to a tropical storm.

In Vietnam, at least 27 people were killed. Thanh Hóa Province was the worst hit province within the nation, with 16 people died alone,[62] and the losses were amounted to 1 trillion đồng (US$43.1 million).[63] Damage in Sơn La Province reached 28 billion đồng (US$1.21 million).[64]

Typhoon Francisco

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Francisco 2019-08-05 1710Z
 
Francisco 2019 track
DurationAugust 1 – August 7
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

On August 1, a tropical depression formed to the east of Mariana Islands. By midnight on August 1, the depression rapidly intensified to be Tropical Storm Francisco. Over the next few days, Francisco gradually strengthened and became a severe tropical storm on August 3. It then became a typhoon 12 hours later.

In anticipation of coastal flooding, 20,020 people were evacuated from Kokuraminami-ku and Moji-ku.[65] Transportation in the affected region was disrupted, with 130 flights cancelled and the Kyushu Railway Company suspending train service.[66] Striking Kyushu as a typhoon, Francisco brought heavy rain and strong winds to much of the island. Rainfall accumulations exceeded 120 mm (4.7 in) in Nobeoka and 110 mm (4.3 in) in Saiki.[67] Nobeoka observed a local hourly rainfall record of 95.5 mm (3.76 in).[66] A maximum wind gust of 143 km/h (89 mph) was observed at Miyazaki Airport,[68] the highest August wind gust on record for the city. One person drowned in a flooded river in Kokonoe.[66] Two people suffered injury after being knocked over by strong winds.[65]

Typhoon Lekima (Hanna)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Lekima 2019-08-08 0232Z
 
Lekima 2019 track
DurationAugust 2 – August 14
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  920 hPa (mbar)

On August 2, the JMA began monitoring on a tropical depression that had developed in the Philippine Sea. The system strengthened into a tropical storm a day later, while the PAGASA named it Tropical Depression Hanna, and was given the international name Lekima. The system soon started to rapidly intensify as it moves west-northwestwards, reaching category 3-equivalent intensity on August 7 and rapid intensification helped it intensify, and soon became a super typhoon in just 2 hours. The storm underwent an eyewall replacement cycle by the following morning. It began to weaken as it did so. Around that time, it absorbed a weak Tropical Depression west of Luzon, in the South China Sea. Lekima made landfall in China by August 10, 12:30 a.m. CST and weakened into a Category 2 storm. The system continued to weaken as it moves inland. It became a severe tropical storm several hours later. Lekima then changed its trajectory from west-northwest to north, battering the East Coast of China. more than 1 million people were evacuated due to the threat of the storm and 22 were killed by it so far.[69] The system kept moving inland and weakened to a tropical depression. Soon after, Lekima started to undergo an Extratropical transition. As it did so, the JTWC discontinued advisories on it.[70]

Though Lekima, known to them as Hanna, did not directly affect the Philippines, it enhanced the southwest monsoon which caused heavy rain to the nation. Three boats sank in Guimaras Strait; 31 people died and three were left missing.[71]

Typhoon Krosa

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
Krosa 2019-08-08 0400Z
 
Krosa 2019 track
DurationAugust 5 – August 16
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

A tropical depression formed near Mariana Islands on August 5. By August 6, it intensified into a tropical storm, and was named Krosa by the JMA. Tropical Storm Krosa soon became a typhoon, and rapidly intensified to become a category 3-equivalent typhoon on August 8. Upwelling of cooler waters induced weakening thereafter; by August 13, Krosa weakened below typhoon intensity. Krosa continued moving, albeit slowly, towards Japan with little change in intensity. Moderately conducive conditions were unable to aid Krosa in strengthening, and it stayed the same intensity before landfall in Japan. On August 14, Krosa emerged in the Sea of Japan and a few days later on August 16 Krosa transitioned into an extratropical low.

The typhoon brought torrential rain to parts of Shikoku and Honshu, with accumulations peaking at 869.5 mm (34.23 in) at Yanase in Kochi Prefecture. Wind gusts reached 151 km/h (94 mph) in Muroto. Rough seas produced by the storm killed two people while flooding killed one other.[72] Fifty-five people were injured in various incidents.[73] Agricultural damage in Japan reached ¥279.61 million (US$2.64 million).[74]

Severe Tropical Storm Bailu (Ineng)

BailuTS
Current storm status
Tropical storm  (JMA)
Current storm status
Tropical depression (1-min mean)
Bailu Geostationary VIS-IR 2019
Satellite image
2019 JTWC 12W forecast map.wp1219
Forecast map
As of:06:00 UTC, August 25
Location:24°30′N 115°24′E / 24.5°N 115.4°E
In Meizhou, Guangdong
Sustained winds:40 kn (75 km/h; 45 mph) (10-min mean)
30 kn (55 km/h; 35 mph) (1-min mean)
gusting to 60 kn (110 km/h; 70 mph)
Pressure:994 hPa (29.35 inHg)
Movement:WNW at 13 kn (25 km/h; 15 mph)
See more detailed information.

On August 20, a tropical depression formed. On the same day, JMA issued a gale warning on it, stating the depression would strengthen into a tropical storm in 12 hours. This LPA was also monitored by PAGASA, which was eventually named Ineng by PAGASA. Early on August 21, Ineng’s still disorganized circulation trough affected the Bicol Region, Eastern Visayas and Metro Manila, causing heavy rains to the areas previously hit by strong rains from Typhoon Lekima (Hanna). At the same time, the JTWC issued a TCFA for Ineng. Later on the same day, Tropical Depression Ineng was designated as 12W by the JTWC and soon upgraded to Tropical Storm Bailu by the JMA. Despite this, Bailu still had a disorganized center. At 13:00 TST (05:00 UTC) on August 24, Bailu made landfall over Manzhou Township, Pingtung County, Taiwan.[75]

Though Bailu didn't made landfall in the Philippines, two people were killed in Ilocos Norte.[76] Bailu also killed one person, and injured nine others in Taiwan.[77]

Current storm information

As of 06:00 UTC August 25, Tropical Storm Bailu is located near 24°30′N 115°24′E / 24.5°N 115.4°E, also in Meizhou, Guangdong, China. Maximum 10-minute sustained winds are at 40 knots (75 km/h; 45 mph), while maximum 1-minute sustained winds are at 30 knots (55 km/h; 35 mph), with gusts up to 60 knots (110 km/h; 70 mph). The minimum central barometric pressure is 994 hPa (29.35 inHg), and the system is moving west-northwestward at 13 kn (25 km/h; 15 mph).

For the latest official information, see:

Tropical Depression

Tropical depression (JMA)
Temporary cyclone north
 
DurationAugust 25 – Present
Peak intensity<55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1006 hPa (mbar)

Other systems

On May 2, a low-pressure area formed over the Yap Islands. On May 7, the JMA upgraded the low-pressure area to a tropical depression. On May 8, the tropical depression dissipated, and the JMA issued their final advisory on the system. On May 7, a tropical depression formed near the southwest portion of Micronesia. Over the next several days, the system slowly drifted westward, while fluctuating in intensity. On May 9, the tropical depression experienced some weakening. The weakening trend resumed on May 12, as the system drifted to the northwest. Later on the same day, the tropical depression degenerated into a remnant low. However, six hours later, on May 13, the system regenerated into a tropical depression, and the JMA re-initiated advisories on the storm. On May 15, the tropical depression degenerated into a remnant low once again. At 12:00 UTC on May 16, the storm's remnants dissipated. On May 10, another tropical depression formed to the east of Mindanao, and the JMA initiated advisories on the storm. Early on the next day, the tropical depression began to weaken, after encountering hostile conditions while continuing its westward track. On May 11, the tropical depression dissipated to the east of Mindanao.

On June 26, a tropical depression briefly formed in the East China Sea, near the Ryukyu Islands. Later that day, the storm was absorbed into the circulation of a nearby system which would eventually become Tropical Storm Sepat.

On August 6, a tropical depression formed in the South China Sea, to the west of Luzon. On August 8, the tropical depression degenerated into a remnant low, and was absorbed by larger Typhoon Lekima to its east. 2 tropical depressions were monitored by JMA, to the Taiwan Strait and out in the North Pacific. On August 17, another depression formed and the JMA started monitoring it. However, a day later, it degenerated to a remnant low.

Storm names

Within the Northwest Pacific Ocean, both the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assign names to tropical cyclones that develop in the Western Pacific, which can result in a tropical cyclone having two names.[78] The Japan Meteorological Agency's RSMC Tokyo — Typhoon Center assigns international names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization's Typhoon Committee, should they be judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h (40 mph).[79] PAGASA names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N and 25°N even if the cyclone has had an international name assigned to it.[78] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired, by both PAGASA and the Typhoon Committee.[79] Should the list of names for the Philippine region be exhausted then names will be taken from an auxiliary list of which the first ten are published each season. Unused names are marked in gray.

International names

A tropical cyclone is named when it is judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of 65 km/h (40 mph).[80] The JMA selected the names from a list of 140 names, that had been developed by the 14 members nations and territories of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee.[81] Retired names, if any, will be announced by the WMO in 2020, though replacement names will be announced in 2021. The next 28 names on the naming list are listed here along with their international numeric designation, if they are used. During the season, the names Mun and Bailu was used for the first time, after it replaced the names Fitow and Haiyan, which was retired after the 2013 season, respectively.

  • Pabuk (1901)
  • Wutip (1902)
  • Sepat (1903)
  • Mun (1904)
  • Danas (1905)
  • Nari (1906)
  • Wipha (1907)
  • Francisco (1908)
  • Lekima (1909)
  • Krosa (1910)
  • Bailu (1911) (active)
  • Podul (unused)
  • Lingling (unused)
  • Kajiki (unused)
  • Faxai (unused)
  • Peipah (unused)
  • Tapah (unused)
  • Mitag (unused)
  • Hagibis (unused)
  • Neoguri (unused)
  • Bualoi (unused)
  • Matmo (unused)
  • Halong (unused)
  • Nakri (unused)
  • Fengshen (unused)
  • Kalmaegi (unused)
  • Fung-wong (unused)
  • Kammuri (unused)

Philippines

This season, PAGASA will use its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones that either develop within or move into their self-defined area of responsibility.[82] The names were taken from a list of names last used during 2015 and are scheduled to be used again during 2023.[82] All of the names are the same except Liwayway and Nimfa, replacing the names Lando and Nona after these were retired.[82]

  • Amang
  • Betty (1902)
  • Chedeng
  • Dodong (1903)
  • Egay
  • Falcon (1905)
  • Goring
  • Hanna (1909)
  • Ineng (1911)
  • Jenny (unused)
  • Kabayan (unused)
  • Liwayway (unused)
  • Marilyn (unused)
  • Nimfa (unused)
  • Onyok (unused)
  • Perla (unused)
  • Quiel (unused)
  • Ramon (unused)
  • Sarah (unused)
  • Tisoy (unused)
  • Ursula (unused)
  • Viring (unused)
  • Weng (unused)
  • Yoyoy (unused)
  • Zigzag (unused)
Auxiliary list
  • Abe (unused)
  • Berto (unused)
  • Charo (unused)
  • Dado (unused)
  • Estoy (unused)
  • Felion (unused)
  • Gening (unused)
  • Herman (unused)
  • Irma (unused)
  • Jaime (unused)

Season effects

This table summarizes all the systems that developed within or moved into the North Pacific Ocean, to the west of the International Date Line during 2019. The tables also provide an overview of a systems intensity, duration, land areas affected and any deaths or damages associated with the system.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Pabuk December 31, 2018 – January 4, 2019 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Natuna Islands, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar $157 million 10 [19][21][22][24]
01W (Amang) January 4 – 22 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands, Philippines $6.04 million 10 [28][30]
Wutip (Betty) February 18 – March 2 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands $3.3 million None
03W (Chedeng) March 14 – 19 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Caroline Islands, Philippines $23 thousand None [36]
TD May 7 – 8 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Yap, Palau None None
TD May 7 – 12 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Caroline Islands None None
TD May 10 – 11 Tropical depression Not specified 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) Mariana Islands None None
TD May 13 – 15 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Caroline Islands None None
Sepat (Dodong) June 24 – 28 Tropical storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 994 hPa (29.35 inHg) Japan, Aleutian Islands, Russian Far East None None
TD June 26 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Japan, Korean Peninsula None None
04W (Egay) June 27 – July 1 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Yap, Philippines, Taiwan, East China None None
Mun July 1 – 4 Tropical storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) South China, Vietnam, Laos $240 thousand 2 [52]
Danas (Falcon) July 14 – 21 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Yap, Philippines, Taiwan, East China, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Russian Far East $6.42 million 6
Goring July 17 – 19 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands None None
Nari July 24 – 28 Tropical storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Japan None None
Wipha July 30 – August 3 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) South China, Vietnam, Laos $44.3 million 27
Francisco August 1 – 7 Typhoon 130 km/h (80 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Japan, Korean Peninsula Unknown 1 [66]
Lekima (Hanna) August 2 – 14 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Caroline Islands, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, China $7.62 billion 90 [83][84][85][86]
Krosa August 5 – 16 Typhoon 155 km/h (100 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Mariana Islands, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Russian Far East $2.64 million 3
TD August 6 – 8 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Philippines None None
TD August 17 – 18 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) None None None
TD August 19 – 21 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, East China None None
Bailu (Ineng) August 20 – Present Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, South China Unknown 3
TD August 25 – Present Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Yap None None
Season aggregates
24 systems December 31, 2018 –
Season ongoing
195 km/h (120 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) >$7.8 billion 152

See also

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External links

2018 Pacific typhoon season

The 2018 Pacific typhoon season was an above-average season producing 29 storms, 13 typhoons, and 7 super typhoons. It was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season ran throughout 2018, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Bolaven, developed on January 3, while the season's last named storm, Man-yi, dissipated on November 28. The season's first typhoon, Jelawat, reached typhoon status on March 29, and became the first super typhoon of the year on the next day.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, to the north of the equator between 100°E and the 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones, which can often result in a cyclone having two names, one from the JMA and one from PAGASA. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, while the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

2019 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2019 Atlantic hurricane season is an ongoing event in the annual formation of tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere. The season officially began on June 1, 2019, and will end on November 30, 2019. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. However, tropical cyclogenesis is possible at any time of the year, as demonstrated by the formation of Subtropical Storm Andrea on May 20, marking the record fifth year in a row where a tropical or subtropical cyclone developed before the official start of the season, breaking the previous record of four years set in 1951–1954. This was also the second year in a row in which no storms formed during the month of June. The season is now the second slowest-starting Atlantic hurricane season of the 21st century, as the third named storm formed on August 21; the previous second latest formation date was Tropical Storm Chantal of 2001, which formed on August 14. The slowest-starting Atlantic hurricane season of the 21st century is the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season, and the latest formation date which corresponds to the two storms mentioned previously was Hurricane Cristobal, which formed on August 23 in that year.

2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with two peaks in activity in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, entered the basin on January 4, becoming the earliest-forming cyclonic storm of the North Indian Ocean on record. The second cyclone of the season, Cyclone Fani, was the strongest tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal by 3-minute maximum sustained wind speed and minimum barometric pressure since the 1999 Odisha cyclone (while being equal in terms of maximum 3-minute sustained wind speed to Cyclone Sidr of the 2007 season and Phailin of the 2013 season).

The scope of this article is limited to the Indian Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, east of the Horn of Africa and west of the Malay Peninsula. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean — the Arabian Sea to the west of the Indian subcontinent, abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD); and the Bay of Bengal to the east, abbreviated BOB by the IMD.

The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the National Meteorological Center of CMA (NMC) unofficially release full advisories. On average, three to four cyclonic storms form in this basin every season.

2019 Pacific hurricane season

The 2019 Pacific hurricane season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they will both end on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. The season had a slow start, with no tropical cyclones forming in the basin during the month of May for the first time since 2016 (though Hurricane Pali formed in January 2016), and the first time that no storms formed before the month of June since 2011. The season became the latest-starting Pacific hurricane season on record since reliable records began in 1971, with the first tropical depression forming on June 25.

2019 hurricane season

2019 hurricane season may refer to any of the following tropical cyclone seasons

2019 Atlantic hurricane season

2019 Pacific hurricane season

2019 Pacific typhoon season

2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

2018-19 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

2019-20 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

2018-19 Australian region cyclone season

2018-19 Australian region cyclone season

2018-19 South Pacific cyclone season

2019-20 South Pacific cyclone season

Japan Meteorological Agency

The Japan Meteorological Agency (気象庁, Kishō-chō), JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.

JMA is responsible for gathering and reporting weather data and forecasts for the general public, as well as providing aviation and marine weather. JMA other responsibilities include issuing warnings for volcanic eruptions, and the nationwide issuance of earthquake warnings of the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system. JMA is also designated one of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It is responsible for forecasting, naming, and distributing warnings for tropical cyclones in the Northwestern Pacific region, including the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea, the South China Sea, the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.Its U.S. Navy components are aligned with Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command.

PAGASA

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (Filipino: Pangasiwaan ng Pilipinas sa Serbisyong Atmosperiko, Heopisiko at Astronomiko, abbreviated as PAGASA [pagˈasa], which means "hope" as in the Tagalog word pag-asa) is the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHS) agency of the Republic of the Philippines mandated to provide protection against natural calamities and to insure the safety, well-being and economic security of all the people, and for the promotion of national progress by undertaking scientific and technological services in meteorology, hydrology, climatology, astronomy and other geophysical sciences. Created on December 8, 1972 by reorganizing the Weather Bureau, PAGASA now serves as one of the Scientific and Technological Services Institutes of the Department of Science and Technology.

Timeline of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

This timeline documents all events that have taken place during the 2019 Pacific typhoon season. This article is limited to the Western Pacific basin which is located north of the equator and between 100°E and the International Date Line. Systems that reach tropical storm intensity are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Tropical depressions that form within the basin are assigned a number with a "W" suffix by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). Additionally, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones (including tropical depressions) that either form in or move into its self defined area of responsibility, which runs from 135°E to 115°E and 5°N to 25°N.

Thus far, nine systems have been designated as tropical depressions by either the JMA, JTWC, or PAGASA. Two of those systems went on to be named.

Tropical Storm Pabuk (2019)

Tropical Storm Pabuk, also referred to as Cyclonic Storm Pabuk, was a weak storm that struck the Malay Peninsula in January 2019. It was also the earliest-forming storm in both the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and North Indian Ocean basins on record. Forming on the last day of 2018, Pabuk persisted into 2019, spanning two calendar years, and crossed into the North Indian Ocean basin several days later. The first tropical cyclone and named storm of the 2019 Pacific typhoon and North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons, Pabuk originated as a tropical disturbance in the South China Sea on December 28, 2018, which organized into a tropical depression on December 31. A day later, on January 1, 2019, the system intensified into a tropical storm and was named Pabuk. Pabuk made landfall in Thailand on January 4, emerging into the Bay of Bengal in the North Indian Ocean basin shortly afterward. Pabuk weakened after it entered the North Indian Ocean, eventually degenerating into a remnant low on January 7, before dissipating on the next day.

Pabuk killed a total of 10 people, and the storm caused an estimated total of US$157 million in damages. In Thailand, eight people were killed and the economic losses were estimated at about $156 million. Pabuk also caused one death each in Vietnam and Malaysia.

Tropical cyclones in 2019

Tropical cyclones in 2019 are spread out across seven different areas called basins. To date, 80 systems have formed during the year. 49 tropical cyclones have been named by either a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) or a Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC).

The deadliest tropical cyclone of the year is Intense Tropical Cyclone Idai in the South-West Indian Ocean, which killed over 1,303 people in Mozambique, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Madagascar. and the costliest tropical cyclone of the year was Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Fani in the North Indian Ocean which caused more than $8.12 billion in damages after striking Odisha, India and Bangladesh.

Tropical cyclone activity in each basin is under the authority of a RSMC. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is responsible for tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and East Pacific. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) is responsible for tropical cyclones in the Central Pacific. Both the NHC and CPHC are subdivisions of the National Weather Service. Activity in the West Pacific is monitored by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Systems in the North Indian Ocean are monitored by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). The Météo-France located in Réunion (MFR) monitors tropical activity in the South-West Indian Ocean. The Australian region is monitored by five TCWCs that are under the coordination of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM). Similarly, the South Pacific is monitored by both the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) and the Meteorological Service of New Zealand Limited. Other unofficial agencies that provide additional guidance in tropical cyclone monitoring include the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC).

Typhoon

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern (North America to 140°W), central (140°W to 180°), and western (180° to 100°E). The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii (the Joint Typhoon Warning Center), the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year. A hurricane is a gale-force tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or the northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a tropical cyclone occurs in the South Pacific or the Indian Ocean.Within the northwestern Pacific, there are no official typhoon seasons as tropical cyclones form throughout the year. Like any tropical cyclone, there are a few main requirements for typhoon formation and development: (1) sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, (2) atmospheric instability, (3) high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, (4) enough Coriolis effect to develop a low pressure center, (5) a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance, and (6) a low vertical wind shear. While the majority of storms form between June and November, a few storms do occur between December and May (although tropical cyclone formation is at a minimum during that time). On average, the northwestern Pacific features the most numerous and intense tropical cyclones globally. Like other basins, they are steered by the subtropical ridge towards the west or northwest, with some systems recurving near and east of Japan. The Philippines receive the brunt of the landfalls, with China and Japan being impacted slightly less. Some of the deadliest typhoons in history have struck China. Southern China has the longest record of typhoon impacts for the region, with a thousand-year sample via documents within their archives. Taiwan has received the wettest known typhoon on record for the northwest Pacific tropical cyclone basins.

Typhoon Koppu

Typhoon Koppu, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Lando, was a powerful and devastating tropical cyclone that struck Luzon in October 2015. It was the twenty-fourth named storm and the fifteenth typhoon of the annual typhoon season. Similar to Goni earlier in the year, Koppu originated from a tropical disturbance east of the Mariana Islands on October 10. Moving briskly west, the system consolidated into a tropical depression the following day and further into a tropical storm on October 13. Situated over the warm waters of the Philippine Sea, Koppu quickly deepened. The storm reached its peak intensity on October 17 with ten-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) according to the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The Joint Typhoon Warning Center assessed Koppu to have been a Category 4-equivalent super typhoon with one-minute sustained winds of 240 km/h (150 mph). The storm subsequently made landfall at this strength near Casiguran, Philippines. Rapid weakening ensued due to interaction with the mountainous terrain of Luzon and the disheveled core of Koppu emerged over the West Philippine Sea on October 19. Unfavorable environmental conditions inhibited reorganization and the system diminished to a tropical depression on October 21.

Prior to Koppu's landfall, PAGASA raised Public Storm Warning Signals for numerous provinces; nearly 24,000 people evacuated accordingly. The storm caused tremendous structural damage in coastal provinces, with thousands of structures damaged or destroyed. Prolonged, heavy rains—peaking at 1,077.8 mm (42.43 in) in Baguio—exacerbated the storm's effects and resulted in widespread flooding. 62 people were killed across the country and more than 100,000 others were displaced. Preliminary damage totals amount to ₱14.4 billion (US$313 million).

Typhoon Lando

The name Lando has been used in the Philippines by PAGASA in the Western Pacific. It was previously known as Lakay where it was used in 2003 Pacific typhoon season.

Tropical Depression Lakay (2003) - the originating name before it was replaced in 2007.

Typhoon Hagibis (2007) (T0724, 24W, Lando)

Tropical Depression Lando (2011)

Typhoon Koppu (2015) (T1524, 24W, Lando) - struck Philippines and the longest typhoon stayed in mainland for at least 1 week before it dissipated.After causing severe damage to the Philippines, PAGASA decided to retire the name and will no longer be used in the future. The name Liwayway was selected to replace Lando for 2019 Pacific typhoon season.

Typhoon Lekima (2019)

Typhoon Lekima, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Hanna, was the second-costliest typhoon in Chinese history, only behind Fitow in 2013. The ninth named storm of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, Lekima originated from a tropical depression that formed east of the Philippines on July 30. It gradually organized, became a tropical storm and was named on August 4. Lekima intensified under favourable environmental conditions and peaked as a Category 4–equivalent super typhoon. However, an eyewall replacement cycle caused the typhoon to weaken before it made landfall in Zhejiang late on August 9, as a Category 2–equivalent typhoon. Lekima weakened subsequently while moving across the East China, and made its second landfall in Shandong on August 11.

Lekima's precursor enhanced the southwestern monsoon in the Philippines, which brought heavy rain to the country. The rains caused three boats to sink and 31 people died in this accident. Lekima brought catastrophic damage in mainland China, with a death toll of 56 people and more than CN¥53.7 billion (US$7.6 billion) in damages. The system also caused minor damage in Ryukyu Islands and Taiwan.

Typhoon Wutip (2019)

Typhoon Wutip, known in the Philippines as Tropical Depression Betty, was the most powerful February typhoon on record, surpassing Typhoon Higos of 2015. The third tropical cyclone, second tropical storm, and the first typhoon of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, Wutip originated from a low-pressure area on February 16, 2019. The disturbance moved westward, passing just south of the Federated States of Micronesia, before later organizing into Tropical Depression 02W on February 18, 2019. On February 20, 2019, the tropical depression intensified into a tropical storm and was named Wutip, before strengthening further into a typhoon on the next day. Wutip underwent rapid intensification, and on February 23, Wutip reached its initial peak intensity, with 10-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 250 km/h (155 mph), and a minimal pressure of 925 millibars (27.3 inHg) while passing to the southwest of Guam, becoming the strongest February typhoon on record as it did so.

Wutip underwent an eyewall replacement cycle shortly afterward, which caused the storm to weaken as it turned to the northwest. Wutip finished its eyewall replacement cycle on February 24, which allowed Wutip to restrengthen, with the typhoon rapidly intensifying once again. On February 25, Wutip reached its peak intensity with 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph), and a minimum central pressure of 920 millibars (27 inHg), becoming the first Category 5-equivalent super typhoon recorded in the month of February. Afterward, Wutip weakened on February 26, due to encountering strong wind shear. Wutip rapidly weakened as it moved northwestward, before dissipating on March 2.

Wutip caused at least $3.3 million (2019 USD) in damages in Guam and Micronesia.

Typhoons in the Philippines

Approximately twenty tropical cyclones enter the Philippine area of responsibility yearly, an area which incorporates parts of the Pacific Ocean, South China Sea and the Philippine Archipelago (with the exception of Tawi-Tawi province). Among these cyclones, ten will be typhoons, with five having the potential to be destructive ones. The Philippines is "the most exposed country in the world to tropical storms" according to a Time Magazine article in 2013. In the Philippine languages, tropical cyclones are generally called bagyo.Typhoons can hit the Philippines any time of year, with the months of June to September being most active, with August being the most active individual month and May the least active. Typhoons move east to west across the country, heading north as they go. Storms most frequently make landfall on the islands of Eastern Visayas, Bicol region, and northern Luzon whereas the southern island and region of Mindanao is largely free of typhoons. Climate change is likely to worsen the situation with the extreme weather events including typhoons posing various risks and threats to the Philippines.The deadliest overall tropical cyclone to affect the Philippines is believed to have been the Haiphong typhoon which is estimated to have killed up to 20,000 people as it passed over the country in September 1881. In modern meteorological records, the deadliest storm was Typhoon Yolanda (international name Haiyan), which became the strongest landfalling tropical cyclone ever recorded as it crossed the Visayas in central Philippines on November 7–8, 2013. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 14–18, 1911 cyclone which dropped over 2,210 millimetres (87 in) of rainfall within a 3-day, 15-hour period in Baguio. Tropical cyclones usually account for at least 30 percent of the annual rainfall in the northern Philippines while being responsible for less than 10 percent of the annual rainfall in the southern islands. PAGASA Senior Weather Specialist Anthony Lucero told the newsite Rappler that the number of destructive typhoons have increased recently but it is too early to call it a trend.Tropical cyclones entering the Philippine Area of Responsibility are given a local name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), which also raises public storm signal warnings as deemed necessary.Preparation and response to typhoons is coordinated by the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC). Each Philippine province and local government in the Philippines has a corresponding Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Office (DRRMO). Each provincial and local government is required to set aside 5% of its yearly budget for disaster risk reduction, preparations, and response.The frequency of typhoons in the Philippines have made the typhoons a significant part of everyday ancient and modern Filipino culture.

Tropical cyclones of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

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