2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit

The 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit, was the thirteenth meeting of Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 30 November and 1 December 2018 in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina.[1][2] It was the first G20 summit to be hosted in South America.

2018 G20 Buenos Aires Summit
G20 2018 logo
G20 Argentina 2018
2018 G20 summit attendees
Host countryArgentina
Date30 November – 1 December 2018
CitiesBuenos Aires, Argentina
ParticipantsG20 members
Guest invitees: Chile, Jamaica, Senegal,Netherlands, Rwanda, Singapore, Spain
ChairMauricio Macri, President of Argentina
Follows2017 G20 Hamburg summit
Precedes2019 G20 Osaka summit


President Mauricio Macri of Argentina assumed the one-year G20 presidency on 30 November 2017, during an official ceremony at the Kirchner Cultural Centre in Buenos Aires. President Xi Jinping of China (2016 host), Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany (2017 host), and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe of Japan (2019 host) all sent messages of support, which were shown at the ceremony.[3]

The first G20 meetings of the Argentine Presidency began in Bariloche in early December 2017. They were attended by central bank deputy governors and deputy ministers of finance, as well as the sherpas. During the buildup to the G20 Summit between world leaders on 30 November 2018, Argentina hosted over 45 meetings at various government levels and areas in 11 different cities throughout the country.[4]

Participating leaders

List of leaders who took part in the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit:

Participating guests

Andrew Holness cropped

Andrew Holness, Prime Minister, July-December 2018 chairperson of the Caribbean Community

Paul Kagame 2014

Paul Kagame, President, 2018 chairperson of the African Union

Pedro Sánchez in 2018d

Pedro Sánchez, Prime Minister, Permanent Guest Invitee

As the host nation, Argentina invited additional guest countries and international organizations at its discretion to participate in 2018 G20 meetings. The countries invited by Argentina are Chile and the Netherlands. International organizations invited by Argentina are the Caribbean Community (represented by Jamaica), the Inter-American Development Bank, and the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF).[6]

Foto Familia (31182511747)
G20 family photo at the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires.

Most of the leaders were accompanied by their spouses.

Agenda priorities

G20 Argentina has put forth three agenda priorities for the G20 dialogue in 2018: the future of work, infrastructure for development and a sustainable food future.

A number of attending countries have said they focus on the regulation of crypto-currencies at this meeting.[7]

Talks between the U.S. and China related to resolving the escalating 2018 China–United States trade war were a central issue of the summit.


Cumbre de líderes del G20 (44348050270)
President Enrique Peña Nieto, President Donald Trump, and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau signed the USMCA agreement.

On Friday 30 November, ahead of the formal start of the summit, Presidents Peña Nieto and Trump and Prime Minister Trudeau signed the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA), a proposed replacement to the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).[8]


The Latin American Council of Social Sciences (CLACSO) and organized a counter-summit, called the First World Forum of Critical Thinking, which took place in the week leading up to the G20 event.[9] It was attended by other politicians such as former Brazilian president Dilma Rouseff, Bolivian vice president Álvaro García Linera, former Colombian president Ernesto Samper, and human rights activist Estela de Carlotto. At the event, former Argentine president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner criticised the economic policies of Mauricio Macri and the IMF loans that he has received.[10] Former Uruguayan president José Mujica was also invited, but declined to take part in the counter-summit to avoid damaging Argentina–Uruguay relations.[11]


The previous summit in Hamburg, Germany, met with huge protests, with cars set on fire and roads blocked by protesters. The 2018 summit has reinforced security, to prevent a repeat of those protests. Local left-wing organizations are planning protests and have called for foreign activists to join them.[12] The Argentine government, working alongside the others, is attempting to prevent the entry of troublemakers into the country, such as people with criminal charges or who have advocated for violent actions. Only peaceful protests will be allowed. Federal Security Minister Patricia Bullrich said that "We will not permit illegal acts. Those who want to cross the line will have to face the legal consequences".[12] 22,000 police and 700 security ministry agents will guard the event, working alongside the security services of the United States, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Italy, Spain and others. An area of 12 square kilometres (4.6 sq mi) around the Costa Salguero Convention Centre will be cordoned off, the public transportation network – including the metro – will be shut down, and traffic along the River Plate will be halted. Friday, 30 November was declared a one-time public holiday day in the city of Buenos Aires, to prevent the traffic caused by people's daily activities, and residents were urged to leave the city for the long weekend.[13] Media Minister Hernán Lombardi reported that no infiltration by international terrorist groups had been detected, and the US government said that the remote location of Argentina would discourage international protesters from travelling to the country.[12]

Two bomb attacks took place in the days before the summit. Judge Claudio Bonadío, who is investigating former president Cristina Fernández de Kirchner for embezzlement charges, was attacked in his home; his bodyguards stopped Marco Viola, who was arrested, and the bomb was dismantled by a police bomb squad. Anahi Esperanza Salcedo, who identifies as an anarchist and a radical feminist, tried to bomb the tomb of the late chief of police Ramón Lorenzo Falcón at La Recoleta Cemetery, but her bomb went off early and she was hospitalized with injuries to her hand and face. Both attacks were made with improvised explosive devices.[14] After those events, the United Kingdom government lowered its terrorism alert for Buenos Aires from "very likely" to "likely".[15]


  1. ^ "Argentina to chair the G20 in 2018". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  2. ^ "Argentina fue elegida sede del G-20 para 2018" (in Spanish). Clarín. 27 June 2016.
  3. ^ "Argentine G20 presidency gets a boost from foreign leaders". 30 November 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Argentina to host over 45 G20 meetings in 2018". 2 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  5. ^ Yong, Charissa (7 December 2017). "Argentina invites Singapore to next year's G-20 summit in Buenos Aires". The Straits Times. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  6. ^ "G20 Participants". g20.org. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  7. ^ "There's a big threat looming over bitcoin". The Independent. 26 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  8. ^ "Trump signs trade deal with Mexico and Canada". BBC News. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  9. ^ https://www.clacso.org.ar/conferencia2018/presentacion.php?s=1&idioma=en
  10. ^ "CFK: Macri merely a manager of policies imposed from abroad". Merco Press. 20 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  11. ^ "José 'Pepe' Mujica cancels BA speaking event alongside CFK, Dilma". Buenos Aires Times. 21 November 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  12. ^ a b c "G20 host Argentina's security nightmare - unrest and anarchists". Channel News Asia. 21 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  13. ^ "Argentinian government urges Buenos Aires residents to leave city for G20". The Guardian. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Buenos Aires hit by two bomb attacks". Merco Press. 15 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  15. ^ "G20: Ahora Reino Unido bajó el riesgo de alerta terrorista" [G20: the United Kingdom lowered the terrorist alert] (in Spanish). El Día. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.

External links

2018 in Argentina

The following lists events that happened in Argentina in 2018.

Argentina–Australia relations

Argentina–Australia relations refer to bilateral relations between Argentina and Australia. Both nations are members of the Cairns Group, Forum of East Asia–Latin America Cooperation, G20 and World Trade Organization.

Argentina–United Kingdom relations

Argentina–United Kingdom relations refers to foreign relations between the Republic of Argentina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 December 1823. Diplomatic relations were cut off before the Falklands War in 1982 and were reinstated in 1990. Post-war relations between the two countries improved significantly up until the mid-2000s. During the government of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, relations became increasingly tense, with both countries reasserting their claims to the Falkland Islands. In 2016, British Prime Minister David Cameron and Argentine President Mauricio Macri held a meeting where they agreed to begin a new stage of dialogue and friendship between the two countries and reaffirming the strong relationship the two countries have historically.Argentina has an embassy in London and the United Kingdom has an embassy in Buenos Aires. The current British Ambassador to Argentina is Mark Kent and the current Argentine Ambassador to the United Kingdom is Renato Carlos Sersale di Cerisano.

Both states are members of the G-20.

China–United States trade war

China and the United States are engaged in a trade war as each country continues to dispute tariffs placed on goods traded between them. US President Donald Trump had declared in his campaign to fix China's "longtime abuse of the broken international system and unfair practices". The economic disputes occurred before China's entry to the World Trade Organization but the administrations of former Presidents George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama all failed to solve the problems. In April 2018, the United States filed a request for consultation to the World Trade Organization in regard to concerns that China was violating intellectual property rights.In adding various tariffs, the U.S. administration is relying partly on Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 to prevent what it calls unfair trade practices and theft of intellectual property. This gives the president the authority to unilaterally impose fines or other penalties on a trading partner if it is deemed to be unfairly harming U.S. business interests, especially if it violated international trade agreements. In August 2017, the U.S. opened a formal investigation into attacks on the intellectual property of the U.S. and its allies, which cost the U.S. alone an estimated $225–600 billion a year in losses. In 2018, regardless of tariffs imposed by the Trump administration, China's annual trade surplus reached a record of $323.32 billion. As a rebuttal against United States trade pressure; on September 24, 2018, China issued a white paper on the facts of Sino-U.S. economic and trade friction and China's position. On December 14, China's State Council Tariff Tax Committee decided to suspend the imposition of tariffs on automobiles and parts originating in the United States for three months from January 1, 2019, involving 211 tax items.

The result is that the U.S. claims Chinese laws undermine intellectual property rights by forcing foreign companies to engage in joint ventures with Chinese companies, which then gives the Chinese companies access and permission to use, improve, copy or steal their technologies. The U.S. also raises concerns that China fails to recognize legitimate patents and copyrights, and discriminates against foreign imported technology, and that China has instituted numerous non-tariff barriers which have insulated sectors of the Chinese economy from international competition. Thus, the trade war is seen as largely focused on intellectual property in China, especially regarding technology.

However, China explains it has strengthened IPR protections and that the U.S. has ignored this; that the U.S. has ignored WTO rules and ignored the calls of its own industries to reduce tariffs. China firmly opposes these U.S. trade practices, believing they represent "unilateralism" and "protectionism".

Drone Dome

Drone Dome is a counter unmanned air system (C-UAS) anti-aircraft system developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. The system has been used by British and US special forces during their fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. It was first displayed in 2016, and joins similar protection systems developed by Rafael such as the Iron Dome. The Drone Dome hosts different sensors including a RADA Electronic Industries RPS-42 radar, a CONTROP Precision Technologies imaging system, and radio signal detectors.Six systems were purchased for £15.8 million by the British Army, without the UAS-destroying laser component, in August 2018. It was thought to have been used during the disruption at Gatwick Airport during December 2018.

The system was reported to have been deployed in Argentina during the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit and the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics in Buenos Aires.

Economic policy of Donald Trump

The economic policies of Donald Trump, which were outlined in his campaign pledges, include trade protectionism, immigration reduction, individual and corporate tax reform, the dismantling of the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare").Bills to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare") did not pass Congress in mid-2017. However, Trump's tax reform plan was signed into law in December 2017, which included substantial tax cuts for higher income taxpayers and corporations as well as repeal of a key Obamacare element, the individual mandate. The Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) reported that the new tax law would slightly increase the size of the economy (level of GDP, not growth rate) by 0.7% total over a decade. The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimated in April 2018 that implementing the Tax Act would add an estimated $2.289 trillion to the national debt over ten years, or about $1.891 trillion ($15,000 per household) after taking into account macroeconomic feedback effects, in addition to the $9.8 trillion increase forecast under the current policy baseline and existing $20 trillion national debt. Debt held by the public as a percentage of GDP would rise from around 77% GDP in 2017 to as much as 105% GDP by 2028.The CBO reported that lower-income groups would incur net costs under the tax plan, either paying higher taxes or receiving fewer government benefits: those under $20,000 by 2019; those under $40,000 from 2021–2025; and those under $75,000 in 2027 and beyond. Up to 13 million fewer persons would be covered by health insurance relative to prior law, due to repealing the individual mandate to have health insurance. As a result, critics argued the tax bill unfairly benefited higher-income taxpayers and corporations at the expense of lower-income taxpayers, and therefore would significantly increase income inequality.President Trump's 2017 economic results were mixed, with some variables improving and others worsening relative to recent years. Real gross domestic product, a measure of both production and income, grew by 2.3% in 2017, vs. 1.5% in 2016 and 2.9% in 2015. Job creation averaged 182,000/month in 2017, which was the lowest level since 2013. The unemployment rate declined for the eighth straight year and labor force participation among prime-aged workers (age 25–54) increased for the fourth straight year. The average real working-class hourly wage grew at the slowest pace since 2012. The budget deficit increased from $587 billion in 2016 to $665 billion in 2017, an increase of $78 billion or 12%, the highest level since 2013. The trade deficit increased 12.6% in calendar year 2017, resulting in the largest trade gap since 2008. The Census Bureau reported that the number of uninsured persons rose from 27.3 million in 2016 to 28.0 million in 2017. The uninsured rate rose from 8.6% in 2016 to 8.7% in 2017. This was the first increase in the number and rate of uninsured since 2010. After-tax corporate profits declined 6.0% in 2017. Following four consecutive years of declines, gasoline prices increased in 2017.One July 2018 study indicated Trump's policies have had little impact on the U.S. economy in terms of GDP or employment. For example, more jobs were created in President Obama's last 24 months (5.09 million) than in President Trump's first 24 months (4.88 million), through January 2019. However, the fiscal year 2018 budget deficit was up $117 billion or 18% vs. 2017, and the debt additions projected by CBO for the 2018-2027 period have increased from the $9.4 trillion that Trump inherited from Obama (January 2017 CBO baseline) to $13.7 trillion (CBO current policy baseline), a $4.3 trillion or 46% increase. Gallup estimated that the number of persons without health insurance increased by about 7 million from Q4 2016 to Q4 2018, due primarily to Trump's policies.Analysis conducted by Bloomberg News at the end of Trump's second year in office found that his economy ranked sixth among the last seven presidents, based on fourteen metrics of economic activity and financial performance.

Enlargement of the Eurasian Economic Union

The future enlargement of the Eurasian Economic Union is theoretically open to any of the Post-Soviet states and potentially any country of Europe or Asia. In order to accede, a state must fulfill certain economic and political requirements. Enlargement of the Union is also subject to the consent of all existing members and the candidate's adoption of existing EEU laws and implementing previous decisions made by the Eurasian Economic Commission. The present agenda of the enlargement of the Eurasian Economic Union is primarily focused on Tajikistan. Meanwhile, Moldova was granted Observer Status in April 2017. The process of enlargement is referred to as Eurasian integration or Eurasianism. This term is also used to refer to the intensification of economic cooperation between Eurasian Economic Union member states.

Global Citizen Festival

The Global Citizen Festival is an annual music festival started in 2012 and organized by Global Poverty Project. In 2015, the organization announced that Coldplay lead vocalist Chris Martin would serve as the festival's curator for the next 15 years. It was founded by Ryan Gall and Hugh Evans. Gall said he was inspired by visiting Austin City Limits and seeing the branding on the stage, but replace corporate branding with branding from charities.

Joan Cwaik

Joan Cwaik (Buenos Aires, June 19, 1990) is an Argentinian entrepreneur, speaker, technology communicator and technologist. He is the Global Creativity and Customer Engagement Director of Maytronics Ltd., an Israeli company which develops robotic pool cleaners. He also coordinates the Technologic Communication Center of UADE Foundation, which belongs to Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (Argentine University of Enterprise).

Kang Hui

Kang Hui (simplified Chinese: 康辉; traditional Chinese: 康輝; pinyin: Kāng Huī; born 17 January 1972) is a Chinese news anchor for China Central Television, the main state announcer of China. He is now the President of the Broadcast, China Central Television.

He won the Golden Mike Award in 2008.

He is known all over China as an announcer for the 7:00 pm CCTV News program Xinwen Lianbo, which has reach all over China on various networks and internationally, is one of the most watched news programs in the world.

Kerch Strait incident

An international incident occurred on 25 November 2018 when the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) coast guard fired upon and captured three Ukrainian Navy vessels attempting to pass from the Black Sea into the Sea of Azov through the Kerch Strait on their way to the port of Mariupol. In 2014, Russia had annexed the nearby Crimean Peninsula, which is dominantly internationally recognised as Ukrainian territory. It later constructed the Crimean Bridge across the strait. Under a 2003 treaty, the strait and the Azov Sea are intended to be the shared territorial waters of both countries, and freely accessible.As the flotilla, which consisted of two gunboats and a tugboat, approached the Kerch Strait, the Russian coast guard said they repeatedly asked the Ukrainian vessels to leave what they referred to as "Russian territorial waters". They said that the vessels had not followed the formal procedure for passage through the strait, that the Ukrainian ships had been manoeuvring dangerously, and that they were not responding to radio communications. Ukraine said that it had given advance notice to the Russians that the vessels would be moving through the strait, that the ships had made radio contact with the Russians, but received no response, and cited the 2003 treaty against the assertion that the ships had entered Russian territorial waters. The Russians tried to halt the Ukrainian ships, but they continued moving in the direction of the bridge. As they neared the bridge, the Russians authorities placed a large cargo ship under it, blocking their passage into the Azov Sea. The Ukrainian ships remained moored in the strait for eight hours, before turning back to return to port in Odessa. The Russian coast guard pursued them as they left the area, and later fired upon and seized the vessels in international waters off the coast of Crimea. Three Ukrainian crew members were injured in the clash, and all twenty-four Ukrainian sailors from the captured ships were detained by Russia.The Ukrainian government characterised the incident as a potential precursor to a Russian invasion, and declared martial law along the border with Russia and in Black Sea coastal areas, which expired on 26 December 2018. The incident took place a few days before the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit. Western leaders referred to it when they spoke of sanctions against Russia.

List of international presidential trips made by Donald Trump

This is a list of international presidential trips made by Donald Trump, the 45th president of the United States. Donald Trump has made eleven international trips to 20 countries (and also the West Bank) since he assumed office on January 20, 2017. The number of visits per country where he traveled are:

One visit to: Argentina, Canada, China, Finland, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Vatican City.

Two visits to: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Vietnam.

List of official trips made by Giuseppe Conte

This is a list of official trips made by Giuseppe Conte, who is serving as the 58th and current Prime Minister of Italy since 1 June 2018.

List of presidential trips made by Emmanuel Macron

This is a list of presidential trips made by Emmanuel Macron as the 25th President of France.

This list excludes trips made within Paris, the French capital in which the Élysée Palace, the official residence and principal workplace of the President, is located and Le Touquet, the location of Macron's house. International trips are included. The number of visits per country and department where he travelled are:

Domestic trips:

One visit to Alpes-Maritimes, Corrèze, Ille-et-Vilaine, Finistère, Guadeloupe, Guyane, Haute-Garonne, Haute-Savoie, Haute-Vienne, Hautes-Alpes, Hautes-Pyrénées, Haut-Rhin, Loir-et-Cher, Loire-Atlantique, Loiret, Lyon Metropolis, Morbihan, Moselle, Pas-de-Calais, Puy-de-Dôme, Saint-Barthélémy, Saint-Martin, Savoie, Somme, Val-de-Marne and Var.

Two visits to Bas-Rhin, Hauts-de-Seine, Nord and Seine-Maritime.

Three visits to Bouches-du-Rhône.

Six visits to Seine-Saint-Denis.

Eight visits to Yvelines.

International trips:

One visit to Algeria, Austria, Australia, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Estonia, Ghana, Greece, Luxembourg, Niger, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sweden, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom.

Two visits to Morocco, Mali, Switzerland and the United States.

Three visits to Italy.

Five visits to Germany.

Six visits to Belgium.

List of presidential trips made by Sebastián Piñera

This is a list of international trips made by Chilean President Sebastián Piñera in his second mandate.

Presidency of Donald Trump

The presidency of Donald Trump began at noon EST on January 20, 2017, when Donald Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States, succeeding Barack Obama. A Republican, Trump was a businessman and reality television personality from New York City at the time of his 2016 presidential election victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton. While Trump lost the popular vote by nearly 3 million votes, he won the Electoral College vote, 304 to 227, in a presidential contest that American intelligence agencies believe was targeted by a Russian sabotage campaign. Trump has made many false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. The statements have been documented by fact-checkers, and political scientists and historians have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in modern American politics.

Trump repealed environmental protections intended to address anthropogenic climate change. He ended the Clean Power Plan, withdrew from the Paris Agreement on climate change mitigation, and urged for subsidies to increase fossil fuel production, calling man-made climate change a hoax. Trump failed in his efforts to repeal the Affordable Care Act, but signed legislation eliminating the individual mandate provision. He enacted a partial repeal of the Dodd-Frank Act that had previously imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis and withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which lowered corporate and estate taxes, and most individual income tax rates on a temporary basis.

Trump's interventionist and unilateralist foreign policy drew the United States closer to Saudi Arabia and Israel. He agreed to sell 110 billion dollars of arms to Saudi Arabia, recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, withdrew the United States from the Iran Deal, and issued a controversial executive order denying entry into the U.S. to citizens from several Muslim-majority countries. Trump’s demand for federal funding of a U.S.–Mexico border wall resulted in the 2018–2019 government shutdown (the longest in American history) and followed with Trump's declaration of a national emergency regarding the U.S. southern border. He ended the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. Trump also appointed Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court.

After Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey in 2017, a special counsel was appointed to take over an existing FBI investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 elections and related matters, including coordination or links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government. Of Trump campaign advisors and staff, 6 were indicted and 5 of these pled guilty to criminal charges brought in the Special Counsel investigation. Trump has repeatedly denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, and criticized people or groups related to the investigation over 1,000 times, which included calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". According to Trump appointed Attorney General William Barr's summary of the report presented to Congress, the report found no evidence that Donald Trump or members of his campaign "conspired or coordinated" with Russia, although Russia did attempt to influence the 2016 election in Trump's favor. Also according to Barr, the report did not conclude that Trump criminally obstructed justice, nor did it exonerate him.Trump has had a stable, highly polarized approval rating hovering in the high-30s to mid-40s throughout his presidency.

Theresa May

Theresa Mary May (; née Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016. She served as Home Secretary from 2010 to 2016. May was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Maidenhead in 1997. Ideologically, she identifies herself as a one-nation conservative.May grew up in Oxfordshire and attended St Hugh's College, Oxford. After graduating in 1977, she worked for the Bank of England. She also served as a councillor for Durnsford in Merton. After unsuccessful attempts to be elected to the House of Commons she was elected as the MP for Maidenhead in the 1997 general election. From 1999 to 2010, May held a number of roles in Shadow Cabinets. She was also Chairwoman of the Conservative Party from 2002 to 2003.

When the coalition government was formed after the 2010 general election, May was appointed Home Secretary and Minister for Women and Equalities, but gave up the latter role in 2012. She continued to serve as home secretary after the Conservative victory in the 2015 general election, and became the longest-serving home secretary in over 60 years. During her tenure she pursued reform of the Police Federation, implemented a harder line on drugs policy including the banning of khat, oversaw the introduction of elected Police and Crime Commissioners, the deportation of Abu Qatada, and the creation of the National Crime Agency, and brought in additional restrictions on immigration.In July 2016, after David Cameron resigned, May was elected as Conservative Party Leader, becoming Britain's second female Prime Minister after Margaret Thatcher. As Prime Minister, May began the process of withdrawing the UK from the European Union, triggering Article 50 in March 2017. The following month, she announced a snap general election, with the aim of strengthening her hand in Brexit negotiations. This resulted in a hung parliament, in which the number of Conservative seats fell from 330 to 317, despite the party winning their highest vote share since 1983. The loss of an overall majority prompted her to enter a confidence and supply arrangement with the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) to support a minority government.

May survived a vote of no confidence from her own MPs in December 2018 and a Parliamentary vote of no confidence in January 2019. May has said that she will not lead her party in the next general election scheduled for 2022 under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act, but has not ruled out leading it into a snap election. May carried out the Brexit negotiations with the European Union, adhering to the Chequers Agreement, which resulted in the draft Withdrawal Agreement between the UK and the EU. This agreement was defeated by Parliament in January 2019, and negotiations continue to try and reach a deal. May’s revised deal was defeated in Parliament by 391 votes to 242.

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