The 2018 FIFA World Cup was the 21st FIFA World Cup, an international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA once every four years. It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July 2018. It was the first World Cup to be held in Eastern Europe, and the 11th time that it had been held in Europe. At an estimated cost of over $14.2 billion, it was the most expensive World Cup. It was also the first World Cup to use the video assistant referee (VAR) system.
The finals involved 32 teams, of which 31 came through qualifying competitions, while the host nation qualified automatically. Of the 32 teams, 20 had also appeared in the previous tournament in 2014, while both Iceland and Panama made their first appearances at a FIFA World Cup. A total of 64 matches were played in 12 venues across 11 cities.
Germany were the defending champions, but were eliminated in the group stage.
The final took place on 15 July at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, between France and Croatia. France won the match 4–2 to claim their second World Cup title, marking the fourth consecutive title won by a European team.
|2018 FIFA World Cup|
|Чемпионат мира по футболу FIFA 2018|
Chempionat mira po futbolu FIFA 2018
2018 елгы дөнья футбол чемпионаты
2018 FIFA World Cup official logo
|Dates||14 June – 15 July|
|Teams||32 (from 5 confederations)|
|Venue(s)||12 (in 11 host cities)|
|Champions||France (2nd title)|
|Goals scored||169 (2.64 per match)|
|Attendance||3,031,768 (47,371 per match)|
|Top scorer(s)||Harry Kane (6 goals)|
|Best player(s)||Luka Modrić|
|Best young player||Kylian Mbappé|
|Best goalkeeper||Thibaut Courtois|
|Fair play award||Spain|
The bidding procedure to host the 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup tournaments began in January 2009, and national associations had until 2 February 2009 to register their interest. Initially, nine countries placed bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, but Mexico later withdrew from proceedings, and Indonesia's bid was rejected by FIFA in February 2010 after the Indonesian government failed to submit a letter to support the bid. During the bidding process, the three remaining non-UEFA nations (Australia, Japan, and the United States) gradually withdrew from the 2018 bids, and the UEFA nations were thus ruled out of the 2022 bid. As such, there were eventually four bids for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, two of which were joint bids: England, Russia, Netherlands/Belgium, and Portugal/Spain.
The 22-member FIFA Executive Committee convened in Zürich on 2 December 2010 to vote to select the hosts of both tournaments. Russia won the right to be the 2018 host in the second round of voting. The Portugal/Spain bid came second, and that from Belgium/Netherlands third. England, which was bidding to host its second tournament, was eliminated in the first round.
The voting results were as follows:
|Round 1||Round 2|
|Portugal / Spain||7||7|
|Belgium / Netherlands||4||2|
The English Football Association and others raised concerns of bribery on the part of the Russian team and corruption from FIFA members. They claimed that four members of the executive committee had requested bribes to vote for England, and Sepp Blatter had said that it had already been arranged before the vote that Russia would win. The 2014 Garcia Report, an internal investigation led by Michael J. Garcia, was withheld from public release by Hans-Joachim Eckert, FIFA's head of adjudication on ethical matters. Eckert instead released a shorter revised summary, and his (and therefore FIFA's) reluctance to publish the full report caused Garcia to resign in protest. Because of the controversy, the FA refused to accept Eckert's absolving of Russia from blame, with Greg Dyke calling for a re-examination of the affair and David Bernstein calling for a boycott of the World Cup.
For the first time in the history of the FIFA World Cup, all eligible nations – the 209 FIFA member associations minus automatically qualified hosts Russia – applied to enter the qualifying process. Zimbabwe and Indonesia were later disqualified before playing their first matches, while Gibraltar and Kosovo, who joined FIFA on 13 May 2016 after the qualifying draw but before European qualifying had begun, also entered the competition. Places in the tournament were allocated to continental confederations, with the allocation unchanged from the 2014 World Cup. The first qualification game, between Timor-Leste and Mongolia, began in Dili on 12 March 2015 as part of the AFC's qualification, and the main qualifying draw took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg, on 25 July 2015.
Of the 32 nations qualified to play at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, 20 countries competed at the previous tournament in 2014. Both Iceland and Panama qualified for the first time, with the former becoming the smallest country in terms of population to reach the World Cup. Other teams returning after absences of at least three tournaments include: Egypt, returning to the finals after their last appearance in 1990; Morocco, who last competed in 1998; Peru, returning after 1982; and Senegal, competing for the second time after reaching the quarter-finals in 2002. It is the first time three Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland and Sweden) and four Arab nations (Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia) have qualified for the World Cup.
Notable countries that failed to qualify include four-time champions Italy (for the first time since 1958), three-time runners-up and third placed in 2014 the Netherlands (for the first time since 2002), and four reigning continental champions: 2017 Africa Cup of Nations winners Cameroon, two-time Copa América champions and 2017 Confederations Cup runners-up Chile, 2016 OFC Nations Cup winners New Zealand, and 2017 CONCACAF Gold Cup champions United States (for the first time since 1986). The other notable qualifying streaks broken were for Ghana and Ivory Coast, who had both made the previous three tournaments.
For the draw, the teams were allocated to four pots based on the FIFA World Rankings of October 2017. Pot 1 contained the hosts Russia (who were automatically assigned to position A1) and the best seven teams, pot 2 contained the next best eight teams, and so on for pots 3 and 4. This was different from previous draws, when only pot 1 was based on FIFA rankings while the remaining pots were based on geographical considerations. However, teams from the same confederation still were not drawn against each other for the group stage, except that two UEFA teams could be in each group.
|Pot 1||Pot 2||Pot 3||Pot 4|
Initially, each team had to name a preliminary squad of 30 players but, in February 2018, this was increased to 35. From the preliminary squad, the team had to name a final squad of 23 players (three of whom must be goalkeepers) by 4 June. Players in the final squad may be replaced for serious injury up to 24 hours prior to kickoff of the team's first match and such replacements do not need to have been named in the preliminary squad.
For players named in the 35-player preliminary squad, there was a mandatory rest period between 21 and 27 May 2018, except for those involved in the 2018 UEFA Champions League Final played on 26 May.
On 29 March 2018, FIFA released the list of 36 referees and 63 assistant referees selected to oversee matches. On 30 April 2018, FIFA released the list of 13 video assistant referees, who solely acted in this capacity in the tournament.
Referee Fahad Al-Mirdasi of Saudi Arabia was removed in 30 May 2018 over a match-fixing attempt, along with his two assistant referees, compatriots Mohammed Al-Abakry and Abdulah Al-Shalwai. A new referee was not appointed, but two assistant referees, Hasan Al Mahri of the United Arab Emirates and Hiroshi Yamauchi of Japan, were added to the list. Assistant referee Marwa Range of Kenya also withdrew after the BBC released an investigation conducted by a Ghanaian journalist which implicated Marwa in a bribery scandal.
Shortly after the International Football Association Board's decision to incorporate video assistant referees (VARs) into the Laws of the Game, on 16 March 2018, the FIFA Council took the much-anticipated step of approving the use of VAR for the first time in a FIFA World Cup tournament.
VAR operations for all games are operating from a single headquarters in Moscow, which receives live video of the games and are in radio contact with the on-field referees. Systems are in place for communicating VAR-related information to broadcasters and visuals on stadiums' large screens are used for the fans in attendance.
VAR had a significant impact in several games. On 15 June 2018, Diego Costa's goal against Portugal became the first World Cup goal based on a VAR decision; the first penalty as a result of a VAR decision was awarded to France in their match against Australia on 16 June and resulted in a goal by Antoine Griezmann. A record number of penalties were awarded in the tournament, with this phenomenon being partially attributed to VAR. Overall, the new technology has been both praised and criticised by commentators. FIFA declared the implementation of VAR a success after the first week of competition.
Russia proposed the following host cities: Kaliningrad, Kazan, Krasnodar, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Samara, Saransk, Sochi, Volgograd, Yaroslavl, and Yekaterinburg. Most cities are in European Russia, while Yekaterinburg is very close to the Europe-Asia border, to reduce travel time for the teams in the huge country. The bid evaluation report stated: "The Russian bid proposes 13 host cities and 16 stadiums, thus exceeding FIFA's minimum requirement. Three of the 16 stadiums would be renovated, and 13 would be newly constructed."
In October 2011, Russia decreased the number of stadiums from 16 to 14. Construction of the proposed Podolsk stadium in the Moscow region was cancelled by the regional government, and also in the capital, Otkrytiye Arena was competing with Dynamo Stadium over which would be constructed first.
The final choice of host cities was announced on 29 September 2012. The number of cities was further reduced to 11 and number of stadiums to 12 as Krasnodar and Yaroslavl were dropped from the final list. Of the 12 stadiums used for the tournament, 3 (Luzhniki, Yekaterinburg and Sochi) have been extensively renovated and the other 9 stadiums to be used are brand new; $11.8 billion has been spent on hosting the tournament.
Sepp Blatter stated in July 2014 that, given the concerns over the completion of venues in Russia, the number of venues for the tournament may be reduced from 12 to 10. He also said, "We are not going to be in a situation, as is the case of one, two or even three stadiums in South Africa, where it is a problem of what you do with these stadiums".
In October 2014, on their first official visit to Russia, FIFA's inspection committee and its head Chris Unger visited St Petersburg, Sochi, Kazan and both Moscow venues. They were satisfied with the progress.
On 8 October 2015, FIFA and the Local Organising Committee agreed on the official names of the stadiums used during the tournament.
Of the twelve venues used, the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow and the Saint Petersburg Stadium – the two largest stadiums in Russia – were used most, both hosting seven matches. Sochi, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara all hosted six matches, including one quarter-final match each, while the Otkrytiye Stadium in Moscow and Rostov-on-Don hosted five matches, including one round-of-16 match each. Volgograd, Kaliningrad, Yekaterinburg and Saransk all hosted four matches, but did not host any knockout stage games.
Twelve stadiums in eleven Russian cities were built and renovated for the FIFA World Cup.
|Luzhniki Stadium||Otkritie Arena
(Saint Petersburg Stadium)
|Fisht Olympic Stadium|
|Capacity: 78,011||Capacity: 44,190||Capacity: 64,468||Capacity: 44,287|
|Volgograd Arena||Rostov Arena|
|Capacity: 43,713||Capacity: 43,472|
|Nizhny Novgorod Stadium||Kazan Arena|
|Capacity: 43,319||Capacity: 42,873|
|Samara Arena||Mordovia Arena||Kaliningrad Stadium||Central Stadium|
|Capacity: 41,970||Capacity: 41,685||Capacity: 33,973||Capacity: 33,061|
Base camps were used by the 32 national squads to stay and train before and during the World Cup tournament. On 9 February 2018, FIFA announced the base camps for each participating team.
The Russian government had originally earmarked a budget of around $20 billion which was later slashed to $10 billion for the preparations of the World Cup, of which half is spent on transport infrastructure. As part of the program for preparation to the 2018 FIFA World Cup, a federal sub-program "Construction and Renovation of Transport Infrastructure" was implemented with a total budget of 352.5 billion rubles, with 170.3 billion coming from the federal budget, 35.1 billion from regional budgets, and 147.1 billion from investors. The biggest item of federal spending was the aviation infrastructure (117.8 billion rubles). Construction of new hotels was a crucial area of infrastructure development in the World Cup host cities. Costs continued to balloon as preparations were underway.
Platov International Airport in Rostov-on-Don was upgraded with automated air traffic control systems, modern surveillance, navigation, communication, control, and meteorological support systems. Koltsovo Airport in Yekaterinburg was upgraded with radio-engineering tools for flight operation and received its second runway strip. Saransk Airport received a new navigation system; the city also got two new hotels, Mercure Saransk Centre (Accor Hotels) and Four Points by Sheraton Saransk (Starwood Hotels) as well as few other smaller accommodation facilities. In Samara, new tram lines were laid. Khrabrovo Airport in Kaliningrad was upgraded with radio navigation and weather equipment. Renovation and upgrade of radio-engineering tools for flight operation was completed in the airports of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Volgograd, Samara, Yekaterinburg, Kazan and Sochi. On 27 March, the Ministry of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector of Russia reported that all communications within its area of responsibility have been commissioned. The last facility commissioned was a waste treatment station in Volgograd. In Yekaterinburg, where four matches are hosted, hosting costs increased to over 7.4 billion rubles, over-running the 5.6 billion rubles originally allocated from the state and regional budget.
Volunteer applications to the Russia 2018 Local Organising Committee opened on 1 June 2016. The 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia Volunteer Program received about 177,000 applications, and engaged a total of 35,000 volunteers. They received training at 15 Volunteer Centres of the Local Organising Committee based in 15 universities, and in Volunteer Centres in the host cities. Preference, especially in the key areas, was given to those with knowledge of foreign languages and volunteering experience, but not necessarily to Russian nationals.
Free public transport services were offered for ticketholders during the World Cup, including additional trains linking between host cities, as well as services such as bus service within them.
The full schedule was announced by FIFA on 24 July 2015 (without kick-off times, which were confirmed later). On 1 December 2017, following the final draw, six kick-off times were adjusted by FIFA.
Russia was placed in position A1 in the group stage and played in the opening match at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow on 14 June against Saudi Arabia, the two lowest-ranked teams of the tournament at the time of the final draw. The Luzhniki Stadium also hosted the second semi-final on 11 July and the final on 15 July. The Krestovsky Stadium in Saint Petersburg hosted the first semi-final on 10 July and the third place play-off on 14 July.
At the start of the ceremony, Russian president Vladimir Putin gave a speech, welcoming the countries of the world to Russia and calling football a uniting force. Brazilian World Cup-winning striker Ronaldo entered the stadium with a child in a Russia shirt. Pop singer Robbie Williams then sang two of his songs solo before he and Russian soprano Aida Garifullina performed a duet. Dancers dressed in the flags of the 32 competing teams appeared carrying a sign with the name of each nation. At the end of the ceremony Ronaldo reappeared with the official match ball which had returned from the International Space Station in early June.
Competing countries were divided into eight groups of four teams (groups A to H). Teams in each group played one another in a round-robin basis, with the top two teams of each group advancing to the knockout stage. Ten European teams and four South American teams progressed to the knockout stage, together with Japan and Mexico.
For the first time since 1938, Germany (reigning champions) did not advance past the first round. For the first time since 1982, no African team progressed to the second round. For the first time, the fair play criteria came into use, when Japan qualified over Senegal due to having received fewer yellow cards. Only one match, France v Denmark, was goalless. Until then there were a record 36 straight games in which at least one goal was scored.
|1||Uruguay||3||3||0||0||5||0||+5||9||Advance to knockout stage|
|1||Spain||3||1||2||0||6||5||+1||5||Advance to knockout stage|
|1||France||3||2||1||0||3||1||+2||7||Advance to knockout stage|
|1||Croatia||3||3||0||0||7||1||+6||9||Advance to knockout stage|
|1||Brazil||3||2||1||0||5||1||+4||7||Advance to knockout stage|
|1||Sweden||3||2||0||1||5||2||+3||6||Advance to knockout stage|
|1||Belgium||3||3||0||0||9||2||+7||9||Advance to knockout stage|
|1||Colombia||3||2||0||1||5||2||+3||6||Advance to knockout stage|
In the knockout stages, if a match is level at the end of normal playing time, extra time is played (two periods of 15 minutes each) and followed, if necessary, by a penalty shoot-out to determine the winners.
If a match went into extra time, each team was allowed to make a fourth substitution, the first time this had been allowed in a FIFA World Cup tournament.
|Round of 16||Quarter-finals||Semi-finals||Final|
|30 June – Sochi|
|6 July – Nizhny Novgorod|
|30 June – Kazan|
|10 July – Saint Petersburg|
|2 July – Samara|
|6 July – Kazan|
|2 July – Rostov-on-Don|
|15 July – Moscow (Luzhniki)|
|1 July – Moscow (Luzhniki)|
|7 July – Sochi|
|Russia (p)||1 (4)|
|1 July – Nizhny Novgorod|
|Croatia (p)||2 (4)|
|Croatia (p)||1 (3)|
|11 July – Moscow (Luzhniki)|
|3 July – Saint Petersburg|
|England||1||Third place play-off|
|7 July – Samara||14 July – Saint Petersburg|
|3 July – Moscow (Otkritie)|
|England (p)||1 (4)|
There were 169 goals scored in 64 matches, for an average of 2.64 goals per match.
1 own goal
In total, only four players were sent off in the entire tournament, the fewest since 1978. International Football Association Board technical director David Elleray stated a belief that this was due to the introduction of VAR, since players would know that they would not be able to get away with anything under the new system.
A player is automatically suspended for the next match for the following offences:
The following suspensions were served during the tournament:
|Carlos Sánchez||in Group H vs Japan (matchday 1; 19 June)||Group H vs Poland (matchday 2; 24 June)|
|Yussuf Poulsen|| in Group C vs Peru (matchday 1; 16 June)
in Group C vs Australia (matchday 2; 21 June)
|Group C vs France (matchday 3; 26 June)|
|Jérôme Boateng||in Group F vs Sweden (matchday 2; 23 June)||Group F vs South Korea (matchday 3; 27 June)|
|Armando Cooper|| in Group G vs Belgium (matchday 1; 18 June)
in Group G vs England (matchday 2; 24 June)
|Group G vs Tunisia (matchday 3; 28 June)|
|Michael Amir Murillo|| in Group G vs Belgium (matchday 1; 18 June)
in Group G vs England (matchday 2; 24 June)
|Group G vs Tunisia (matchday 3; 28 June)|
|Igor Smolnikov||in Group A vs Uruguay (matchday 3; 25 June)||Round of 16 vs Spain (1 July)|
|Sebastian Larsson|| in Group F vs Germany (matchday 2; 23 June)
in Group F vs Mexico (matchday 3; 27 June)
|Round of 16 vs Switzerland (3 July)|
|Héctor Moreno|| in Group F vs Germany (matchday 1; 17 June)
in Group F vs Sweden (matchday 3; 27 June)
|Round of 16 vs Brazil (2 July)|
|Stephan Lichtsteiner|| in Group E vs Brazil (matchday 1; 17 June)
in Group E vs Costa Rica (matchday 3; 27 June)
|Round of 16 vs Sweden (3 July)|
|Fabian Schär|| in Group E vs Brazil (matchday 1; 17 June)
in Group E vs Costa Rica (matchday 3; 27 June)
|Round of 16 vs Sweden (3 July)|
|Blaise Matuidi|| in Group C vs Peru (matchday 2; 21 June)
in Round of 16 vs Argentina (30 June)
|Quarter-finals vs Uruguay (6 July)|
|Casemiro|| in Group E vs Switzerland (matchday 1; 17 June)
in Round of 16 vs Mexico (2 July)
|Quarter-finals vs Belgium (6 July)|
|Mikael Lustig|| in Group F vs Mexico (matchday 3; 27 June)
in Round of 16 vs Switzerland (3 July)
|Quarter-finals vs England (7 July)|
|Michael Lang||in Round of 16 vs Sweden (3 July)||Suspension served outside tournament|
|Thomas Meunier|| in Group G vs Panama (matchday 1; 18 June)
in Quarter-finals vs Brazil (6 July)
|Semi-finals vs France (10 July)|
The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament. The Golden Boot (top scorer), Golden Ball (best overall player) and Golden Glove (best goalkeeper) awards were all sponsored by Adidas.
|Golden Ball||Silver Ball||Bronze Ball|
|Luka Modrić||Eden Hazard||Antoine Griezmann|
|Golden Boot||Silver Boot||Bronze Boot|
| Harry Kane
(6 goals, 0 assists)
| Antoine Griezmann
(4 goals, 2 assists)
| Romelu Lukaku|
(4 goals, 1 assist)
|Best Young Player|
|FIFA Fair Play Award|
|Goal of the Tournament|
|Benjamin Pavard||Argentina||2–2||Round of 16|
|Thibaut Courtois|| Marcelo
| Kevin De Bruyne
| Harry Kane|
FIFA also published an alternate team of the tournament based on player performances evaluated through statistical data.
|Thibaut Courtois|| Andreas Granqvist
| Denis Cheryshev
| Harry Kane|
Prize money amounts were announced in October 2017.
|Position||Amount (million USD)|
|5th–8th place (quarter-finals)||16||64|
|9th–16th place (round of 16)||12||96|
|17th–32nd place (group stage)||8||128|
The tournament logo was unveiled on 28 October 2014 by cosmonauts at the International Space Station and then projected onto Moscow's Bolshoi Theatre during an evening television programme. Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said that the logo was inspired by "Russia's rich artistic tradition and its history of bold achievement and innovation", and FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that it reflected the "heart and soul" of the country. For the branding, Portuguese design agency Brandia Central created materials in 2014, with a typeface called Dusha (from душа, Russian for soul) designed by Brandia Central and edited by Adotbelow of DSType Foundry in Portugal.
The official mascot for the tournament was unveiled 21 October 2016, and selected through a design competition among university students. A public vote was used to select from three finalists—a cat, a tiger, and a wolf. The winner, with 53% of approximately 1 million votes, was Zabivaka—an anthropomorphic wolf dressed in the colours of the Russian national team. Zabivaka's name is a portmanteau of the Russian words забияка ("hothead") and забивать ("to score"), and his official backstory states that he is an aspiring football player who is "charming, confident and social".
The general visa policy of Russia did not apply to participants and spectators, who were able to visit Russia without a visa right before and during the competition regardless of their citizenship. Spectators were nonetheless required to register for a "Fan-ID", a special photo identification pass. A Fan-ID was required to enter the country visa-free, while a ticket, Fan-ID and a valid passport were required to enter stadiums for matches. Fan-IDs also granted World Cup attendees free access to public transport services, including buses, and train service between host cities. Fan-ID was administered by the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media, who could revoke these accreditations at any time to "ensure the defence capability or security of the state or public order".
The official match ball, the "Telstar 18", was unveiled 9 November 2017. It is based on the name and design of the first Adidas World Cup ball from 1970. A special red-coloured variation, "Telstar Mechta", was used for the knockout stage of the tournament. The word mechta (Russian: мечта) means dream or ambition.
Goalkeepers noted that the ball was slippery and prone to having unpredictable trajectory. In addition, two Telstar 18 balls popped in the midst of a first-round match between France and Australia, leading to further discussions over the ball's performance.
On 29 May 2018, Electronic Arts released a free update to FIFA 18 that added content related to the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The expansion included a World Cup tournament mode with all teams and stadiums from the event, official television presentation elements, and World Cup-related content for the Ultimate Team mode.
Panini continued their partnership with FIFA by producing stickers for their World Cup sticker album. Panini also developed an app for the 2018 World Cup where fans could collect and swap virtual stickers, with five million fans gathering digital stickers for the tournament.
Thirty-three footballers who are alleged to be part of the steroid program are listed in the McLaren Report. On 22 December 2017, it was reported that FIFA fired a doctor who had been investigating doping in Russian football. On 22 May 2018 FIFA confirmed that the investigations concerning all Russian players named for the provisional squad of the FIFA World Cup in Russia had been completed, with the result that insufficient evidence was found to assert an anti-doping rule violation. FIFA's medical committee also decided that Russian personnel would not be involved in performing drug testing procedures at the tournament; the action was taken to reassure teams that the samples would remain untampered.
The choice of Russia as host has been challenged. Controversial issues have included the level of racism in Russian football, and discrimination against LGBT people in wider Russian society. Russia's involvement in the ongoing conflict in Ukraine has also caused calls for the tournament to be moved, particularly following the annexation of Crimea. In 2014, FIFA President Sepp Blatter stated that "the World Cup has been given and voted to Russia and we are going forward with our work".
Allegations of corruption in the bidding processes for the 2018 and 2022 World Cups caused threats from England's FA to boycott the tournament. FIFA appointed Michael J. Garcia, a US attorney, to investigate and produce a report on the corruption allegations. Although the report was never published, FIFA released a 42-page summary of its findings as determined by German judge Hans-Joachim Eckert. Eckert's summary cleared Russia and Qatar of any wrongdoing, but was denounced by critics as a whitewash. Garcia criticised the summary as being "materially incomplete" with "erroneous representations of the facts and conclusions", and appealed to FIFA's Appeal Committee. The committee declined to hear his appeal, so Garcia resigned in protest of FIFA's conduct, citing a "lack of leadership" and lack of confidence in the independence of Eckert.
On 3 June 2015, the FBI confirmed that the federal authorities were investigating the bidding and awarding processes for the 2018 and 2022 World Cups. In an interview published on 7 June 2015, Domenico Scala, the head of FIFA's Audit And Compliance Committee, stated that "should there be evidence that the awards to Qatar and Russia came only because of bought votes, then the awards could be cancelled". Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and former British Prime Minister David Cameron attended a meeting with FIFA vice-president Chung Mong-joon in which a vote-trading deal for the right to host the 2018 World Cup in England was discussed.
In response to the March 2018 poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal, British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that no British ministers or members of the royal family would attend the World Cup, and issued a warning to any travelling England fans. Iceland diplomatically boycotted the World Cup. Russia responded to the comments from the UK Parliament claiming that "the west are trying to deny Russia the World Cup". The Russian Foreign Ministry denounced Boris Johnson's statements that compared the event to the 1936 Olympics held in Nazi Germany as "poisoned with venom of hate, unprofessionalism and boorishness" and "unacceptable and unworthy" parallel towards Russia, a "nation that lost millions of lives in fighting Nazism".
The British Foreign Office and MPs had repeatedly warned English football fans and "people of Asian or Afro-Caribbean descent" travelling to Russia of "racist or homophobic intimidation, hooligan violence and anti-British hostility". English football fans who have travelled have said they have received a warm welcome from ordinary citizens after arriving in Russia.
At the close of the World Cup Russia was widely praised for its success in hosting the tournament, with Steve Rosenberg of the BBC deeming it "a resounding public relations success" for Putin, adding, "The stunning new stadiums, free train travel to venues and the absence of crowd violence has impressed visiting supporters. Russia has come across as friendly and hospitable: a stark contrast with the country's authoritarian image. All the foreign fans I have spoken to are pleasantly surprised."
FIFA President Gianni Infantino stated, "Everyone discovered a beautiful country, a welcoming country, that is keen to show the world that everything that has been said before might not be true. A lot of preconceived ideas have been changed because people have seen the true nature of Russia." Infantino has proclaimed Russia 2018 to be "the best World Cup ever", as 98% of the stadiums were sold out, there were three billion viewers on TV all around the world and 7 million fans visited the fan fests.
FIFA, through several companies, sold the broadcasting rights for the 2018 FIFA World Cup to various local broadcasters. After having tested the technology at limited matches of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the 2014 FIFA World Cup (via private tests and public viewings in the host city of Rio de Janeiro), the 2018 World Cup was the first World Cup in which all matches were produced in 4K ultra high definition. Host Broadcasting Services stated that at least 75% of the broadcast cut on each match would come from 4K cameras (covering the majority of main angles), with instant replays and some camera angles being upconverted from 1080p high definition sources with limited degradation in quality. These broadcasts were made available from selected rightsholders and television providers.
In February 2018, Ukrainian rightsholder UA:PBC stated that it would not broadcast the World Cup. This came in the wake of growing boycotts of the tournament among the Football Federation of Ukraine and sports minister Ihor Zhdanov. Additionally, the Football Federation of Ukraine refused to accredit journalists for the World Cup and waived their quota of tickets. However, the Ukrainian state TV still broadcast the World Cup, and more than 4 million Ukrainians watched the opening match.
Broadcast rights to the tournament in the Middle East were hampered by an ongoing diplomatic crisis in Qatar, which saw Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates cut diplomatic ties with Qatar—the home country of FIFA's Middle East and Africa rightsholder beIN Sports—in June 2017, over its alleged state support of terrorist groups. On 2 June 2018, beIN pulled its channels from Du and Etisalat, but with service to the latter restored later that day. Etisalat subsequently announced that it would air the World Cup in the UAE, and continue to offer beIN normally and without interruptions. In Saudi Arabia, beIN was banned from doing business; as a result, its channels and other content have been widely and illegally repackaged by a broadcaster identifying itself as "beoutQ". While FIFA attempted to indirectly negotiate the sale of a package consisting of Saudi matches and the final, they were unable to do so. On 12 July 2018, FIFA stated that it had "engaged counsel to take legal action in Saudi Arabia and is working alongside other sports rights owners that have also been affected to protect its interests."
In the United States, the 2018 World Cup was the first men's World Cup whose English rights were held by Fox Sports, and Spanish rights held by Telemundo. The elimination of the United States in qualifying led to concerns that US interest and viewership of this World Cup would be reduced, noting that "casual" viewers of U.S. matches caused them to peak at 16.5 million viewers in 2014, and how much Fox paid for the rights. During a launch event prior to the elimination, Fox stated that it had planned to place a secondary focus on the Mexican team in its coverage to take advantage of their popularity among Hispanic and Latino Americans. Fox stated that it was still committed to broadcasting a significant amount of coverage for the tournament. Viewership was down overall over 2014, additionally citing match scheduling that was not as favourable to viewers in the Americas than 2014 (with many matches airing in the morning hours, although Telemundo's broadcast of the Mexico-Sweden Group F match was announced as being its most-watched weekday daytime program in network history).
|FIFA partners||FIFA World Cup sponsors||African supporters||Asian supporters||European supporters|
The 2016 OFC Nations Cup was the 10th edition of the OFC Nations Cup, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Oceania organised by the Oceania Football Confederation (OFC). The tournament was played between 28 May and 11 June 2016 in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. The winner (New Zealand) qualified for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup in Russia.
Similar to the previous edition in 2012, the group stage of the tournament also doubled as the second round of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification tournament for the Oceania region. The top six teams of this tournament (i.e. the top three teams of each group in the group stage) advanced to the third round of World Cup qualifying, to be played between March and October 2017, with the winners of the third round proceeding to the inter-confederation play-offs in November 2017. This means that once again, the team that wins the qualifying competition and advances to the intercontinental play-off may be different from the team that wins the OFC Nations Cup and represents the OFC at the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup.
The defending champions Tahiti, who had won their first title at the 2012 OFC Nations Cup, were eliminated in the Group stage.2018 FIFA World Cup Final
The 2018 FIFA World Cup Final was a football match that took place on 15 July 2018 to determine the winners of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. It was the final of the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA. The match was contested by France and Croatia, and held at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, Russia.
Before 2018, France's only World Cup victory was in 1998 – though they had also reached the final in 2006 – while Croatia were playing in their first World Cup final. Both teams had defeated former World Cup champions on their way to the final: France defeated 1930 and 1950 winners Uruguay, Croatia defeated 1966 winners England and both teams defeated 1978 and 1986 winners Argentina.
France won the match 4–2, having taken a 2–1 lead during the first half on an own goal and penalty awarded by the video assistant referee (VAR), both firsts in a World Cup final. France also became the second team in the 32-team World Cup to win all their knockout matches without any extra time or penalty shoot-out after Brazil in 2002. The final was watched by a global audience of 1.12 billion people on television and streaming platforms.2018 FIFA World Cup Group G
Group G of the 2018 FIFA World Cup took place from 18 to 28 June 2018. The group consisted of Belgium, Panama, Tunisia, and England. The top two teams, Belgium and England, advanced to the round of 16, and went on to meet each other again in the third-place play-off.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification
The 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification process was a series of tournaments organised by the six FIFA confederations to decide 31 of the 32 teams which would play in the 2018 FIFA World Cup, with Russia qualifying automatically as hosts. All 210 remaining FIFA member associations were eligible to enter the qualifying process, and for the first time in World Cup history, all eligible national teams registered for the preliminary competition, but Zimbabwe and Indonesia were disqualified before playing their first matches. Bhutan, South Sudan, Gibraltar and Kosovo made their FIFA World Cup qualification debuts.While the main qualifying draw took place at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg, on 25 July 2015, qualification matches were played before that. The first, between Timor-Leste and Mongolia, began in Dili on 12 March 2015 as part of the AFC's qualification, with East Timorese player Chiquito do Carmo scoring the first goal in qualification. Matches were also played in CONCACAF prior to the main draw.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification (AFC)
The Asian section of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification acted as qualifiers for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, held in Russia, for national teams which are members of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC). 4.5 slots (4 direct slots and 1 inter-confederation play-off slot) in the final tournament were available for AFC teams.On 16 April 2014, the AFC Executive Committee approved a proposal to merge the preliminary qualification rounds of the FIFA World Cup and the AFC Asian Cup, which expanded to 24 teams starting in 2019. Therefore, the first two rounds of the FIFA World Cup qualifiers also acted as qualifiers for the 2019 AFC Asian Cup in the United Arab Emirates.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification (CONMEBOL)
The South American section of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification acted as qualifiers for the 2018 FIFA World Cup held in Russia, for national teams which are members of the South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL). A total of 4.5 slots (4 direct slots and 1 inter-confederation play-off slot) in the final tournament were available for CONMEBOL teams.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification (UEFA)
The European section of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification acted as qualifiers for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, which is being held in Russia, for national teams which are members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). Apart from Russia, who qualified automatically as hosts, a total of 13 slots in the final tournament were available for UEFA teams.The qualifying format was confirmed by the UEFA Executive Committee meeting on 22–23 March 2015 in Vienna.The qualification process started on 4 September 2016, almost two months after UEFA Euro 2016, and ended on 14 November 2017.
Belgium, England, France, Germany, Iceland (for the first time), Poland, Portugal, Serbia, and Spain qualified in the first round by winning their groups. Croatia, Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland qualified by winning their playoffs.
Four-time champions Italy missed out on qualification for the first time since 1958 after losing in the playoffs to Sweden, while the Netherlands failed to qualify for the tournament for the first time since 2002 after finishing third in 2014, and second in 2010. Iceland, with 335,000 inhabitants, became the smallest country ever to qualify for the World Cup finals.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – AFC Second Round
The second round of AFC matches for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification (and 2019 AFC Asian Cup qualification) was played from 24 May 2015 to 29 March 2016.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – AFC Third Round
The third round of AFC matches for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification was played from 1 September 2016 to 5 September 2017.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – CAF Third Round
The third round of CAF matches for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification was played from 7 October 2016 to 14 November 2017.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – CONCACAF Fifth Round
The fifth round (also known as the Hexagonal or Hex) of CONCACAF matches for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification was played from 11 November 2016 to 10 October 2017. Mexico, Costa Rica, and Panama qualified for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, while Honduras qualified for (and was later eliminated in) the inter-confederation play-offs, and United States (who failed to qualify for the World Cup for the first time in 32 years) and Trinidad and Tobago were eliminated in this round.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – UEFA Group C
The 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification UEFA Group C was one of the nine UEFA groups for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification. The group consisted of six teams: Germany, Czech Republic, Northern Ireland, Norway, Azerbaijan, and San Marino.
The draw was for the first round (group stage) which was not held as part of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Preliminary Draw on 25 July 2015, starting 18:00 MSK (UTC+3), at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg, Russia.The group winners, Germany, who finished with a 100% record, qualified directly for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The group runners-up, Northern Ireland, advanced to the play-offs as one of the best 8 runners-up, where they lost to Switzerland and thus failed to qualify.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – UEFA Group F
The 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification UEFA Group F was one of the nine UEFA groups for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification. The group consisted of six teams: England, Slovakia, Scotland, Slovenia, Lithuania, and Malta.
The draw for the first round (group stage) was held as part of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Preliminary Draw on 25 July 2015, starting 18:00 MSK (UTC+3), at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg, Russia.The group winners, England, qualified directly for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The group runners-up, Slovakia, were eliminated as the worst runners-up.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – UEFA Group G
The 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification UEFA Group G was one of the nine UEFA groups for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification. The group consisted of six teams: Spain, Italy, Albania, Israel, North Macedonia, and Liechtenstein.
The draw for the first round (group stage) was held as part of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Preliminary Draw on 25 July 2015, starting 18:00 MSK (UTC+3), at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg, Russia.The group winners, Spain, qualified directly for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The group runners-up, Italy, advanced to the play-offs as one of the best 8 runners-up, where they lost to Sweden and thus failed to qualify for the first time since 1958.2018 FIFA World Cup qualification – UEFA Group I
The 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification UEFA Group I was one of the nine UEFA groups for 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification. The group consisted of six teams: Croatia, Iceland, Ukraine, Turkey, Finland, and Kosovo.
The draw for the first round (group stage) was held as part of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Preliminary Draw on 25 July 2015, starting 18:00 MSK (UTC+3), at the Konstantinovsky Palace in Strelna, Saint Petersburg, Russia. Kosovo was added to the group after the draw, after becoming FIFA members together with Gibraltar in May 2016, and UEFA decided not to put Kosovo in group H together with Bosnia and Herzegovina for security reasons.The group winners, Iceland, qualified directly for the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The group runners-up, Croatia, advanced to the play-offs as one of the best 8 runners-up, where they won against Greece and thus qualified for the tournament as well. This was the first time Ukraine was eliminated after the first round, as the team had been eliminated in 1998, 2002, 2010 and 2014 after the play-offs, and qualified in 2006.2018 FIFA World Cup seeding
The draw for the 2018 FIFA World Cup took place on 1 December 2017 at the State Kremlin Palace in Moscow, Russia. It determined the group in which each of the 32 qualified national teams will play in at the start of the tournament. The teams were divided into four pots of eight, with one team selected from each pot to form a group.
Unlike previous editions of the World Cup, all pots were determined by each national team's October 2017 FIFA World Ranking, with Pot 1 containing the highest-ranked teams, Pot 2 containing the next highest-ranked teams, and so on until Pot 4, containing the lowest ranked teams; in previous editions only one pot containing the highest-ranked teams was determined by rank, with the other three pots determined by continental confederation. The hosts continued to be placed in Pot 1 and treated as a seeded team, and therefore Pot 1 consisted of hosts Russia and the seven highest-ranked teams that qualify for the tournament.
The draw sequence started with pot 1 and ended with pot 4.As with previous editions, no group had more than one team from any continental confederation with the exception of UEFA, which had at least one, but no more than two in a group.Antonio Mateu Lahoz
Antonio Miguel Mateu Lahoz (Spanish pronunciation: [anˈtonjo miˈɣel maˈteu laˈoθ]; born 12 March 1977) is a Spanish international referee who refereed at the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifiers. He was also selected to referee at the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifiers and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.Danny Makkelie
Danny Makkelie (born 28 January 1983) is a Dutch football referee. He has been a FIFA listed referee since 2011 and took charge of the final of the 2012 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship as a UEFA Elite referee.A former police officer in South Holland, he has worked full time for the Royal Dutch Football Association since 2010. He was selected to take part in the 2018 FIFA World Cup as a video assistant referee, including the [[2018 FIFA World Cup FinalGianluca Rocchi
Gianluca Rocchi (born 25 August 1973) is an Italian association football referee.
He started in 2000 refereeing 38 matches in three Serie C seasons. He was later promoted to the higher series, making his debut in U.S. Lecce-Reggina Calcio (16 May 2004). In 2010, when the National Referee Committee for Serie A and Serie B split, he was assigned to Serie A's Committee.
He made his international debut on 26 May 2008, in a friendly match between Netherlands and Greece national under-19 football team. He was later called-up for European club cup matches (first for the UEFA Cup during the 2008–09 season, then for the Champions League during the 2010–11 season).He refereed three international matches during the UEFA Euro 2012 qualifying, and later was called-up as referee for the Men's football tournament at 2012 Summer Olympics in London.
On 29 March 2018, FIFA announced that he will officiate some matches at 2018 FIFA World Cup along with Elenito Di Liberatore and Mauro Tonolini as assistant referees.
|List of officials|
|Confederation||Referee||Assistant referees||Video assistant referees|
|AFC||Alireza Faghani (Iran)||Reza Sokhandan (Iran)
Mohammadreza Mansouri (Iran)
|Abdulrahman Al-Jassim (Qatar)|
|Ravshan Irmatov (Uzbekistan)||Abdukhamidullo Rasulov (Uzbekistan)|
Jakhongir Saidov (Uzbekistan)
|Mohammed Abdulla Hassan Mohamed (United Arab Emirates)||Mohamed Al Hammadi (United Arab Emirates)|
Hasan Al Mahri (United Arab Emirates)
|Ryuji Sato (Japan)||Toru Sagara (Japan)|
Hiroshi Yamauchi (Japan)
|Nawaf Shukralla (Bahrain)||Yaser Tulefat (Bahrain)|
Taleb Al Maari (Qatar)
|CAF||Mehdi Abid Charef (Algeria)||Anouar Hmila (Tunisia)|
|Malang Diedhiou (Senegal)||Djibril Camara (Senegal)|
El Hadji Samba (Senegal)
|Bakary Gassama (Gambia)||Jean Claude Birumushahu (Burundi)|
Abdelhak Etchiali (Algeria)
|Gehad Grisha (Egypt)||Redouane Achik (Morocco)|
Waleed Ahmed (Sudan)
|Janny Sikazwe (Zambia)||Jerson Dos Santos (Angola)|
Zakhele Siwela (South Africa)
|Bamlak Tessema Weyesa (Ethiopia)|
|CONCACAF||Joel Aguilar (El Salvador)||Juan Zumba (El Salvador)
Juan Carlos Mora (Costa Rica)
|Mark Geiger (United States)||Frank Anderson (United States)|
Joe Fletcher (Canada)
|Jair Marrufo (United States)||Corey Rockwell (United States)|
|Ricardo Montero (Costa Rica)|
|John Pitti (Panama)||Gabriel Victoria (Panama)|
|César Arturo Ramos (Mexico)||Marvin Torrentera (Mexico)|
Miguel Hernández (Mexico)
|CONMEBOL||Julio Bascuñán (Chile)||Carlos Astroza (Chile)
Christian Schiemann (Chile)
|Wilton Sampaio (Brazil)|
Gery Vargas (Bolivia)
Mauro Vigliano (Argentina)
|Enrique Cáceres (Paraguay)||Eduardo Cardozo (Paraguay)|
Juan Zorrilla (Paraguay)
|Andrés Cunha (Uruguay)||Nicolás Tarán (Uruguay)|
Mauricio Espinosa (Uruguay)
|Néstor Pitana (Argentina)||Hernán Maidana (Argentina)|
Juan Pablo Belatti (Argentina)
|Sandro Ricci (Brazil)||Emerson de Carvalho (Brazil)|
Marcelo Van Gasse (Brazil)
|Wilmar Roldán (Colombia)||Alexander Guzmán (Colombia)|
Cristian de la Cruz (Colombia)
|OFC||Matthew Conger (New Zealand)||Simon Lount (New Zealand)
Tevita Makasini (Tonga)
|Norbert Hauata (Tahiti)||Bertrand Brial (New Caledonia)|
|UEFA||Felix Brych (Germany)||Mark Borsch (Germany)
Stefan Lupp (Germany)
|Bastian Dankert (Germany)|
Artur Soares Dias (Portugal)
Paweł Gil (Poland)
Massimiliano Irrati (Italy)
Tiago Martins (Portugal)
Danny Makkelie (Netherlands)
Daniele Orsato (Italy)
Paolo Valeri (Italy)
Felix Zwayer (Germany)
|Cüneyt Çakır (Turkey)||Bahattin Duran (Turkey)|
Tarık Ongun (Turkey)
|Sergei Karasev (Russia)||Anton Averianov (Russia)|
Tikhon Kalugin (Russia)
|Björn Kuipers (Netherlands)||Sander van Roekel (Netherlands)|
Erwin Zeinstra (Netherlands)
|Szymon Marciniak (Poland)||Paweł Sokolnicki (Poland)|
Tomasz Listkiewicz (Poland)
|Antonio Mateu Lahoz (Spain)||Pau Cebrián Devís (Spain)|
Roberto Díaz Pérez (Spain)
|Milorad Mažić (Serbia)||Milovan Ristić (Serbia)|
Dalibor Đurđević (Serbia)
|Gianluca Rocchi (Italy)||Elenito Di Liberatore (Italy)|
Mauro Tonolini (Italy)
|Damir Skomina (Slovenia)||Jure Praprotnik (Slovenia)|
Robert Vukan (Slovenia)
|Clément Turpin (France)||Cyril Gringore (France)|
Nicolas Danos (France)
2018 FIFA World Cup
2018 FIFA World Cup finalists
|Round of 16|
2018 FIFA World Cup stadiums
|Overall records and statistics|
Notes: There was no qualification for the 1930 World Cup as places were given by invitation only. In 1950, there was no final; the article is about the decisive match of the final group stage.
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|Cue & mind sports|