2017 G20 Hamburg summit

The 2017 G20 Hamburg summit was the twelfth meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 7–8 July 2017, at Hamburg Messe, in the city of Hamburg, Germany.[1]

2017 G20 Hamburg summit
G20 2017 logo
Host countryGermany
Date7–8 July 2017[1]
Venue(s)Hamburg Messe
CitiesHamburg, Germany
ParticipantsG20 members
Guest invitees: Guinea, Netherlands, Norway, Senegal, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland and Vietnam
Follows2016 G20 Hangzhou summit
Precedes2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit


Cumbre de Líderes del G20 (34935885094) (cropped)
G20 leaders group photo during the summit.
Vladimir Putin and Donald Trump at the 2017 G-20 Hamburg Summit (5)
U.S. President Donald Trump, Russian President Vladimir Putin, Rex Tillerson, and Sergey Lavrov at the G20 Hamburg summit, 7 July 2017
President Trump's Trip to Germany and the G20 Summit (34971872723)
The G20 Summit working lunch, 7 July 2017

Apart from the recurring themes relating to global economic growth, international trade and financial market regulation,[2] the G20 Hamburg summit was expected to focus on the following "issues of global significance":[2][3] Migration, digitisation, occupation, health, Women's Economic Empowerment and development aid.[4]

On 7 July terrorism, free trade and the United States' withdrawal from the Paris Agreement were on the agenda, on 8 July Africa was supposed to be a topic.[5]


The 30-page summary paper stayed vague in many sections.[6] The communique of the 20 participants itself was seen as a success.[7] The resolutions are not legally binding.[8] Many additional documents were agreed upon, barely noticed by the public.(Annex in Weblink-PDF)

Wolfgang Schäuble, German Federal Minister of Finance, insisted on the interconnected nature of many issues facing G20 nations and the need to reach effective, cross-cutting policy measures: "Globalization has lifted hundreds of millions out of poverty, but there is also a growing rise in frustration in some quarters […] development, [national] security and migration are all interlinked"[3]


The disagreement in steel production and trade remained. The 45th President of the United States Donald J. Trump has accused steel producers in China and Europe of dumping and have been threatening with antidumping duty. The G20 demanded a report of overcapacities by November 2017.[9]

Sustainable development

There was no consensus with the USA regarding climate protection: a dissent with communalities in the deployment of renewable energy was formulated. The other 19 participants agreed to stick with the Paris agreement, to view it as irreversible and to swiftly put it into practice. After the summit finished, the Turkish president, Erdoğan said his country would not ratify the Paris agreement; Turkey was no industrialized nation but a developing country like other neighboring countries of the region and that François Hollande as then President had assured international assistance funds. President Macron has now invited members for further negotiations at another climate summit in Paris on 12 December.[10][11] In spite of the United States' dissent, the German presidency wanted to make the most of the "renewed public policy interest for environmental sustainability, gender equity and social inclusiveness, in the spirit of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)" – notably by promoting renewable energy and further fossil fuel divestment in all nations.[3]

More inclusive growth

The G20 final communique placed a new emphasis on the need for trade deals to be reciprocal and non-discriminatory towards developing countries, reducing the previous emphasis on the primacy of liberalization and the promotion of free market economics across the board.[12]

Indian-Norwegian cooperation

India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi invited Norwegian pension funds to invest in his country's National Infrastructure Investment platform as he met Norway's Prime Minister Erna Solberg, who, in a gesture symbolising renewed cooperation towards the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals, offered him a round leather football embroidered with the initials 'SDGs'[13]

Women's Economic Empowerment

The World Bank Group and the White House, represented by First Daughter Ivanka Trump, confirmed they would soon roll out a new fund that aims to help female entrepreneurs access capital, financing and managerial support in the developing world. World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim said the Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative fund had so far raised $325 million from various governments, and that he hoped to leverage that into a multibillion-dollar investment framework.[14] President Trump lent his personal support by pledging $50 million from the United States to jump-start the fund: "by investing in women around the world, we're investing in families, we're investing in prosperity and we're investing in peace".[15]

President Trump's Trip to Germany and the G20 Summit (35781982945)
Donald Trump and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Refugee crisis and migration

International migration effectively entered the G20 agenda only in 2015 when the final leader's declaration[16] of the Antalya Summit described the "ongoing refugee crisis" as a global concern. Nearly one year later at the Hangzhou Summit in September 2016, G20 leaders reiterated their call for more burden sharing, humanitarian assistance and development funding.[17] They also agreed to "address forced displacement in 2017 with a view to developing concrete actions" and to examine migration issues. However, although the Hamburg Declaration[18] in July 2017 mentions both migration and forced displacement in general terms, it does not propose any "concrete actions" in either area.

Counter-terrorism and national security

Cumbre de Líderes del G20 (34935893964)
Leaders having chat at the photo-session

All agreed to continue regulating financial markets and to combat financing terrorism and tax evasion. Trade was intensely discussed and participants agreed to keep markets open and combat protectionism and unfair trade practises. The USA took a special stand as Trump supports protectionism. Participants agreed to a G20-Africa-Partnership and passed a special paper about the relationsships to the African nations.[11] In a joint statement, G20 leaders vowed to take steps to prevent the internet from being used to spread propaganda. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi indirectly targeted Pakistan (which is not a member of G20) by naming terrorist organisations that operate from its soil and saying that the groups all share the same ideology and purpose – of spreading hate and killing people. Indonesian President Joko Widodo urged member states to unite to fight against terrorism and emphasized on preventive as well as de-radicalization programs.[19]

Trump and Putin "discussed forming an impenetrable cybersecurity unit so that election hacking, and many other negative things, will be guarded and safe." Trump later said he does not think this will happen.[20]

Trump and Putin reached a partial ceasefire agreement in Southwest Syria, starting Sunday, 10 July 12 o'clock local time the representatives of the two nuclear powers talked with each other.[21][22] German Chancellor Angela Merkel told reporters at her closing press conference of the G20 summit: "I was delighted that it was on the margins of G20 that the first meeting between Trump and Putin took place. It's always better to talk one to the other, not one about the other. I was gratified to hear that they talked at a great length."[23][24] The two had met in person there for the first time.[25]

Participating leaders

List of leaders who took part in the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit:

Angela Merkel - Juli 2010 - 3zu4 cropped

Angela Merkel, Chancellor (Hostess)

Joko Widodo 2014 official portrait

Joko Widodo, President

Ibrahim Abdelaziz Al-Assaf (cropped)

 Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim Abdulaziz Al-Assaf, State Minister[27]

Moon Jae-in May 2017

 South Korea
Moon Jae-in, President[28]

Theresa May closeup

 United Kingdom
Theresa May, Prime Minister

Donald Trump official portrait (cropped)

 United States
Donald Trump, President

Guest invitees

Alpha Conde - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012

Alpha Condé, President, 2017 chairperson of the African Union[29]

Mark Rutte-1

Mark Rutte, Prime Minister, guest invitee[30][29]

Erna Solberg 2015-01-20 001

Erna Solberg, Prime Minister, guest invitee[29]

Mariano Rajoy 2016 (portrait)

Mariano Rajoy, Prime Minister, permanent guest invitee[29]

Lee Hsien-Loong - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012 cropped

Lee Hsien Loong, Prime Minister, guest invitee[31][29]

Ueli Maurer 2011

Ueli Maurer, Member of the Swiss Federal Council (Finance Minister), guest invitee[32][33][34]

Vietnamese Prime Minister Phuc

Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, Prime Minister, 2017 APEC host[29]

Brazil incertitude

Brazilian President Michel Temer initially cancelled his trip to Hamburg without giving any reasons,[35] facing corruption charges by General Prosecutor Rodrigo Janot, who has accused him of accepting bribes from meat company JBS S.A.[36] On July 4, Temer reversed his decision and announced he would attend.[37]

Saudi Arabian delegation

King Salman cancelled his plan to participate at the summit and sent State Minister Ibrahim Abdulaziz Al-Assaf on his behalf to lead the Kingdom's delegation to the summit. No official reason was provided.[38][39]

International organizations


Security zones with limited access, and a significantly larger presence of Hamburg police assisted by police from other forces, were in place from 5 to 8 July;[42] further reinforcements from across the country were deployed as protests developed. Forty-five water cannons were available, and a no-fly zone was in place over portions of the city. [43]


Riots on the Schulterblatt
G20-Protestwelle Hamburg Bootsdemo 06
Peaceful demonstration in boats, Binnenalster in Hamburg near town hall (2 July)

The G20 summit was the main focus of German far left propaganda in 2017. More than 320 police officers were injured in the riots. Interior minister Horst Seehofer especially criticized that photos of police on duty during the summit were spread in the far left networks. Of the 1135 far-left violent incidents in that year in Germany, 832 occurred during the summit.[44]

Block G20 – colour the red zone 03
A burnt BMW car after the first night of riots.

In the weeks prior to the summit, sporadic car fires in remote places, such as the neighborhood of Blankenese, occurred regularly in the city.[45] On the night of 18 June 2017, unidentified individuals in Berlin, Hamburg, Cologne, Dortmund, Leipzig, and Bad Bevensen caused a total of 13 arson attacks on tracks of the German railways.[46] A security expert was quoted by the German press agency DPA as saying that a connection to left-wing extremism related to the upcoming G20 Summit was "conceivable".[47] According to a German interior ministry spokesman, cable fires had been caused by "unconventional explosive and incendiary devices". In spite of high temperatures (30C, 86F) on 18 June, police discounted the possibility that the fires had been caused by hot weather.[48]

On 19 June, a group called "Shutdown G20 – Hamburg vom Netz nehmen!" claimed responsibility for the attacks in an internet post.[49]

On 2 July, Greenpeace activists forced a bulk freighter loaded with charcoal from Murmansk arriving in the city to stop. The police intervened and the vessel was allowed to pass through.[50]

During the G20 week a large variety of over 25 registered protest actions and marches were planned to take place in the city of Hamburg.[51][52] They included an alternative Global Solidarity Summit from 5 to 6 July[53] and a peaceful dance-protest-march Lieber tanz ich als g20 with between 11,000 and 20,000 people attending on 5 July.[54]

Around one thousand performance artists called 1000 Gestalten covered themselves in grey pigment and slowly walked through the streets like zombies. This performance was done to draw awareness of political apathy. After walking, they all removed their grey clothes. Underneath were colourful clothes that symbolized becoming engaged and awake.[55][56]

On 6 July, protests turned violent when over 160 police were injured in clashes with protestors and more than 75 people were arrested. As protestors attempted to storm into the "red zone" where the summit took place they were dispersed with water cannon. Some protestors stated their goal was to block the attendees route to the summit venue; US First Lady Melania Trump was unable to attend a harbor cruise on account of the protests.[57]

On 7 July rioters set dozens of parked cars on fire.[58] Several shops were destroyed and looted during 7 July night-time riots in the Schanzenviertel area.[59] Masked rioters and militants from the "black bloc" went uncontrolled for a period of three hours, prompting the deployment of special armed police forces to end the violence.[60]

On 8 July 76,000 people attended the largest peaceful protest march "Solidarity without Borders",[61] organized by an alliance of 174 groups and organizations.[62]

On early Sunday morning, 9 July, riots continued in the Schanzenviertel though the G20 leaders had already departed; 144 rioters were arrested.[63]

In total, more than 15,000 police were deployed from across the country, while 100,000 protesters attended.[64]

Local residents believed that authorities made a mistake by having the summit in a densely populated area.[59] Police arrested 186 people overall: 132 Germans, 8 French, 7 Italians, 5 Swiss and citizens of Russia and Spain. An additional 225 people were taken into temporary custody.[65]

In the analysis by German police, it was estimated that the far-left protesters had committed more than 2000 crimes, among them vandalism (575), bodily harm (330), disturbing the peace (303), arson (123) and resisting arrest (45).[66]

Activists and media criticised controversial police reactions to the protests, accusing them of violence and intentional conflict escalation.[67][68]


On the eve of the G20 summit in Hamburg, China's most famous political prisoner, democracy activist and Nobel laureate Liu Xiaobo, had been given medical parole after being diagnosed with terminal liver cancer.[69]

Turkey arrested 12 people in Istanbul on the eve of the G20 summit in Hamburg in July 2017 during the "digital security and information management workshop". They included İdil Eser, the head of Amnesty International Turkey. Activists detained included İlknur Üstün of the Women's Coalition, lawyer Günal Kurşun and Veli Acu of the Human Rights Agenda Association.[70]


  1. ^ a b "G20 summit on 7 and 8 July 2017 in Hamburg". Federal Government of Germany. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  2. ^ a b The Federal Government, of Germany (1 December 2016). "The G20 Presidency 2017 at a Glance". G20.org. Berlin. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  3. ^ a b c Firzli, M. Nicolas J. (7 July 2017). "G20 Nations Shifting the Trillions: Impact Investing, Green Infrastructure and Inclusive Growth" (PDF). Revue Analyse Financière. Paris. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  4. ^ Abschlusserklärung steht – Dissens bleibt. tagesschau.de. 8 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.
  5. ^ "G20: Suche nach Kompromissen beginnt". heute.de. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  6. ^ Merkel billigt US-Sonderweg zum Klima. In: Spiegel Online. 8 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.
  7. ^ Julian Heißler: Ein bisschen mehr als nichts. In: tagesschau.de. 8 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.(German:"A little bit more than nothing")
  8. ^ Anja Günther: „Knapp an einer Pleite vorbei“. In: ndr.de. 8 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.
  9. ^ David Böcking: Handelsregister vertagt. In: Spiegel Online. 8 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.
  10. ^ Christoph Seidler: Von oben herab. In: Spiegel Online. 8 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.
  11. ^ a b G20-Teilnehmer einigen sich auf Abschlusserklärung. In: Zeit Online. 8 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.
  12. ^ "Trump Left in Cold over Paris Climate Agreement at End of G20 Summit". The Guardian. 8 July 2017.
  13. ^ "G20 Summit: PM Invites Norway Pension Funds to Invest in India". News 18. 8 July 2017.
  14. ^ "Ivanka Trump, World Bank Launch Fund for Female Entrepreneurs". The New York Post. 8 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Ivanka Trump Literally Takes President's Seat Among World Leaders at G-20". USA TODAY. 8 July 2017.
  16. ^ G20 Leaders’ Communiqué — Antalya Summit Archived 4 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 15–16 November 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  17. ^ G20 Leaders’ Communique — Hangzhou Summit Archived 4 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 4–5 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  18. ^ G20 Leaders’ Declaration — Shaping an interconnected world Archived 9 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Hamburg, 7/8 July 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Jokowi Discusses Counterterrorism in G20 Summit". Tempo. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
  20. ^ Donald Trump backtracks on Russia joint cybersecurity unit BBC News, 10 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.
  21. ^ "US and Russia agree new Syria ceasefire deal". Al-Jazeera. 8 July 2017.
  22. ^ "Syria truce goes into effect after Trump-Putin talks". Deutsche Welle. 9 July 2017.
  23. ^ "G20 Summit Closing News Conference With German Chancellor Merkel". 8 July 2017.
  24. ^ "Merkel Hopes First Trump-Putin Meeting Lays Ground for Steady Relationship". 8 July 2017.
  25. ^ Bernd Riegert: G20: USA kündigen Konsens beim Klimaschutz auf. In: Deutsche Welle online. 8 July 2017, retrieved 12 July 2017.
  26. ^ "Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel welcomes Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau". g20.org. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  27. ^ "Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel welcomes the State Minister of Saudi Arabia, Ibrahim bin Abdulaziz Al-Assaf". Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  28. ^ "Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel welcomes the President of the Republic of Korea, Moon Jae-in". g20.org. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g "Members and participants". G20germany. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  30. ^ "Germany invites the Netherlands to G20 summit". DutchNews.nl. 2 December 2016.
  31. ^ "Singapore accepts invitation to G20 Hamburg Summit". Channel NewsAsia. 3 December 2016.
  32. ^ "Swiss Join Discussions on Financial Priorities at G20". Swissinfo. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  33. ^ "Ueli Maurer am G20-Gipfel" (in German). Luzerner Zeitung. 2 July 2017. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  34. ^ ""Hier werden wir ernst genommen"" (in German). Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen. 8 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  35. ^ "Sob pressão, Temer cancela ida ao G20 na Alemanha" (in Portuguese). CartaCapital. 29 June 2017.
  36. ^ "Brasiliens Präsident sagt G20-Teilnahme ab" (in German). Der Spiegel. 29 June 2017.
  37. ^ "Brazil president confirms G20 trip". Yahoo!. 4 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  38. ^ "Saudi King Cancels Plans To Attend G20 Summit in Germany". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 July 2017.
  39. ^ "Saudi Arabia to Participate Tomorrow in G20 Summit in Hamburg". [spa.gov.sa]. Retrieved 2017-09-24.
  40. ^ "Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel welcomes World Bank President Kim Jim Yong". g20.org. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  41. ^ "Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel welcomes WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus". g20.org. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  42. ^ G20 Hamburg 7 – 8 July 2017 – General information: security provisions, public transport and more, Hamburg Web site
  43. ^ Isaac Stanley-Becker (7 July 2017). "Security forces in Hamburg call in reinforcements as clashes erupt during opening of G-20 summit". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  44. ^ "Verfassungsschutzbericht 2017 vorgestellt". Bundesministerium des Innern, für Bau und Heimat (in German). Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  45. ^ "Brand-Anschläge in Blankenese – Vier Luxus-Autos am Falkensteiner Ufer angezündet" [Arson attacks in Blankenese, four luxury cars set on fire on Falkensteiner Ufer]. mopo.de (in German). 31 March 2017.
  46. ^ "Störungen nach Anschlägen auf Bahn weitgehend behoben". rundschau-online.de (in German). 20 June 2017.
  47. ^ "Arson attacks hit German railway network". Sify News. 19 June 2017.
  48. ^ Oltermann, Philip (18 June 2017). "Germany investigates possible political motive for rail arson attacks". The Guardian.
  49. ^ Puppe, Matthias (19 June 2017). "Brandanschläge auf Bahnstrecken – Bekennerschreiben zum G20-Gipfel". Indymedia.
  50. ^ Hanschke, Hannibal (2 July 2017). "Greenpeace activists ride along the Golden Opportunity ship carrying coal as part of protests ahead of the upcoming G20 summit in Hamburg". Reuters.
  51. ^ "Streit ueber Demo-Verbot". Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  52. ^ "Rund um den Gipfel in Hamburg sind fast 30 Demonstrationen angemeldet". Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  53. ^ "Global Solidarity Summit". Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  54. ^ "Bunter Protestzug "Lieber tanz ich als G20"". Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  55. ^ "Zombie-like protesters march through Hamburg ahead of G20 Summit: In photos". globalnews.ca. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  56. ^ "'Zombie March' hits Hamburg ahead of G20 summit". euronews. 5 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  57. ^ Fox, Kara. "G20 protesters attempt to disrupt summit". cnn.com. CNN. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  58. ^ "Krawalle beim G20-Gipfel Randalierer setzen Autos in Brand". Spiegel Online. 7 July 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  59. ^ a b "G20: Anarchie im Schanzenviertel überschattet G20-Gipfel". Die Zeit (in German). 8 July 2017. ISSN 0044-2070. Retrieved 2017-07-08.
  60. ^ "Scuffles, water cannon at final anti-G20 march in Hamburg". Reuters. 9 July 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
  61. ^ "G20 Gipfel Hamburg Grenzenlose Solidaritaet". Zeit Online. 8 July 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  62. ^ "G20-Demo Groups and Organisations". G20-Demo. Retrieved 2017-07-12.
  63. ^ Press, Associated (9 July 2017). "G20 riots continue even after leaders leave Hamburg". New York Post. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
  64. ^ "Police gain upper hand after Hamburg's day of G20 clashes". Reuters. 8 July 2017. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
  65. ^ "Schweizer randalieren in der «Hölle»" Neue Zürcher Zeitung vom 10. Juli 2017
  66. ^ "G-20-Krawalle: Polizei ermittelt in mehr als 2000 Fällen - WELT". DIE WELT. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  67. ^ Oltermann, Philip (5 July 2017). "Hamburg braces for G20 violence as tensions rise over police tactics". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  68. ^ "35 investigations launched over police actions during G20 protests". The Local DE. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  69. ^ "Liu Xiaobo, China's most famous political prisoner, 'close to death'". The Guardian. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  70. ^ "Amnesty says Turkey director and activists detained in Istanbul". The Guardian. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.

63.seven civil society groups that are an integral part of the G20 process.

External links

2017 in Germany

This list details notable events occurring in 2017 in Germany. Major events included the death of Helmut Kohl and the legalization of same-sex marriage.

Angela Merkel

Angela Dorothea Merkel (; German: [aŋˈɡeːla ˈmɛʁkl̩]; née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as the leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 2000 to 2018. Merkel has been widely described as the de facto leader of the European Union, the most powerful woman in the world, and by many commentators as the leader of the Free World.Merkel was born in Hamburg in then-West Germany and moved to East Germany as an infant when her father, a Lutheran clergyman, received a pastorate in Perleberg. She obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until 1989. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, and briefly served as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government headed by Lothar de Maizière in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and has been reelected ever since. As the protégée of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Merkel was appointed as the Federal Minister for Women and Youth in Kohl's government in 1991, and became the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in 1994. After her party lost the federal election in 1998, Merkel was elected Secretary-General of the CDU before becoming the party's first female leader two years later in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble.

Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed Germany's first female chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). In the 2009 federal election, the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the Free Democratic Party (FDP). At the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag. In the 2017 federal election the CDU again became the largest party, and she was reelected to her fourth term on 14 March 2018.In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. One of Merkel's consistent priorities has been to strengthen transatlantic economic relations. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, and she has been referred to as "the decider." In domestic policy, health care reform, problems concerning future energy development and more recently her government's approach to the ongoing migrant crisis have been major issues during her Chancellorship. On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union and she is currently the senior G7 leader.

In October 2018, Merkel announced that she would not seek reelection as leader of the CDU at the party convention in December 2018 and as Chancellor in 2021.

Chris Uhlmann

Christopher Gerald Uhlmann (born 24 June 1960) is an Australian journalist and television presenter.

Donald Trump's speech in Warsaw, Poland

U.S. President Donald Trump delivered a public speech in front of the Warsaw Uprising Monument at Krasinski Square, in Warsaw, the capital of Poland on July 6, 2017. During the speech, Donald Trump argued the future of Western freedom is at stake and called to defend the Western civilization against the threats of “terrorism and extremism.”

First Merkel cabinet

Merkel's first cabinet led the government of Germany from 22 November 2005 to 27 October 2009 throughout the 16th Bundestag. Led by Christian Democrat Angela Merkel, the first female chancellor in German history, the cabinet was supported by a grand coalition between the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). It followed the Second Schröder cabinet. It ceased to function after the formation of Second Merkel cabinet, which was created after the 2009 federal elections, and was later sworn in on 28 October 2009.

G20 protests

G20 protests may refer to:

2009 G20 London summit protests

2010 G20 Toronto summit protests

2017 G20 Hamburg summit protests

Global Governance Group

The Global Governance Group (3G) is an informal group of smaller and medium-sized countries with the aim of providing greater representation to its member countries and collectively channeling their views into the G20 process more effectively.

The group consists of 30 member countries.In 2017, the Chair of 3G is Singapore. As the Chair of 3G, Singapore was invited to the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit as a guest invitee.

Independent Media Center

The Independent Media Center (also known as Indymedia or IMC) is an open publishing network of journalist collectives that report on political and social issues. It originated during the Seattle anti-WTO protests worldwide in 1999 and remains closely associated with the global justice movement, which criticizes neo-liberalism and its associated institutions. Several local branches of the network have been raided by law enforcement over the years.

Indonesia–Vietnam relations

Indonesia–Vietnam relations are foreign bilateral relations between Indonesia and Vietnam. Indonesia and Vietnam are neighboring nations that have a maritime border which lies on the South China Sea. Both countries are the member of ASEAN and APEC.

List of international presidential trips made by Donald Trump

This is a list of international presidential trips made by Donald Trump, the 45th president of the United States. Donald Trump has made eleven international trips to 20 countries (and also the West Bank) since he assumed the office of presidency on January 20, 2017. The number of visits per country where he traveled are:

One visit to: Argentina, Canada, China, Finland, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Vatican City.

Two visits to: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, and Vietnam.

List of presidential trips made by Emmanuel Macron

This is a list of presidential trips made by Emmanuel Macron as the 25th President of France.

This list excludes trips made within Paris, the French capital in which the Élysée Palace, the official residence and principal workplace of the President, is located and Le Touquet, the location of Macron's house. International trips are included. The number of visits per country and department where he travelled are:

Domestic trips:

One visit to Alpes-Maritimes, Corrèze, Ille-et-Vilaine, Finistère, Guadeloupe, Guyane, Haute-Garonne, Haute-Savoie, Haute-Vienne, Hautes-Alpes, Hautes-Pyrénées, Haut-Rhin, Loir-et-Cher, Loire-Atlantique, Loiret, Lyon Metropolis, Morbihan, Moselle, Pas-de-Calais, Puy-de-Dôme, Saint-Barthélémy, Saint-Martin, Savoie, Somme, Val-de-Marne and Var.

Two visits to Bas-Rhin, Hauts-de-Seine, Nord and Seine-Maritime.

Three visits to Bouches-du-Rhône.

Six visits to Seine-Saint-Denis.

Eight visits to Yvelines.

International trips:

One visit to Algeria, Austria, Australia, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Estonia, Ghana, Greece, Luxembourg, Niger, Qatar, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sweden, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom.

Two visits to Morocco, Mali, Switzerland and the United States.

Three visits to Italy.

Five visits to Germany.

Six visits to Belgium.


The Merkel-Raute (German for "Merkel rhombus") is what has been termed Merkel diamond or Triangle of Power by English-speaking media: a hand gesture made by resting one's hands in front of the stomach so that the fingertips meet, with the thumbs and index fingers forming a rough quadrangular shape. This signature gesture of Angela Merkel, the current German Chancellor, has been described as "probably one of the most recognisable hand gestures in the world".Asked about how the Merkel-Raute was introduced as her trademark, Merkel stated that "there was always the question, what to do with your arms, and that's how it came about." She chose the gesture without having been assisted by a counsellor because "it contains a certain symmetry."

Mohammed Al-Jadaan

Mohammed Al-Jadaan (Arabic: محمد بن عبد الله الجدعان‎; born 1963) is a commercial lawyer and co-founder of Al-Jadaan and Partners Law Firm who has served as Saudi Arabia's Minister of Finance since November 2016. He replaced Ibrahim Al-Assaf who was appointed to the post in 1996.From January 2015 until his recent appointment, he was the chairman of Capital Markets Authority where he oversaw the opening of the Tadawul Stock Exchange and the loosening of Saudi's regulatory framework to foreign investors. He has also previously served as a Special Adviser to the board of Morgan Stanley Saudi Arabia.He is a close ally of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and an advocate of Vision 2030.King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud cancelled his participation in the 2017 G20 Hamburg summit and sent Al-Jadaan instead.

No-fly zone

A no-fly zone or no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone (AEZ), is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly. Such zones are usually set up in a military context, somewhat like a demilitarized zone in the sky, and usually prohibit military aircraft of a belligerent power from operating in the region. Aircraft that break the no-fly zone may be shot down, depending on the terms of the NFZ. Air exclusion zones and anti-aircraft defences are sometimes set up in a civilian context, for example to protect sensitive locations, or events such as the 2012 London Olympic Games, against terrorist air attack.

No-fly zones are a modern phenomenon. They can be distinguished from traditional air power missions by their coercive appropriation of another nation’s airspace only, to achieve aims on the ground within the target nation. While the Royal Air Force (RAF) conducted prototypical air control operations over contentious colonial possessions between the two World Wars of the 20th century, no-fly zones did not assume their modern form until the end of the Persian Gulf War in 1991.During the Cold War, the risk of local conflict escalating into nuclear showdown dampened the appeal of military intervention as a tool of U.S. statecraft. Perhaps more importantly, air power was a relatively blunt instrument until the operational maturation of stealth and precision-strike technologies. Before the Gulf War of 1991, air power had not demonstrated the “fidelity” needed to perform nuanced attacks against transitory, difficult-to-reach targets—it lacked the ability to produce decisive political effects short of total war. However, the demise of the Soviet Union and the rise in aerospace capabilities engendered by the technology revolution made no-fly zones viable in both political and military contexts.

Pantone Merkel

The "Pantone Merkel", also known as the "many shades of Merkel" or "Merkel Rainbow", is a compilation of photos of Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany, collected by Dutch graphic designer Noortje van Eekelen. It consists of an overview of Merkel's jackets arranged into a chart by colour in a manner similar to the Pantone color chart. The "Pantone Merkel" also includes captions describing the locations and dates the photos were taken.

The series is composed of 100 different news photos of public moments and has become one of the most widely recognized symbols of Merkel, including many variations and imitations. The project went viral and gained considerable media attention via social media and was published by many international websites, magazines and newspapers, including The Guardian, Daily Mail, The New York Times, and The Telegraph.

Second Merkel cabinet

The second Merkel cabinet was the Government of Germany during the 17th legislative session of the Bundestag following the 2009 federal election, and left office on 17 December 2013. It was preceded in office by the first Merkel cabinet. Led by Chancellor Angela Merkel (the first female chancellor in German history), it was supported by a coalition of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), the Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU), and the Free Democratic Party (FDP).

The cabinet served as a caretaker government following the elections on 22 September 2013; which saw the removal of the Free Democratic Party from the Bundestag. Negotiations between the Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CDU/CSU) and the Social Democratics (SPD) took place to form a new cabinet, and the second Merkel cabinet was succeeded by the Merkel III cabinet on 17 December 2013.

Ueli Maurer

Ulrich "Ueli" Maurer (born 1 December 1950) is a Swiss politician who is a member of the Swiss Federal Council. Formerly head of the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports (the Swiss defence minister), Maurer has been the head of the Federal Department of Finance (the Swiss finance minister) since 1 January 2016.

As a leading figure in the Swiss People's Party, he was elected by the Swiss Federal Assembly to succeed Federal Councillor Samuel Schmid in the Swiss Federal Council election of 10 December 2008 and took office on 1 January 2009.

Maurer served as Vice-President of the Swiss Confederation in 2012 and 2018 and as President of the Swiss Confederation for the years 2013 and 2019. He was also reelected Federal Councillor in the Swiss Federal Council election of 8 December 2015.


The German concept of welcoming culture (in German: Willkommenskultur) designates firstly a positive attitude of politicians, businesses, educational institutions, sports clubs, persons and institutions towards foreigners, including and often especially towards migrants. Second, the term expresses the wish that all foreigners and migrant people encountered by these institutions may be accepted and particularly not be exposed to discrimination. Third, the word welcoming culture means all the measures promoted by a positive attitude towards foreigners and migrants in others.The German equivalent Willkommenskultur was elected in Austria in December 2015 as "Word of the Year".

Wonderful Crazy Night Tour

Wonderful Crazy Night Tour was a concert tour by British musician Elton John taking place in Europe and North America in 2016 and 2017.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.