2017 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was a hyperactive and catastrophic hurricane season that, with a damage total of at least $282.16 billion (USD), was the costliest season on record, surpassing the previous record holder – the 2005 season. More than 99.7 percent of the season's damage was due to three of the season's major hurricanes – Harvey, Maria, and Irma. Featuring 17 named storms, 10 hurricanes and 6 major hurricanes, the 2017 season ranks alongside 1936 as the fifth-most active season since records began in 1851. Another substantial hurricane, Nate was the worst natural disaster in Costa Rican history; Harvey, Irma, Maria, and Nate's names were retired due to their high damage costs and loss of life.

This season is also one of only six years on record to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes, and only the second after 2007 to feature two hurricanes making landfall at that intensity. The season also featured both the highest total accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) and the highest number of major hurricanes since 2005. All ten of the season's hurricanes occurred in a row, the greatest number of consecutive hurricanes in the satellite era, and tied for the greatest number of consecutive hurricanes ever observed in the Atlantic basin since records began in 1851. In addition, this season is the only season on record in which three hurricanes each had an ACE of over 40: Irma, Jose, and Maria.

The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates historically describe the period of year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, as shown by Tropical Storm Arlene in April, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at other times of the year. In mid-June, Tropical Storm Bret struck the island of Trinidad, which is rarely struck by tropical cyclones, due to its low latitude. In late August, Hurricane Harvey became the first major hurricane to make landfall in the United States since Wilma in 2005 and the first Category 4 hurricane since Charley in 2004, while also setting the record for the costliest tropical cyclone on record, as well as the most rainfall dropped by a tropical cyclone in the United States. In early September, Hurricane Irma became the first Category 5 hurricane to impact the northern Leeward Islands on record, later making landfall in the Florida Keys as a Category 4 hurricane. In terms of maximum sustained winds, Irma is the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic Ocean outside of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.[1] In late September, Hurricane Maria became the first Category 5 hurricane to strike the island of Dominica on record. It later made landfall in Puerto Rico as a high-end Category 4 hurricane. In early October, Hurricane Nate became the fastest-moving tropical cyclone in the Gulf of Mexico while also becoming the fourth hurricane of the year to hit the overall United States. Slightly over a week later, Hurricane Ophelia became the easternmost major hurricane in the Atlantic basin on record, and later impacted most of Northern Europe as an extratropical cyclone.

Initial predictions for the season anticipated that an El Niño would develop, lowering storm activity. However, the predicted El Niño failed to develop, with cool-neutral conditions developing instead, later progressing to a La Niña – the second one in a row. This led forecasters to upgrade their predicted totals, with some later anticipating that the season could be the most active since 2012.

Beginning in 2017, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) had the option to issue advisories, and thus allow watches and warnings to be issued, on disturbances that are not yet tropical cyclones but have a high chance to become one, and are expected to bring tropical storm or hurricane conditions to landmasses within 48 hours. Such systems are termed "Potential Tropical Cyclones".[2] The first storm to receive this designation was Potential Tropical Cyclone Two, which later developed into Tropical Storm Bret, east-southeast of the Windward Islands on June 18.[3] In addition, the numbering that a potential tropical cyclone receives would be retained for the rest of the hurricane season, meaning that the next tropical system would be designated with the following number, even though potential tropical cyclones do not qualify as tropical cyclones. This was first demonstrated with Potential Tropical Cyclone Ten, which failed to develop into a tropical cyclone.

2017 Atlantic hurricane season
2017 Atlantic hurricane season summary map
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed April 19, 2017
Last system dissipated November 9, 2017
Strongest storm
Name Maria[nb 1]
 • Maximum winds 175 mph (280 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure 908 mbar (hPa; 26.81 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions 18
Total storms 17
Hurricanes 10
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
6
Total fatalities ≥ 450–8,884+ total (with uncertainty)
Total damage ≥ $282.16 billion (2017 USD)
(Costliest tropical cyclone season on record)
Related articles

Seasonal forecasts

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2017 season
Source Date Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Average (1981–2010[4]) 12.1 6.4 2.7
Record high activity 28 15 7
Record low activity 4 2 0
 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
TSR[5] December 13, 2016 14 6 3
TSR[6] April 5, 2017 11 4 2
CSU[7] April 6, 2017 11 4 2
TWC[8] April 17, 2017 12 6 2
NCSU[9] April 18, 2017 11–15 4–6 1–3
TWC[10] May 20, 2017 14 7 3
NOAA[11] May 25, 2017 11–17 5–9 2–4
TSR[12] May 26, 2017 14 6 3
CSU[13] June 1, 2017 14 6 2
UKMO[14] June 1, 2017 13* 8* N/A
TSR[15] July 4, 2017 17 7 3
CSU[16] July 5, 2017 15 8 3
CSU[17] August 4, 2017 16 8 3
TSR[18] August 4, 2017 17 7 3
NOAA[19] August 9, 2017 14–19 5–9 2–5
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity
17 10 6
* June–November only.
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)

Ahead of and during the season, several national meteorological services and scientific agencies forecast how many named storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale) will form during a season, and/or how many tropical cyclones will affect a particular country. These agencies include the Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) Consortium of the University College London, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Colorado State University (CSU). The forecasts include weekly and monthly changes in significant factors that help determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a particular year.[5] Some of these forecasts also take into consideration what happened in previous seasons and the dissipation of the 2014–16 El Niño event. On average, an Atlantic hurricane season between 1981 and 2010 contained twelve tropical storms, six hurricanes, and two major hurricanes, with an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index of between 66 and 103 units.[4]

Pre-season outlooks

The first forecast for the year was issued by TSR on December 13, 2016.[5] They anticipated that the 2017 season would be a near-average season, with a prediction of 14 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. They also predicted an ACE index of around 101 units.[5] On December 14, CSU released a qualitative discussion detailing five possible scenarios for the 2017 season, taking into account the state of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the possibility of El Niño developing during the season.[20] TSR lowered their forecast numbers on April 5, 2017 to 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, based on recent trends favoring the development of El Niño.[6] The next day, CSU released their prediction, also predicting a total of 11 named storms, 4 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes.[7] On April 17, The Weather Company released their forecasts, calling for 2017 to be a near-average season, with a total of 12 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes.[8] The next day, on April 18, North Carolina State University released their prediction, also predicting a near-average season, with a total of 11–15 named storms, 4–6 hurricanes, and 1–3 major hurricanes.[9] On May 20, The Weather Company issued an updated forecast, raising their numbers to 14 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes to account for Tropical Storm Arlene as well as the decreasing chance of El Niño forming during the season.[10] On May 25, NOAA released their prediction, citing a 70% chance of an above average season due to "a weak or nonexistent El Niño", calling for 11–17 named storms, 5–9 hurricanes, and 2–4 major hurricanes.[11] On May 26, TSR updated its prediction to around the same numbers as its December 2016 prediction, with only a minor change in the expected ACE index amount to 98 units.[12]

Mid-season outlooks

CSU updated their forecast on June 1 to include 14 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, to include Tropical Storm Arlene.[13] It was based on the current status of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which was showing signs of leaning towards a negative phase, favoring a warmer tropical Atlantic; and the chances of El Niño forming were significantly lower. However, they stressed on the uncertainty that the El Niño–Southern Oscillation could be in a warm-neutral phase or weak El Niño conditions by the peak of the season.[13] On the same day, the United Kingdom Met Office (UKMO) released its forecast of a very slightly above-average season. It predicted 13 named storms, with a 70% chance that the number would be in the range between 10 and 16, and 8 hurricanes, with a 70% chance that the number would be in the range between 6 and 10. It also predicted an ACE index of 145, with a 70% chance that the index would be between 92 and 198.[14] On July 4, TSR released their fourth forecast for the season, increasing their predicted numbers to 17 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes, due to the fact that El Niño conditions would no longer develop by the peak of the season and the warming of sea-surface temperatures across the basin. Additionally, they predicted a revised ACE index of 116 units.[15] During August 9, NOAA released their final outlook for the season, raising their predictions to 14–19 named storms, though retaining 5–9 hurricanes and 2–5 major hurricanes. They also stated that the season had the potential to be extremely active, possibly the most active since 2010.[19]

Seasonal summary

Katia, Irma, Jose 2017-09-08 1745Z%E2%80%931935Z
Three simultaneous hurricanes active on September 8, with Katia (left), Irma (center), and Jose (right), the first such occurrence since 2010. All three were threatening land at the time.

The Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 2017.[21] Among the busiest on record, the season produced eighteen tropical depressions, all but one of which further intensified into tropical storms. Ten hurricanes occurred in succession, the greatest number of consecutive hurricanes since the start of the satellite era in 1966. Six of the ten hurricanes further strengthened into major hurricanes. Unlike the pattern of previous years that acted to steer many tropical cyclones harmlessly into the open Atlantic, 2017 featured a pattern conducive for landfalls;[22] in fact, the season culminated into 23 separate landfalls by Atlantic named storms.[23] Hundreds, if not over a thousand deaths were recorded while total damage reached over $250 billion, cementing the 2017 season as the costliest in recorded history.[24]

The hyperactive season came to fruition through a multitude of different factors. Pre-season projections noted the potential for a weak to moderate El Niño event to evolve through the summer and fall on the basis of statistical model guidance; these forecasts were proven to be over-amplified as a result of a phenomenon known as the spring predictability barrier. Instead, equatorial Pacific Ocean temperatures began cooling throughout the summer, reaching La Niña threshold in November and curtailing the negative effects on Atlantic hurricane activity originally expected. In addition, tropical Atlantic Ocean temperatures — previously below average in months prior to the start of the season — underwent rapid warming by late May, providing lower sea level pressures, weaker trade winds, increased mid-level moisture, and all-around a more conducive environment for above average activity.[22]

2017 Atlantic Hurricane storm tracks with IMERG precipitation and GOES clouds (from August 10 to September 23).

The season's first tropical cyclone, Arlene, developed on April 19 and became only the second tropical storm on record during the month.[25] Above-average activity continued throughout June and July with the formations of tropical storms Bret, Cindy, Don, Emily, and an unnamed tropical depression; however, a majority of these storms were weak and short-lived.[26] August yielded four storms – Franklin, Gert, Harvey, and Irma – all of which intensified into hurricanes.[27] Harvey attained Category 4 status prior to reaching the Texas coastline, ending the record streak of 4,323 days without a major hurricane landfall in the United States;[28] with damage estimates up to $125 billion, Harvey is tied with Hurricane Katrina as the costliest natural disaster on record in the United States.[29][30] Hurricane Irma reached peak winds of 180 mph (285 km/h), making it the strongest Atlantic hurricane outside the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Irma ravaged the northern Leeward Islands and produced a trail of destruction through the Greater Antilles and Southeast United States.

September featured copious activity, with four hurricanes forming, Jose, Katia, Lee, and Maria,[31] the final of which became the tenth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record.[32] As Irma also persisted into September and reached Category 5 intensity, it and Maria marked the first recorded instance of two Category 5 hurricanes occurring in the same month. Maria caused a major humanitarian crisis in Puerto Rico, resulting in nearly $100 billion in damage and a death toll that may exceed 1,000.[33][34] October featured hurricanes Nate and Ophelia, as well as Tropical Storm Philippe;[35] Ophelia became the easternmost major hurricane on record in the Atlantic.[36] Activity concluded with the formation of Tropical Storm Rina in early November,[37] though the season did not officially end until November 30.[21]

Seasonal activity was reflected with an Accumulated Cyclone Energy index value of 224.88 units,[nb 2] the seventh highest value on record in the Atlantic.[38] ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of a hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed; therefore, long-lived storms and particularly strong systems result in high levels of ACE. The measure is calculated at full advisories for cyclones at tropical storm strength—storms with winds in excess of 39 mph (63 km/h). Despite an above average number of storms to begin 2017, many were weak and short-lived, resulting in the lowest ACE value for a season's first five named storms on record.[39] However, Hurricane Irma in August produced the third highest ACE value on record, 64.9 units.[40] The season ultimately featured three storms that produced an ACE value above 40 units, the first occurrence on record.[41] September 2017 featured more ACE than any month in recorded history in the Atlantic (surpassing September 2004),[42] and September 8 alone produced more ACE than any other day on record.[38] Overall, September's ACE value represented activity about three and a half times more active than the 1981–2010 average for the month.[31]

Systems

Tropical Storm Arlene

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Arlene 2017-04-20 1512Z
 
Arlene 2017 track
Duration April 19 – April 21
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

A potent extratropical cyclone formed well east of Bermuda on April 16. The cyclone moved southeast, becoming disconnected from the surrounding environment and gradually losing its frontal characteristics. Deep convection formed in bands north and east of the center by 00:00 UTC on April 19, leading to the formation of a subtropical depression. Despite an unfavorable environment, with ocean temperatures near 20 °C (68 °F) and moderate wind shear, convection coalesced near the center and allowed the subtropical depression to become fully tropical by 00:00 UTC on April 20. It intensified into Tropical Storm Arlene six hours later. After attaining peak winds of 50 mph (85 km/h), the storm began to rotate around a larger extratropical low. The storm tracked into the cold sector of the cyclone, causing Arlene to lose tropical characteristics around 12:00 UTC on April 21. The post-tropical cyclone moved south and east, before dissipating well west-southwest of the Azores on April 22.[43]

Upon its formation as a subtropical depression on April 19, Arlene was the sixth known subtropical or tropical cyclone to form in the month of April in the Atlantic basin; the other instances were Ana in 2003, a subtropical storm in April 1992, and three tropical depressions in 1912, 1915, and 1973, respectively. When Arlene became a tropical storm on April 20, this marked only the second such occurrence on record, after Ana in 2003.[44][nb 3] Furthermore, it had the lowest central pressure of any Atlantic storm recorded in the month of April, with a central pressure of 990 mbar (hPa; 29.23 inHg), again surpassing Ana.[46] Additionally, unrelated to Arlene, Tropical Storm Adrian in the Eastern Pacific basin also formed before the corresponding hurricane season was set to officially begin, being the earliest named storm in the Eastern Pacific proper. This makes 2017 the second consecutive year after 2016 where the first storms in both basins were pre-season storms.[47]

Tropical Storm Bret

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Bret (02L) making landfall in Trinidad at peak intensity
 
Tropical Storm Bret (02L) making landfall in Trinidad at peak intensity
Duration June 19 – June 20
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1007 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on June 13 and was first monitored by the National Hurricane Center shortly afterwards.[48] Development, however, was expected to be slow due to its low latitude and relatively fast motion. As it moved swiftly across the Main Development Region of the Atlantic Ocean, the disturbance began to gradually organize, and the NHC raised development chances slightly on June 16.[49] Little change in organization occurred until June 18, at which point a burst of convection near the center of the disturbance prompted the NHC to designate the system as Potential Tropical Cyclone Two at 21:00 UTC. This was the agency's first designation of a disturbance that had not yet developed into a tropical cyclone.[50] The storm continued to organize as it accelerated towards Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago throughout the night, with banding features becoming evident. Later on June 19, the system developed a closed low-level circulation and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Bret at 21:00 UTC.[51] One day later, at 21:00 UTC on June 20, the last advisory on Bret was issued following its degeneration into a tropical wave.[52] The remnants later contributed to the formation of Hurricane Dora in the eastern Pacific.

According to Phil Klotzbach of Colorado State University, Bret was the earliest storm to form in the Main Development Region on record, surpassing a record set by Tropical Storm Ana in 1979.[53] Bret was also the lowest latitude named storm in the month of June since 1933 at 9.4°N.[54] In Trinidad, one person died after he slipped and fell while running across a makeshift bridge; the fatality is considered indirectly related to Bret.[55][56] In Tobago, a man's house collapsed on him; he eventually succumbed to his injuries a week later.[57]

Tropical Storm Cindy

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Cindy 2017-06-21 1645Z
 
Cindy 2017 track
Duration June 20 – June 23
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

In mid-June, two tropical waves and an area of disturbed weather began merging over the western Caribbean Sea. A broad area of low pressure developed on June 19, and by 18:00 UTC on the following day, Tropical Storm Cindy formed over the central Gulf of Mexico about 240 mi (390 km) south-southwest of the mouth of the Mississippi River. While slowly moving to the northwest, Cindy's intensification was slow due to the effects of dry air and moderate to strong wind shear. After peaking with sustained winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) on June 21, Cindy weakened slightly prior to making landfall in Louisiana just east of Sabine Pass on June 22. The storm quickly weakened after moving inland and degenerated into a remnant low on June 23, dissipating over the Mid-Atlantic on the following day.[58]

Upon making landfall in Louisiana, the storm generated a peak storm surge of 4.1 ft (1.2 m) and tides up to 6.38 ft (1.94 m) above normal in Vermilion Parish. However, coastal flooding mainly consisted of roads being inundated, while some beach erosion occurred.[59] Due to Cindy's weak nature, only a few locations observed sustained tropical storm force winds. Consequently, wind damage was generally minor. Because the cyclone had an asymmetrical structure, heavy rainfall was observed over southeastern Mississippi, southwestern Alabama, and the far western Florida Panhandle, while lesser precipitation amounts fell over Louisiana and Texas. The storm and its remnants spawned 18 tornadoes throughout the Eastern United States, which caused just over $1.1 million in damage. Overall, damage from Cindy totaled less than $25 million. Two fatalities were attributed to the cyclone, one direct and one indirect.[58]

Tropical Depression Four

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
04L 2017-07-06 1605Z
 
04L 2017 track
Duration July 5 – July 7
Peak intensity 30 mph (45 km/h) (1-min)  1009 mbar (hPa)

Early on June 29, the NHC began tracking a tropical wave embedded within a large envelope of deep moisture across the coastline of western Africa.[60] The disturbance was introduced as a potential contender for tropical cyclone formation two days later, as environmental conditions were expected to favor slow organization.[61] It began to show signs of organization over the central Atlantic early on July 3,[62] but the chances for development began to decrease two days later as the system moved toward a more stable environment.[63] Having already acquired a well-defined circulation, the development of a persistent mass of deep convection around 03:00 UTC the following day prompted the NHC to upgrade the wave to Tropical Depression Four, located about 1,545 miles (2,485 km) east of the Lesser Antilles.[64] Despite wind shear being low, the nascent depression struggled to intensify due to a dry environment caused by a Saharan Air Layer to its east, causing the low-level circulation to weaken, and resulting in the tropical depression degenerating into an open tropical wave late on the next day.[65]

Tropical Storm Don

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Don 2017-07-17 1710Z
 
Don 2017 track
Duration July 17 – July 18
Peak intensity 50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

Late on July 15, the NHC highlighted a low-pressure trough over the central Atlantic as having the potential to develop into a tropical cyclone in the coming days.[66] The disturbance began to show signs of organization early on July 17,[67] and a tropical depression formed at 06:00 UTC that day. The system continued to intensify, and developed into Tropical Storm Don just six hours later.[68] The storm's overall appearance improved over subsequent hours up until around 00:00 UTC, as a central dense overcast, accompanied by significant clusters of lightning, became pronounced.[69] Don attained its peak intensity at this time, characterized by winds of approximately 50 mph (85 km/h) as measured by reconnaissance aircraft.[68] The next plane to investigate the cyclone a few hours later, however, found that the system's center had become less defined, and that sustained wind speeds had decreased to about 40 mph (65 km/h).[70] A combination of reconnaissance data and surface observations from the Windward Islands indicated that Don opened up into a tropical wave around 12:00 UTC on July 18, as it entered the eastern Caribbean Sea.[68]

Tropical Storm Emily

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Emily 2017-07-31 1555Z
 
Emily 2017 track
Duration July 30 – August 2
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)

In late July, a dissipating cold front extended into the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, where the NHC began forecasting the development of an area of low pressure over the next day on July 30. Any development was expected to be slow due to land proximity and marginal upper-level winds.[71] Contrary to predictions, a rapid period of organization occurred over the next 24 hours and the system was deemed as Tropical Depression Six at 09:00 UTC on July 31,[72] strengthening into Tropical Storm Emily just two hours later. The rapidly-forming storm then reached its peak intensity with winds of 60 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 1001 mbar (29.6 inHg) and made landfall on Longboat Key around 14:45 UTC. Weakening quickly ensued, and later that day the circulation of Emily became elongated as it was downgraded to a tropical depression. The increasingly disrupted system later moved off the First Coast of Florida into the western Atlantic early the next day, accelerating northeastwards before degenerating into a remnant low early on August 2.[73]

Following the classification of Tropical Storm Emily, Florida Governor Rick Scott declared a state of emergency for 31 counties to ensure residents were provided with the necessary resources.[74] Heavy rainfall produced by Emily caused widespread flooding in Polk and Pinellas counties, prompting the closure of roads and evacuation of a few homes.[73] Coastal flooding was reported in Hillsborough, Manatee, and Sarasota counties, causing additional road closures.[73] An EF0 tornado touched down Bradenton, destroying 2 barns and multiple greenhouses as well as collapsing an engineered wall.[75] Total damages from Emily are estimated to be near US$10 million.[73]

Hurricane Franklin

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Franklin 2017-08-09 1854Z
 
Franklin 2017 track
Duration August 7 – August 10
Peak intensity 85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  981 mbar (hPa)

The NHC began tracking a tropical wave in the southeastern Caribbean Sea for possible development on August 3.[76] After organizing for a few days, advisories were initiated on Potential Tropical Cyclone Seven at 21:00 UTC on August 6.[77] The disturbance became Tropical Storm Franklin at 00:00 UTC on August 7.[78] After strengthening into a moderate tropical storm, Franklin made its first landfall near Pulticub, Mexico at 03:00 UTC on August 8.[79] The cyclone weakened considerably while over the peninsula, however its satellite presentation remained well-defined, with the inner core tightening up considerably.[80] Later that day, Franklin emerged into the Bay of Campeche, and immediately began strengthening again, becoming a hurricane—the first of the season—late on August 9.[81] Five hours after peaking in intensity with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) and a pressure of 981 mbar (28.97 inHg),[82] Franklin made landfall in Lechuguillas, Mexico,[83] and thereafter began to rapidly weaken. By 15:00 UTC on August 10, Franklin had dissipated as a tropical cyclone.[84] However, its mid-level circulation remained intact and later contributed to the formation of Tropical Storm Jova in the Eastern Pacific early on August 12.[85]

Immediately upon classification of Franklin as a potential tropical cyclone, tropical storm warnings were issued for much of the eastern side of the Yucatán Peninsula on August 6;[77] a small portion of the coastline was upgraded to a hurricane watch with the possibility of Franklin nearing hurricane intensity as it approached the coastline the next night. Approximately 330 people were reported as going into storm shelters, and around 2,200 relocated from the islands near the coastline to farther inland in advance of the storm.[86] In the Mexican part of the peninsula, damage was reported as having being minimal, mainly in Belize as the storm tracked slightly more northwards then expected, lessening impacts.[86] Nonetheless, some areas received up to a foot of rain.[87]

Hurricane Gert

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Gert 2017-08-16 Suomi NPP
 
Gert 2017 track
Duration August 12 – August 17
Peak intensity 110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min)  962 mbar (hPa)

On August 2, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave and its associated convection over the western coast of Africa.[88] As the disturbance tracked west-northwest, its structure changed little in organization, but environmental conditions were expected to support the formation of a tropical cyclone.[89] Instead, the system remained poorly defined and entered a less conducive environment east of the Leeward Islands.[90] After progressing into the southwestern Atlantic several days later, the wave encountered more favorable upper-level winds and began to show signs of organization.[91] Following the formation of a well-defined circulation, the disturbance was upgraded to a tropical depression at 03:00 UTC on August 13;[92] by 21:00 UTC that afternoon, it intensified into Tropical Storm Gert.[93] At 03:00 UTC on August 15, Gert intensified to a Category 1 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h), making it the second hurricane of the season.[94] Accelerating east-northeastwards, Gert peaked as a high-end Category 2 system early on August 17 at an unusually high latitude of 40°N.[95] Thereafter, Gert began to rapidly weaken as it shifted from the Gulf Stream over cooler waters.[96] Just 12 hours after achieving peak intensity, Gert weakened below hurricane status and degenerated to an extratropical cyclone well east of Nova Scotia.[97]

Two people drowned due to strong rip currents produced by the hurricane: one in the Outer Banks of North Carolina, and the other in Nantucket, Massachusetts.[98][99] The remnants of Gert merged with another extratropical cyclone that later threatened Ireland and the United Kingdom,[100] sparking Met Éireann to issue yellow weather warnings for the entirety of Ireland.[101] As the storm hit, severe floods occurred in Northern Ireland, with floodwaters reaching 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in), and over 100 people were rescued after being trapped by floodwaters overnight.[102]

Hurricane Harvey

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Harvey 2017-08-25 2231Z
 
Harvey 2017 track
Duration August 17 – September 1
Peak intensity 130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  937 mbar (hPa)

The NHC began monitoring an area of low pressure southwest of Cape Verde on August 13, which was expected to merge with a tropical wave that just emerged off the coast of Africa within a few days.[103] Instead the two systems remained separate,[104] with the first low pressure area coalescing into Potential Tropical Cyclone Nine by 15:00 UTC on August 17, and the other system moving farther north,[105] eventually becoming Potential Tropical Cyclone Ten.[104] A reconnaissance aircraft investigating the system was able to locate a well-defined circulation, and the disturbance was upgraded to Tropical Storm Harvey accordingly six hours later.[106] On a westward course into the Caribbean Sea, the storm was plagued by relentless wind shear, and it degenerated to an open tropical wave south of Hispaniola, by 03:00 UTC on August 20.[107] Harvey's remnants continued into the Bay of Campeche, where more conducive environmental conditions led to the re-designation of a tropical depression, around 15:00 UTC on August 23, and subsequent intensification into a tropical storm by 04:00 UTC on the next morning.[108][109] The tropical cyclone began a period of rapid intensification shortly thereafter, attaining hurricane intensity by 17:00 UTC on August 24,[110] Category 3 strength around 19:00 UTC on August 25,[111] and Category 4 intensity by 23:00 UTC on that day.[110]

Harvey crossed the shore between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas around 03:00 UTC on August 26, possessing maximum winds of 130 mph (215 km/h).[112] The storm gradually spun down, becoming a tropical storm around 18:00 UTC on August 26, as it meandered across southeastern Texas.[113] A light steering pattern caused the storm to emerge into the Gulf of Mexico on August 28,[114] but a turn toward the north-northeast brought it ashore west of Cameron, Louisiana, as a weak tropical storm around 09:00 UTC on August 30.[115] The system weakened to a tropical depression over central Louisiana late that day before losing tropical characteristics over central Tennessee early on September 1.[116][117]

Rockport, Fulton, and the surrounding cities bore the brunt of Harvey's eyewall as it moved ashore in Texas. Numerous structures were heavily damaged or destroyed, boats were tossed or capsized, power poles were leant or snapped, and trees were downed. As debris covered roadways and cellphone service was compromised, communication to the hardest-hit locales was severed. One person was killed in Rockport after a fire began in his home, and approximately a dozen people were injured.[118] Farther northeast, dire predictions of potentially catastrophic flooding came to fruition in Houston and nearby locales, where floodwaters submerged major highways, forced residents to their attics and roofs, and overwhelmed emergency lines. The National Weather Service tweeted, "This event is unprecedented & all impacts are unknown & beyond anything experienced..." At least 30 people were killed in the Houston area due to flooding.[119] In addition to the flooding, Harvey spawned several tornadoes around Houston.[120] Estimates place the damage caused by Harvey at $125 billion, which ties it with Hurricane Katrina as the costliest tropical cyclone on record.[30] Harvey killed 107 people, including 106 in the United States[30] and 1 man in Guyana who slipped and fell while he was running across a bridge.[121] The storm produced 60.58 inches (1,538.7 mm) of rainfall in Texas, the highest-ever rainfall total for any tropical cyclone in the United States.[122]

Harvey was the first major hurricane to strike the United States since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, ending the record-length 4,323-day span in which no tropical cyclones made landfall as major hurricanes.[123] It is the most intense tropical cyclone to move ashore the US mainland since Hurricane Charley in 2004, and the first Category 4 hurricane to make landfall in Texas since Hurricane Carla in 1961.[124]

Hurricane Irma

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Irma 2017-09-05 1706Z
 
Irma 2017 track
Duration August 30 – September 12
Peak intensity 180 mph (285 km/h) (1-min)  914 mbar (hPa)

A westward-moving tropical wave, first monitored over western Africa on August 26,[125] organized into Tropical Storm Irma around 15:00 UTC on August 30.[126] Amid an environment of low wind shear and warm ocean temperatures, the newly formed cyclone moved generally westward while intensifying. A reconnaissance aircraft investigating the system east of the Caribbean on September 5 found the cyclone at Category 5 intensity.[127] With a clear eye surrounded by a ring of extremely deep convection, Irma attained its peak intensity with winds of 180 mph (285 km/h) later that day,[128] and maintained this intensity as it moved through the northern Leeward Islands.[129] Some weakening occurred south of the Bahamas,[130] but the cyclone regained Category 5 intensity before making landfall on the Cayo Romano of Cuba at 03:00 UTC on September 9.[131] Land interaction disrupted the storm temporarily,[132] but once again it strengthened to acquire winds of 130 mph (215 km/h), before making landfall in Cudjoe Key of the Florida Keys early on September 10.[133] A few hours later, it struck Marco Island, Florida, with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h).[134] Irma continued north and west, steadily weakening over the Southeastern United States before losing tropical characteristics in Georgia, early on September 12.[135]

With peak winds of 180 mph (285 km/h), Irma was the strongest Atlantic storm outside of the Gulf of Mexico or Caribbean Sea on record. Maintaining peak intensity for 37 consecutive hours, Irma is the only tropical cyclone on record worldwide to have had winds that intense for so long. As the storm moved through the northern Leeward Islands, it became the only Category 5 hurricane to make a direct impact there; its landfall intensity only behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane as the strongest landfalling cyclone on record in the Atlantic. Two Category 4 hurricanes, Harvey and Irma, struck the continental United States in the span of two weeks; this marks the first time the country has suffered two landfalls of such intensity during the same hurricane season in recorded history. Lastly, Irma accrued the third-highest Accumulated Cyclone Energy index on record in the Atlantic,[136] behind only the 1899 San Ciriaco hurricane and Hurricane Ivan of 2004.

In the aftermath of Irma, development on the islands of Barbuda and Saint Martin was described as being "95% destroyed" by respective political leaders, with 1,400 people feared homeless in Barbuda.[137] Irma resulted in at least 134 deaths, including 92 in the United States and 42 across the Caribbean.[127]

Hurricane Jose

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
Jose 2017-09-08 1845Z
 
Jose 2017 track
Duration September 5 – September 22
Peak intensity 155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  938 mbar (hPa)

A westward-moving tropical wave exited the west coast of Africa on August 31,[138] organizing into Tropical Storm Jose over the open eastern Atlantic by 15:00 UTC on September 5.[139] The quickly-strengthening cyclone attained hurricane intensity late on September 6,[140] reached major hurricane strength late on September 7,[141] and ultimately peaked as a high-end Category 4 hurricane with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h) early on September 9.[142] Moderate wind shear weakened the cyclone as it conducted a slow clockwise loop between Bermuda and the Caribbean Sea and eventually moved north ahead of an approaching trough.[143] Steering currents collapsed by early on September 21, causing the system to stall offshore the Northeastern United States as a weakening tropical storm.[144] With a rain shield in the northern and northwestern semicircles accompanied by a lack of deep convection over the center, the NHC declared Jose a post-tropical cyclone around 03:00 UTC on September 22, ending advisories once the storm's tropical storm-force winds moved off the New England coast at 21:00 UTC.[145][146]

The government of Antigua and Barbuda began efforts on September 8 to evacuate the entire island of Barbuda prior to Jose's anticipated arrival, as most structures on the island had been heavily damaged or destroyed by Hurricane Irma.[147] When Jose reached peak intensity, it marked the first time on record in the Atlantic basin that two hurricanes, the other being Irma, occurring simultaneously had maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h).[148]

Hurricane Katia

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
Katia 2017-09-08 1745Z
 
Katia 2017 track
Duration September 5 – September 9
Peak intensity 105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  972 mbar (hPa)

A trough was present over the southwestern Gulf of Mexico on September 3, producing a widespread area of thunderstorms.[149] Two days later, a distinct low pressure area formed about 50 mi (80 km) east of Tampico, Tamaulipas.[150] At 21:00 UTC that day, the NHC designated the system as Tropical Depression Thirteen after an organized area of convection formed over the center. Located in an area of weak steering currents, the depression drifted slowly eastward. With gradually decreasing wind shear and warm water temperatures, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Katia on September 6, as the convection became better organized.[151][152] Later that day, an aircraft reconnaissance flight into the storm found a partial eye wall and surface winds of 76 mph (122 km/h); on that basis, the NHC upgraded Katia to hurricane status.[153] The convection organized into a central dense overcast as the system stalled.[154] Late in the evening of September 8, Katia made landfall north of Tecolutla, Mexico as a weak Category 1 storm.[155] The system rapidly dissipated over land on September 9. Katia's remnants traveled across Central America and later emerged over the Pacific Ocean, where redevelopment ensued. Tropical Depression Fifteen-E formed, which later strengthened into Hurricane Otis about a week later.[156]

In preparation for Katia, over 4,000 residents were evacuated from the states of Veracruz and Puebla.[157] Tourists left coastal towns, emergency shelters were opened, and storm drains were cleared before the onset of heavy rainfall.[158] Two fatalities were reported in Xalapa from mudslides, while a third man was swept away by floodwaters in Jalcomulco. States of emergency were declared for 40 out of a total 53 municipalities that reported minor damage from mudslides and flooding.[159] About 77,000 residents were left without power at the height of the storm.[160]

Hurricane Lee

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Lee 2017-09-27 1450Z
 
Lee 2017 track
Duration September 14 – September 30
Peak intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  962 mbar (hPa)

A tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa on September 13. Contrary to predictions of only gradual organization over the following days,[161] the system rapidly organized, becoming Tropical Depression Fourteen at 03:00 UTC on September 15.[162] The NHC upgraded the system to Tropical Storm Lee at 15:00 UTC on the next day, based on an increase in deep convection and an advanced scatterometer (ASCAT) pass which indicated that it was producing minimal tropical-storm-force winds.[163] After encountering wind shear, Lee gradually weakened into a tropical depression early on September 17. As Lee moved northwest in tandem with an upper-level trough with periodic bursts of convection, wind shear decreased slightly, allowing Lee to reintensify to a tropical storm again early on September 19 and attaining an initial peak intensity with winds of 45 mph (70 km/h) that day. However, wind shear again increased, and Lee opened up into a trough early the next day.[164] The NHC monitored the remnants of Lee intermittently for several days, but regeneration was not considered likely.[165][166] However, the mid-level remnants of the tropical cyclone became intertwined with an upper-level trough; a deep burst of convection led to a new surface circulation, and by 21:00 UTC on September 22, the system reorganized into Tropical Depression Lee.[167] Lee intensified into a tropical storm six hours later.[168]

A compact tropical cyclone, Lee organized, as small curved bands wrapped into a small cluster of central convection.[169] A microwave pass around 21:00 UTC on September 23 indicated the formation of a ring of shallow to moderate convection around the center, often a harbinger of rapid intensification.[170] Indeed, by 06:30 UTC the next morning, the presence of an eye on satellite imagery prompted the NHC to abruptly upgrade Lee to a hurricane as it moved erratically.[171] After attaining winds of 90 mph (150 km/h), the storm weakened slightly due to moderate southeasterly wind shear.[172] By 09:00 UTC on September 26, however, the storm attained Category 2 strength.[173] An eyewall replacement cycle that night led to the emergence of a larger eye surrounded by cold cloud tops, and by 15:00 UTC on September 27, Lee reached its peak intensity as a Category 3 hurricane with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h).[174] The system recurved northeast after peak intensity and quickly succumbed to strong northerly wind shear and progressively cooler ocean waters;[175] it weakened below major hurricane strength by 03:00 UTC on September 28,[176] fell below hurricane strength by 15:00 UTC on September 29,[177] and degenerated to a post-tropical cyclone by 09:00 UTC on September 30, after lacking deep convection for over 12 hours.[178] On October 1, Lee's remnant was absorbed by another extratropical cyclone to the north.[179]

Hurricane Maria

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
Maria 2017-09-19 2015Z
 
Maria 2017 track
Duration September 16 – September 30
Peak intensity 175 mph (280 km/h) (1-min)  908 mbar (hPa)

On September 13, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave southwest of Cape Verde.[180] The disturbance moved west, organizing into a potential tropical cyclone at 15:00 UTC on September 16 and Tropical Storm Maria six hours later.[181][182] On a west-northwest course, Maria intensified at an exceptional rate; over a 24-hour period ending at 00:00 UTC on September 19, Maria nearly doubled its winds from 85 mph (140 km/h) to 165 mph (270 km/h), thus reaching Category 5 strength.[183][184] After striking Dominica at that intensity a little over an hour later,[185] the storm weakened slightly as it entered the eastern Caribbean Sea; amid favorable conditions, however, Maria regained Category 5 intensity and eventually reached peak winds of 175 mph (280 km/h) late on September 19.[186] Around 08:00 UTC on September 20, the eyewall of Maria struck Vieques,[187] and a little over two hours later, the core of the storm made landfall near Yabucoa, Puerto Rico, with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h).[188] Land interaction caused a significant degration in Maria's structure, and it weakened to a Category 2 hurricane while moving offshore.[189] Growing in size and curving north, Maria regained Category 3 strength and maintained this intensity for several days before entering a less conducive environment.[190] After fluctuating between tropical storm and minimal hurricane strength off the coastline of North Carolina,[191] the system turned sharply east away from the United States, and ultimately evolved into an extratropical cyclone over the far northern Atlantic, on September 30.[192][193]

Dominica sustained catastrophic damage from Maria, with nearly every structure on the island damaged or destroyed.[194] Surrounding islands were also dealt a devastating blow, with reports of flooding, downed trees, and damaged buildings. Puerto Rico also suffered catastrophic damage. The island's electric grid was devastated, leaving all 3.4 million residents without power. Many structures were leveled, while floodwaters trapped thousands of citizens. The United States National Guard, Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and other like units worked to administer aid and assist in search and rescue operations. However, the U.S. federal government response was criticized for its delay in waiving the Jones Act, a statute which prevented Puerto Rico from receiving aid on ships from non-U.S. flagged vessels. Along the coastline of the United States, tropical storm-force gusts cut power to hundreds of citizens; rip currents offshore led to three deaths and numerous water rescues. Estimates of damage from Maria range from $15.9 billion by Estudios Técnicos to $95 billion by Moody's Analytics.[195] Most of the damage occurred in Puerto Rico; Ricardo Rosselló, the governor of Puerto Rico, believes the storm caused $90 billion in damages.[196] The official death toll currently stands at 146, with: 71 killed in the United States, consisting of 64 in Puerto Rico,[197] 4 in the contiguous United States, and 3 in the United States Virgin Islands; 65 in Dominica; 5 in the Dominican Republic; 3 in Haiti; and 2 in Guadeloupe.[198][199] While Maria's official death toll in Puerto Rico is currently 64, a statistically significant spike in monthly fatalities (more than 1,000 deaths compared to previous years) across Puerto Rico exists in the two months following the hurricane.[197][200] In May of 2018, a new study by a group of independent researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and other institutions now estimates the death toll to be roughly 4,600, many due to the delay of medical care.[201]

Hurricane Nate

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
Nate 2017-10-07 1848Z
 
Nate 2017 track
Duration October 4 – October 9
Peak intensity 90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min)  981 mbar (hPa)

On October 3, a broad area of low pressure formed in the southwestern Caribbean Sea.[202] The disturbance quickly organized, and on October 4, the NHC announced that the disturbance had strengthened into Tropical Depression Sixteen, and began issuing advisories on the storm.[203] The system slowly became stronger and more organized, and, early on October 5, was deemed a tropical storm and named Nate.[204] Nate's first U.S landfall was in the mouth of the Mississippi River as a Category 1 hurricane, and Nate's second U.S landfall was at 12:30 a.m. CST near Biloxi, MS, both on October 8. After Nate tracked inland, it quickly weakened into a tropical depression, and a few hours later, evolved into an extratropical storm. Hurricane Nate also broke the record for the fastest moving hurricane ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.[205]

Nate caused at least 48 deaths, including 16 in Nicaragua,[206] 14 in Costa Rica,[207] 7 in Panama,[208] 5 in Guatemala, 3 in Honduras,[208] 2 in the United States,[209][210] and 1 in El Salvador,[208] , and a further 9 missing accumulative of all affected areas. Total damages from the hurricane are estimated at US$787 million, and with an estimated ₡317.5 billion (US$562 million) in Costa Rica alone, it is the costliest natural disaster in that country's history.[211]

Hurricane Ophelia

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
Ophelia 2017-10-14 1454Z
 
Ophelia 2017 track
Duration October 9 – October 16
Peak intensity 115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min)  959 mbar (hPa)

On October 6, a circulation developed at the end of a cold front in the northeast Atlantic, with a low pressure area developing within the circulation on the same day.[212] While the low drifted slowly to the northeast, it began to lose its frontal system and acquire subtropical characteristics by October 7.[213] The next day, the storm encountered stronger wind shear, removing some of its convection, and slightly weakening the system; however, the storm eventually grew better organized and developed more convection around its low pressure center later in the day.[214] Early on October 9, the system fully transitioned into a tropical cyclone, prompting the NHC to begin issuing advisories on Tropical Depression Seventeen.[215][216] The tropical depression continued to strengthen, becoming Tropical Storm Ophelia later that day.[217] Ophelia continued to strengthen due to low wind shear and on October 11, the National Hurricane Center upgraded it to a hurricane, making it the tenth consecutive storm this season to reach hurricane strength.[218] Ophelia became a Category 2 hurricane on October 12 at 5:00 p.m. AST (21:00 UTC).[219] On October 14 at 11:00 a.m. AST (15:00 UTC), Ophelia unexpectedly intensified to a Category 3 hurricane, making Ophelia the sixth major hurricane of the season and the easternmost major hurricane in the Atlantic basin on record.[220] On October 15, Ophelia began to weaken, while accelerating northeastward towards Ireland and Great Britain, with the storm's wind field also expanding. Early on October 16, Ophelia transitioned into a hurricane-strength extratropical cyclone, as it began impacting Ireland and Britain.

In County Waterford, a woman was killed when a tree fell on her car, caused by the winds from Ophelia's remnants.[221] In County Tipperary, a man was killed while clearing a fallen tree with a chainsaw.[222] Another person was killed in Dundalk when a tree fell on his car.[223] Two other men died after suffering fatal injuries while carrying out repairs to damage caused by Ophelia and Storm Brian.[224]

Tropical Storm Philippe

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Philippe 2017-10-28 Suomi NPP
 
Philippe 2017 track
Duration October 28 – October 29
Peak intensity 40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

On October 22, the NHC forecasted that a broad area of low pressure would form in the southwestern Caribbean Sea.[225] On October 23, as predicted, a broad low formed off of the northwestern coast of Nicaragua.[226] However, the system remained disorganized for the next several days[227] until the afternoon of October 27, when it quickly organized, prompting the NHC to upgrade the system into Potential Tropical Cyclone Eighteen, since it lacked a well-defined center.[228] Over the next day, gradual organization occurred until the system coalesced into a tropical depression at 12:00 UTC on October 28; it strengthened into Tropical Storm Philippe six hours later. Strong wind shear and land interaction quickly began to cause the system to become disorganized, and Philippe made landfall near Cuba's Zapata Peninsula as a very disorganized tropical storm with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h).[228] It dissipated hours later – although operationally, Philippe was assessed as crossing the Florida Keys and exiting into the western Atlantic Ocean, which was later attributed in post-analysis to a non-tropical area of low pressure that was interacting with Philippe, shortly before it dissipated.[229]

Tropical Storm Rina

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Rina 2017-11-08 1355Z
 
Rina 2017 track
Duration November 5 – November 9
Peak intensity 60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

In early November, the National Hurricane Center began to monitor a non-tropical area of low pressure in the central Atlantic, which had formed at the end of a decaying cold front, for potential tropical development. Gradually, the system became better organized and was able to maintain an area of deep convection to the east of the center. On the morning of November 6, the NHC declared that Tropical Depression Nineteen had formed in the Central Atlantic.[230] As the day progressed, wind shear from the west began to impact the tropical cyclone, displacing shower and thunderstorm activity to the east. Despite this, the system continued to strengthen, and by 03:00 UTC on November 7, the tropical depression was upgraded to a tropical storm, gaining the name Rina. As it headed on a northerly track, Rina continued to strengthen despite strong shear and dry air intrusion, and also began to show subtropical characteristics marked by most of the deep convection and strongest winds well removed from the center. Nonetheless, Rina strengthened into a strong tropical storm with peak winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). Shortly after attaining peak strength, convection began to wane and became displaced well from the center of the system, and the storm began to show a comma-like appearance on satellite imagery, signifying an extratropical transition. The storm began to accelerate to the north ahead of an approaching cold front and was absorbed into the frontal system around 15:00 UTC on November 9, a few hundred miles to the northeast of Newfoundland.[231]

With the formation of Rina in November, the 2017 season became the first since 2013 to feature a named storm in every month within the official bounds of the Atlantic hurricane season (June through November).

Other systems

10L 2017-08-28 1750Z
Potential Tropical Cyclone Ten on August 28

The NHC began monitoring a tropical wave that just emerged off the coast of Africa on August 13, which was expected to merge with an area of low pressure southwest of Cape Verde within a few days.[103] Instead the two systems remained separate,[104] with the first eventually coalescing into Potential Tropical Cyclone Ten on August 27, to the northeast of Florida, and the other low pressure eventually becoming Hurricane Harvey.[105][104] The NHC gave this disturbance a 90% chance of becoming a tropical cyclone within the next 48 hours.[232] After attaining 1-minute sustained winds of 45 mph (70 km/h), the system subsequently began to undergo an extratropical transition.[233][234] Consequently, the NHC issued its last advisory on the system at 21:00 UTC on August 29, declaring the system to be an extratropical low.[235] However, after the storm became extratropical, it strengthened, peaking at maximum sustained winds of 80 mph,[236] before being absorbed by a larger extratropical system, Windstorm Perryman.[237][238]

Storm names

The following list of names was used for named storms that formed in the North Atlantic in 2017. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2023 season.[239] This was the same list used in the 2011 season, with the exception of the name Irma, which replaced Irene. Irma was previously used in 1978.

  • Ophelia
  • Philippe
  • Rina
  • Sean (unused)
  • Tammy (unused)
  • Vince (unused)
  • Whitney (unused)

The usage of the name "Don" in July garnered some attention relating to United States President Donald Trump. Max Mayfield, former director of the National Hurricane Center, clarified that the name had no relation to Trump and was chosen in 2006 as a replacement for Dennis. Regardless, some outlets such as the Associated Press, "poked fun" at the name and Trump.[240][241]

Retirement

On April 11, 2018, at the 40th session of the RA IV hurricane committee, the World Meteorological Organization retired the names Harvey, Irma, Maria, and Nate from its rotating naming lists due to the amount of deaths and damage they caused, and they will not be used again for another Atlantic hurricane. They will be replaced with Harold, Idalia, Margot, and Nigel for the 2023 season, respectively.[242] With four names retired, the 2017 season is tied with the 1955, 1995 and 2004 seasons for the second-highest number of storm names retired after a single Atlantic season, only surpassed by the 2005 season, which had five retired names.[243]

Season effects

This is a table of all the storms that formed in the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, besides Potential Tropical Cyclone Ten. It includes their duration, names, affected areas, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a tropical wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in 2017 USD. Potential tropical cyclones are not included in this table.

Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale
TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
2017 North Atlantic tropical cyclones season statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs


Arlene April 19 – 21 Tropical storm 50 (85) 990 None None None
Bret June 19 – 20 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1007 Guyana, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Windward Islands ≥ $3 million 1 (1)
Cindy June 20 – 23 Tropical storm 60 (95) 991 Honduras, Belize, Cayman Islands, Yucatán Peninsula, Cuba, Southern United States, Eastern United States $25 million 1 (1)
Four July 5 – 7 Tropical depression 30 (45) 1009 None None None
Don July 17 – 18 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1005 Windward Islands, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago None None
Emily July 30 – August 1 Tropical storm 60 (95) 1001 Florida $10 million None
Franklin August 7 – 10 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 981 Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, Yucatán Peninsula, Central Mexico $15 million None
Gert August 12 – 17 Category 2 hurricane 110 (175) 962 Bermuda, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada None 0 (2)
Harvey August 17 – September 1 Category 4 hurricane 130 (215) 937 Barbados, Suriname, Guyana, Windward Islands, Nicaragua, Belize, Yucatán Peninsula, Northeastern Mexico, Southern United States (Texas, Louisiana), Eastern United States $125 billion 68 (39)
Irma August 30 – September 12 Category 5 hurricane 180 (285) 914 Cape Verde, Leeward Islands (Barbuda, Saint Martin, Saint Barthelemy, U.S. Virgin Islands), Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Turks and Caicos Islands, The Bahamas, Cuba, Southeastern United States (Florida and Georgia), Northeastern United States $64.76 billion 52 (82)
Jose September 5 – 22 Category 4 hurricane 155 (250) 938 Leeward Islands, East Coast of the United States $2.84 million 0 (1)
Katia September 5 – 9 Category 2 hurricane 105 (165) 972 Eastern Mexico Unknown 3 (0)
Lee September 15 – 30 Category 3 hurricane 115 (185) 962 None None None
Maria September 16 – 30 Category 5 hurricane 175 (280) 908 Lesser Antilles (Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Croix), Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Turks and Caicos Islands, The Bahamas, Southeastern United States, Mid-Atlantic States, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Spain $91.606 billion 146–8,580
Nate October 4 – 9 Category 1 hurricane 90 (150) 981 Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Panama, Mexico, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Southeastern United States (Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida Panhandle), Northeastern United States, Atlantic Canada $787 million 46 (2)
Ophelia October 9 – 16 Category 3 hurricane 115 (185) 959 Azores, Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Russia > $13.6 million 2 (3)
Philippe October 28 – 29 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1000 Central America, Cayman Islands, Yucatán Peninsula, Cuba, Florida Minimal None
Rina November 5 – 9 Tropical storm 60 (95) 991 None None None
Season Aggregates
18 systems April 19 –
November 9
  180 (285) 908 ≥ $282.16 billion 319 – 8,753+ (131)  

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ The "strength" of a tropical cyclone is measured by the minimum barometric pressure, not wind speed. Most meteorological organizations rate the intensity of a storm by this figure, so the lower the minimum pressure of the storm, the more intense or "stronger" it is considered to be. The strongest winds were actually from Irma, at 180 mph (285 km/h).
  2. ^ The totals represent the sum of the squares for every (sub)tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000. Calculations are provided at Talk:2017 Atlantic hurricane season/ACE calcs.
  3. ^ It should be noted that Arlene would likely not have been detected without the help of satellites, and there may well have been other similar storms this early in the year in the pre-satellite era (1966 and before).[45]

References

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  2. ^ "Update on National Hurricane Center Products and Services for 2017" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved March 12, 2017.
  3. ^ "Potential Tropical Cyclone Two". Nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
  4. ^ a b "Background Information: The North Atlantic Hurricane Season". Climate Prediction Center. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. August 9, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2013.
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  6. ^ a b Mark Saunders; Adam Lea (April 5, 2017). April Forecast Update for Atlantic Hurricane Activity in 2017 (PDF) (Report). London, United Kingdom: Tropical Storm Risk.
  7. ^ a b Phillip J. Klotzbach; William M. Gray (April 6, 2017). "Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and Landfall Strike Probability for 2017" (PDF). Colorado State University. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  8. ^ a b "2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season Forecast Calls For a Near-Average Number of Storms, Less Active Than 2016". weather.com. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  9. ^ a b WRAL (18 April 2017). "NCSU researchers predict 'normal' hurricane season :: WRAL.com". wral.com. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
  10. ^ a b "2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season Forecast Update Calls For An Above-Average Number Of Storms". weather.com. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
  11. ^ a b "Above-normal Atlantic hurricane season is most likely this year". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. May 25, 2017.
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  15. ^ a b Mark Saunders; Adam Lea (July 4, 2017). July Forecast Update for Atlantic Hurricane Activity in 2017 (PDF) (Report). Tropical Storm Risk.
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  19. ^ a b "Early-season storms one indicator of active Atlantic hurricane season ahead". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. August 9, 2017.
  20. ^ Phillip J. Klotzbach (December 14, 2016). "Qualitative Discussion of Atlantic Basin Seasonal Hurricane Activity for 2017" (PDF). Colorado State University. Retrieved December 24, 2016.
  21. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  22. ^ a b Phillip J. Klotzbach; Michael M. Bell (November 30, 2017). Summary of 2017 Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity and Verification of Authors' Seasonal and Two-Week Forecasts (PDF) (Report). Colorado State University. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  23. ^ Dr. Jeff Masters (November 30, 2017). "Good Riddance to the Brutal Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2017". Weather Underground. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  24. ^ Drye, Willie. "2017 Hurricane Season Was the Most Expensive in U.S. History". National Geographic. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  25. ^ John P. Cangialosi (July 5, 2017). Tropical Cyclone Report: Tropical Storm Arlene (PDF) (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  26. ^ Hurricane Specialist Unit (August 1, 2017). Monthly Tropical Weather Summary: July (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  27. ^ Hurricane Specialist Unit (September 1, 2017). Monthly Tropical Weather Summary: August (Report). Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
  28. ^ Phillip J. Klotzbach (August 30, 2017). Hurricane Harvey Meteorological Records/Notable Facts Recap (through August 30) (PDF) (Report). Colorado State University. Retrieved December 2, 2017.
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