The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana Governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U.S. Senator from Virginia Tim Kaine, despite losing the popular vote. Trump took office as the 45th president, and Pence as the 48th vice president, on January 20, 2017.
Trump emerged as the front-runner amidst a wide field of Republican primary candidates, while Clinton defeated Senator Bernie Sanders and became the first female presidential nominee of a major American party. Trump's populist, nationalist campaign, which promised to "Make America Great Again" and opposed political correctness, illegal immigration, and many free-trade agreements, garnered extensive free media coverage. Clinton emphasized her extensive political experience, denounced Trump and many of his supporters as bigots, and advocated the expansion of President Obama's policies; racial, LGBT, and women's rights; and "inclusive capitalism". The tone of the general election campaign was widely characterized as divisive and negative. Trump faced controversy over his views on race and immigration, incidents of violence against protestors at his rallies, and his alleged sexual misconduct, while Clinton's campaign was undermined by declining approval ratings and an FBI investigation of her improper use of a private email server.
Clinton had held the lead in nearly every pre-election nationwide poll and in most swing state polls, leading some commentators to compare Trump's victory to that of Harry S. Truman in 1948 as one of the greatest political upsets in modern U.S. history. While Clinton received 2.87 million more votes nationwide (the largest margin ever for a candidate who lost the electoral college), a margin of 2.1%, Trump won a majority of electoral votes, with a total of 306 electors from 30 states, including upset victories in the pivotal Rust Belt region. Ultimately, Trump received 304 electoral votes and Clinton garnered 227, as two faithless electors defected from Trump and five defected from Clinton. Trump is the fifth person in U.S. history to become president while losing the nationwide popular vote.[b] He is the first president without any prior experience in public service or the military, the oldest at inauguration and is believed by many to be the wealthiest.
The United States government's intelligence agencies concluded on January 6, 2017, that the Russian government had interfered in the elections in order to "undermine public faith in the U.S. democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency". President Trump repeatedly criticized these conclusions, calling the issue a "hoax" and "fake news". Trump has also criticized accusations of collusion between Russia and his campaign, citing a lack of evidence. Investigations regarding such collusion were started by the FBI, the Senate Intelligence Committee, and the House Intelligence Committee. The Special Counsel investigation began in May 2017 and concluded in March 2019 that "the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities."
|2016 United States presidential election|
538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
|Turnout||55.7% 0.8 pp|
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Trump/Pence, blue denotes those won by Clinton/Kaine. Numbers indicate electoral votes allotted to the winner of each state.
Faithless electors: Colin Powell 3 (WA), John Kasich 1 (TX), Ron Paul 1 (TX), Bernie Sanders 1 (HI), Faith Spotted Eagle 1 (WA)
Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, and residents of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the political parties, in which case each party devises a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors in turn directly elect the President and Vice President.
President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U.S. Senator from Illinois, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to the restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment; in accordance with Section 1 of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at noon eastern standard time on January 20, 2017.
The series of presidential primary elections and caucuses took place between February and June 2016, staggered among the 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories. This nominating process was also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elected their party's presidential nominee.
Speculation about the 2016 campaign began almost immediately following the 2012 campaign, with New York magazine declaring the race had begun in an article published on November 8, two days after the 2012 election. On the same day, Politico released an article predicting the 2016 general election would be between Clinton and former Florida Governor Jeb Bush, while a New York Times article named New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and Senator Cory Booker from New Jersey as potential candidates.
Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 1, 2016, Perry, Walker, Jindal, Graham, and Pataki withdrew due to low polling numbers. Despite leading many polls in Iowa, Trump came in second to Cruz, after which Huckabee, Paul and Santorum withdrew due to poor performances at the ballot box. Following a sizable victory for Trump in the New Hampshire primary, Christie, Fiorina and Gilmore abandoned the race. Bush followed suit after scoring fourth place to Trump, Rubio and Cruz in South Carolina. On March 1, 2016, the first of four "Super Tuesday" primaries, Rubio won his first contest in Minnesota, Cruz won Alaska, Oklahoma and his home of Texas and Trump won the other seven states that voted. Failing to gain traction, Carson suspended his campaign a few days later. On March 15, 2016, the second "Super Tuesday", Kasich won his only contest in his home state of Ohio and Trump won five primaries including Florida. Rubio suspended his campaign after losing his home state.
Between March 16 and May 3, 2016, only three candidates remained in the race: Trump, Cruz and Kasich. Cruz won the most delegates in four Western contests and in Wisconsin, keeping a credible path to denying Trump the nomination on first ballot with 1,237 delegates. Trump then augmented his lead by scoring landslide victories in New York and five Northeastern states in April, followed by a decisive victory in Indiana on May 3, 2016, securing all 57 of the state's delegates. Without any further chances of forcing a contested convention, both Cruz and Kasich suspended their campaigns. Trump remained the only active candidate and was declared the presumptive Republican nominee by Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus on the evening of May 3, 2016.
A 2018 study found that media coverage of Trump led to increased public support for him during the primaries. The study showed Trump received nearly $2 billion in free media, more than double any other candidate. Political scientist John Sides argued that Trump's polling surge was "almost certainly" due to frequent media coverage of his campaign. Sides concluded "Trump is surging in the polls because the news media has consistently focused on him since he announced his candidacy on June 16". Prior to clinching the Republican nomination, Trump received little support from establishment Republicans.
|Donald Trump||Mike Pence|
|for President||for Vice President|
The Trump Organization
Governor of Indiana
Major candidates were determined by the various media based on common consensus. The following were invited to sanctioned televised debates based on their poll ratings.
Trump received 14,010,177 total votes in the primary. Trump, Cruz, Rubio and Kasich each won at least one primary, with Trump receiving the highest number of votes and Ted Cruz receiving the second highest.
|Candidates in this section are sorted by reverse date of withdrawal from the primaries|
|John Kasich||Ted Cruz||Marco Rubio||Ben Carson||Jeb Bush||Jim Gilmore||Carly Fiorina||Chris Christie|
Governor of Ohio
|Dir. of Pediatric Neurosurgery,
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Governor of Florida
Governor of Virginia
Governor of New Jersey
|W: May 4
|W: May 3
|W: Mar 15
|W: Mar 4
|W: Feb 20
|W: Feb 12
|W: Feb 10
|W: Feb 10|
|Rand Paul||Rick Santorum||Mike Huckabee||George Pataki||Lindsey Graham||Bobby Jindal||Scott Walker||Rick Perry|
Governor of Arkansas
Governor of New York
from South Carolina
Governor of Louisiana
Governor of Wisconsin
Governor of Texas
|W: Feb 3
|W: Feb 3
|W: Feb 1
|W: December 29, 2015
|W: December 21, 2015
|W: November 17, 2015
|W: September 21, 2015
1 write-in vote in New Hampshire
|W: September 11, 2015|
1 write-in vote in New Hampshire
Trump turned his attention towards selecting a running mate after he became the presumptive nominee on May 4, 2016. In mid-June, Eli Stokols and Burgess Everett of Politico reported that the Trump campaign was considering New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich from Georgia, Senator Jeff Sessions of Alabama, and Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin. A June 30 report from The Washington Post also included Senators Bob Corker from Tennessee, Richard Burr from North Carolina, Tom Cotton from Arkansas, Joni Ernst from Iowa, and Indiana Governor Mike Pence as individuals still being considered for the ticket. Trump also stated that he was considering two military generals for the position, including retired Lieutenant General Michael Flynn.
In July 2016, it was reported that Trump had narrowed his list of possible running mates down to three: Christie, Gingrich, and Pence.
On July 14, 2016, several major media outlets reported that Trump had selected Pence as his running mate. Trump confirmed these reports in a message on Twitter on July 15, 2016, and formally made the announcement the following day in New York. On July 19, the second night of the 2016 Republican National Convention, Pence won the Republican vice presidential nomination by acclamation.
Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who also served in the U.S. Senate and was the First Lady of the United States, became the first Democrat in the field to formally launch a major candidacy for the presidency with an announcement on April 12, 2015, via a video message. While nationwide opinion polls in 2015 indicated that Clinton was the front-runner for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, she faced strong challenges from Independent Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, who became the second major candidate when he formally announced on April 30, 2015, that he was running for the Democratic nomination. September 2015 polling numbers indicated a narrowing gap between Clinton and Sanders. On May 30, 2015, former Governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley was the third major candidate to enter the Democratic primary race, followed by former Independent Governor and Republican Senator of Rhode Island Lincoln Chafee on June 3, 2015, former Virginia Senator Jim Webb on July 2, 2015, and former Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig on September 6, 2015.
On October 20, 2015, Webb announced his withdrawal from the primaries, and explored a potential Independent run. The next day Vice-President Joe Biden decided not to run, ending months of speculation, stating, "While I will not be a candidate, I will not be silent." On October 23, Chafee withdrew, stating that he hoped for "an end to the endless wars and the beginning of a new era for the United States and humanity". On November 2, after failing to qualify for the second DNC-sanctioned debate after adoption of a rule change negated polls which before might have necessitated his inclusion in the debate, Lessig withdrew as well, narrowing the field to Clinton, O'Malley, and Sanders.
On February 1, 2016, in an extremely close contest, Clinton won the Iowa caucuses by a margin of 0.2 points over Sanders. After winning no delegates in Iowa, O'Malley withdrew from the presidential race that day. On February 9, Sanders bounced back to win the New Hampshire primary with 60% of the vote. In the remaining two February contests, Clinton won the Nevada caucuses with 53% of the vote and scored a decisive victory in the South Carolina primary with 73% of the vote. On March 1, 11 states participated in the first of four "Super Tuesday" primaries. Clinton won Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia and 504 pledged delegates, while Sanders won Colorado, Minnesota, Oklahoma and his home state of Vermont and 340 delegates. The following weekend, Sanders won victories in Kansas, Nebraska and Maine with 15–30-point margins, while Clinton won the Louisiana primary with 71% of the vote. On March 8, despite never having a lead in the Michigan primary, Sanders won by a small margin of 1.5 points and outperforming polls by over 19 points, while Clinton won 83% of the vote in Mississippi. On March 15, the second "Super Tuesday", Clinton won in Florida, Illinois, Missouri, North Carolina and Ohio. Between March 22 and April 9, Sanders won six caucuses in Idaho, Utah, Alaska, Hawaii, Washington and Wyoming, as well as the Wisconsin primary, while Clinton won the Arizona primary. On April 19, Clinton won the New York primary with 58% of the vote. On April 26, in the third "Super Tuesday" dubbed the "Acela primary", she won contests in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland and Pennsylvania, while Sanders won in Rhode Island. Over the course of May, Sanders accomplished another surprise win in the Indiana primary and also won in West Virginia and Oregon, while Clinton won the Guam caucus and Kentucky primary (and also non-binding primaries in Nebraska and Washington).
On June 4 and 5, Clinton won two victories in the Virgin Islands caucus and Puerto Rico primary. On June 6, 2016, the Associated Press and NBC News reported that Clinton had become the presumptive nominee after reaching the required number of delegates, including pledged delegates and superdelegates, to secure the nomination, becoming the first woman to ever clinch the presidential nomination of a major U.S. political party. On June 7, Clinton secured a majority of pledged delegates after winning primaries in California, New Jersey, New Mexico and South Dakota, while Sanders only won in Montana and North Dakota. Clinton also won the final primary in the District of Columbia on June 14. At the conclusion of the primary process, Clinton had won 2,204 pledged delegates (54% of the total) awarded by the primary elections and caucuses, while Sanders had won 1,847 (46%). Out of the 714 unpledged delegates or "superdelegates" who were set to vote in the convention in July, Clinton received endorsements from 560 (78%), while Sanders received 47 (7%).
Although Sanders had not formally dropped out of the race, he announced on June 16, 2016, that his main goal in the coming months would be to work with Clinton to defeat Trump in the general election. On July 8, appointees from the Clinton campaign, the Sanders campaign, and the Democratic National Committee negotiated a draft of the party's platform. On July 12, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton at a rally in New Hampshire in which he appeared with her.
|Hillary Clinton||Tim Kaine|
|for President||for Vice President|
U.S. Secretary of State
The following candidates were frequently interviewed by major broadcast networks and cable news channels, or were listed in publicly published national polls. Lessig was invited to one forum, but withdrew when rules were changed which prevented him from participating in officially sanctioned debates.
Clinton received 16,849,779 votes in the primary.
|Candidates in this section are sorted by date of withdrawal from the primaries|
|Bernie Sanders||Martin O'Malley||Lawrence Lessig||Lincoln Chafee||Jim Webb|
|U.S. Senator from Vermont (2007–present)||61st
Governor of Maryland
|Harvard Law professor
Governor of Rhode Island
|LN: July 26, 2016
|W: February 1, 2016
|W: November 2, 2015
4 write-in votes in New Hampshire
|W: October 23, 2015
|W: October 20, 2015|
2 write-in votes in New Hampshire
In April 2016, the Clinton campaign began to compile a list of 15 to 20 individuals to vet for the position of running mate, even though Sanders continued to challenge Clinton in the Democratic primaries. In mid-June, The Wall Street Journal reported that Clinton's shortlist included Representative Xavier Becerra from California, Senator Cory Booker from New Jersey, Senator Sherrod Brown from Ohio, Housing and Urban Development Secretary Julián Castro from Texas, Mayor of Los Angeles Eric Garcetti from California, Senator Tim Kaine from Virginia, Labor Secretary Tom Perez from Maryland, Representative Tim Ryan from Ohio, and Senator Elizabeth Warren from Massachusetts. Subsequent reports stated that Clinton was also considering Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, retired Admiral James Stavridis, and Governor John Hickenlooper of Colorado. In discussing her potential vice presidential choice, Clinton stated that the most important attribute she looked for was the ability and experience to immediately step into the role of president.
On July 22, Clinton announced that she had chosen Senator Tim Kaine from Virginia as her running mate. The delegates at the 2016 Democratic National Convention, which took place July 25–28, formally nominated the Democratic ticket.
Third party and independent candidates that have obtained more than 100,000 votes nationally and one percent of the vote in at least one state are listed separately.
Ballot access to all 538 electoral votes
2016 Libertarian Party ticket
|Gary Johnson||Bill Weld|
|for President||for Vice President|
Governor of New Mexico
Governor of Massachusetts
Ballot access to 480 electoral votes (522 with write-in): – map
|Jill Stein||Ajamu Baraka|
|for President||for Vice President|
from Lexington, Massachusetts
from Washington, DC
Ballot access to 84 electoral votes (451 with write-in): – map
In some states, Evan McMullin's running mate was listed as Nathan Johnson on the ballot rather than Mindy Finn, although Nathan Johnson was intended to only be a placeholder until an actual running mate was chosen.
|2016 Independent ticket|
|Evan McMullin||Mindy Finn|
|for President||for Vice President|
|Chief policy director for the
House Republican Conference (2015–2016)
|2016 Constitution Party ticket|
|Darrell Castle||Scott Bradley|
|for President||for Vice President|
from Memphis, Tennessee
|Party||Presidential nominee||Vice presidential nominee||Attainable Electors
|Popular Vote||States with ballot access|
|American Delta Party
|Rocky De La Fuente
Businessman from California
Lawyer from Florida
|Alaska, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Wisconsin, Wyoming|
(Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia)
|Party for Socialism and Liberation
||Gloria La Riva
Newspaper printer and activist from California
Activist from Washington, DC
|California, Colorado, Iowa, Louisiana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Vermont, Washington|
(Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia)
|Socialist Workers Party||Alyson Kennedy
Mineworker and Labor Leader from Illinois
|Colorado, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, Tennessee, Utah, Washington|
(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|Workers World Party||Monica Moorehead
perennial candidate and political activist from Alabama
of North Carolina
|New Jersey, Utah, Wisconsin|
(Alabama, Indiana, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New, York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia)
|Socialist Party USA
former National Co-Chair of the Socialist Party USA from California
|Angela Nicole Walker
|Colorado, Michigan, Guam|
(Alabama, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Wisconsin)
|Prohibition Party||James Hedges
former Tax Assessor for Thompson Township, Fulton County, Pennsylvania
|Arkansas, Colorado, Mississippi|
(Alabama, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia)
(Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington. West Virginia)
Real Estate Agent from Ohio
Preacher from Pennsylvania
(Alabama, Alaska, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia)
Economics Professor at Boston University, Massachusetts
|Edward E. Leamer
Economics Professor at UCLA, California
(Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
|America's Party||Tom Hoefling
activist from Iowa
of South Carolina
(Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
|Veterans Party of America||Chris Keniston
reliability engineer from Texas
(Alabama, Alaska, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin)
|Legal Marijuana Now Party||Dan Vacek
|Mark Elworth Jr.
(Alabama, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
Doctor of Clinical Psychology from Maryland
(Alabama, Delaware, Idaho, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia)
|American Solidarity Party||Mike Maturen
sales professional and magician from Michigan
(Alabama, Alaska, California, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin)
|Independent||Joseph Allen Maldonado
|Douglas K. Terranova||9
(Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
|Independent||Ryan Alan Scott||Bruce Kendall Barnard||9
(Alabama, Delaware, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|American Party (South Carolina)||Peter Skewes
Animal Science Professor at Clemson University, South Carolina
(Alabama, Connecticut, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|Approval Voting Party||Frank Atwood
(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|Independent American Party||Kyle Kenley Kopitke
|Narthan R. Sorenson||9
(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|Nutrition Party||Rod Silva
restaurateur from New Jersey
(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|United States Pacifist Party||Bradford Lyttle
peace activist from Illinois
(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|Socialist Equality Party||Jerry White
peace activist from Michigan
journalist from Wisconsin
(Alabama, California, Delaware, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia)
|Independent||Princess Khadijah Jacob-Fambro
(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|Independent American Party||Rocky Giordani
activist from Utah
(Alabama, Iowa, Kansas, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
|Constitution Party of Idaho||Scott Copeland
(Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont)
Hillary Clinton focused her candidacy on several themes, including raising middle class incomes, expanding women's rights, instituting campaign finance reform, and improving the Affordable Care Act. In March 2016, she laid out a detailed economic plan basing her economic philosophy on inclusive capitalism, which proposed a "clawback" that rescinds tax relief and other benefits for companies that move jobs overseas; with provision of incentives for companies that share profits with employees, communities and the environment, rather than focusing on short-term profits to increase stock value and rewarding shareholders; as well as increasing collective bargaining rights; and placing an "exit tax" on companies that move their headquarters out of the U.S. in order to pay a lower tax rate overseas. Clinton promoted equal pay for equal work to address current alleged shortfalls in how much women are paid to do the same jobs men do, promoted explicitly focus on family issues and support of universal preschool, expressed support for the right to same-sex marriage, and proposed allowing undocumented immigrants to have a path to citizenship stating that it "[i]s at its heart a family issue".
Donald Trump's campaign drew heavily on his personal image, enhanced by his previous media exposure. The primary slogan of the Trump campaign, extensively used on campaign merchandise, was Make America Great Again. The red baseball cap with the slogan emblazoned on the front became a symbol of the campaign, and has been frequently donned by Trump and his supporters. Trump's right-wing populist positions—reported by The New Yorker to be nativist, protectionist, and semi-isolationist—differ in many ways from traditional conservatism. He opposed many free trade deals and military interventionist policies that conservatives generally support, and opposed cuts in Medicare and Social Security benefits. Moreover, he has insisted that Washington is "broken" and can only be fixed by an outsider. Support for Trump was high among working and middle-class white male voters with annual incomes of less than $50,000 and no college degree. This group, particularly those with less than a high-school education, suffered a decline in their income in recent years. According to The Washington Post, support for Trump is higher in areas with a higher mortality rate for middle-age white people. A sample of interviews with more than 11,000 Republican-leaning respondents from August to December 2015 found that Trump at that time found his strongest support among Republicans in West Virginia, followed by New York, and then followed by six Southern states.
Clinton had an uneasy, and at times adversarial relationship with the press throughout her life in public service. Weeks before her official entry as a presidential candidate, Clinton attended a political press corps event, pledging to start fresh on what she described as a "complicated" relationship with political reporters. Clinton was initially criticized by the press for avoiding taking their questions, after which she provided more interviews.
In contrast, Trump benefited from free media more than any other candidate. From the beginning of his campaign through February 2016, Trump received almost $2 billion in free media attention, twice the amount that Clinton received. According to data from the Tyndall Report, which tracks nightly news content, through February 2016, Trump alone accounted for more than a quarter of all 2016 election coverage on the evening newscasts of NBC, CBS and ABC, more than all the Democratic campaigns combined. Observers noted Trump's ability to garner constant mainstream media coverage "almost at will". However, Trump frequently criticized the media for writing what he alleged to be false stories about him and he has called upon his supporters to be "the silent majority". Trump also said the media "put false meaning into the words I say", and says he does not mind being criticized by the media as long as they are honest about it.
Both Clinton and Trump were seen unfavorably by the general public, and their controversial nature set the tone of the campaign.
Clinton's practice during her time as Secretary of State of using a private email address and server, in lieu of State Department servers, gained widespread public attention back in March 2015. Concerns were raised about security and preservation of emails, and the possibility that laws may have been violated. After allegations were raised that some of the emails in question fell into this so-called "born classified" category, an FBI probe was initiated regarding how classified information was handled on the Clinton server. The FBI probe was concluded on July 5, 2016, with a recommendation of no charges, a recommendation that was followed by the Justice Department. On October 28, eleven days before the election, FBI Director James Comey informed Congress that the FBI was analyzing additional emails obtained during its investigation of an unrelated case. On November 6, he notified Congress that the new emails did not change the FBI's earlier conclusion.
Also, on September 9, 2016, Clinton stated: "You know, just to be grossly generalistic, you could put half of Trump's supporters into what I call the basket of deplorables. They're racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, Islamophobic—you name it." Donald Trump criticized her remark as insulting his supporters. The following day Clinton expressed regret for saying "half", while insisting that Trump had deplorably amplified "hateful views and voices". Previously on August 25, 2016, Clinton gave a speech criticizing Trump's campaign for using "racist lies" and allowing the alt-right to gain prominence.
On the other side, on October 7, 2016, video and accompanying audio were released by The Washington Post in which Trump referred obscenely to women in a 2005 conversation with Billy Bush while they were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. The audio was met with a reaction of disbelief and disgust from the media. Following the revelation, Trump's campaign issued an apology, stating that the video was of a private conversation from "many years ago". The incident was condemned by numerous prominent Republicans like Reince Priebus, Mitt Romney, John Kasich, Jeb Bush and the Speaker of the House Paul Ryan. By October 8, several dozen Republicans had called for Trump to withdraw from the campaign and let Pence head the ticket. Trump insisted he would never drop out.
The ongoing controversy of the election made third parties attract voters' attention. On March 3, 2016, Libertarian Gary Johnson addressed the Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington DC, touting himself as the third-party option for anti-Trump Republicans. In early May, some commentators opined that Johnson was moderate enough to pull votes away from both Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump who were very disliked and polarizing. Both conservative and liberal media noted that Johnson could get votes from "Never Trump" Republicans and disaffected Bernie Sanders supporters. Johnson also began to get time on national television, being invited on ABC News, NBC News, CBS News, CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, Bloomberg, and many other networks. In September and October 2016, Johnson suffered a "string of damaging stumbles when he has fielded questions about foreign affairs". On September 8, Johnson, when he appeared on MSNBC's Morning Joe, was asked by panelist Mike Barnicle, "What would you do, if you were elected, about Aleppo?" (referring to a war-torn city in Syria). Johnson responded, "And what is Aleppo?" His response prompted widespread attention, much of it negative. Later that day, Johnson said that he had "blanked" and that he did "understand the dynamics of the Syrian conflict – I talk about them every day."
On the other hand, Green Party candidate Jill Stein stated that the Democratic and Republican parties are "two corporate parties" that have converged into one. Concerned by the rise of the far right internationally and the tendency towards neoliberalism within the Democratic Party, she has said, "The answer to neofascism is stopping neoliberalism. Putting another Clinton in the White House will fan the flames of this right-wing extremism."
In response to Johnson's growing poll numbers, the Clinton campaign and Democratic allies increased their criticism of Johnson in September 2016, warning that "a vote for a third party is a vote for Donald Trump" and deploying Senator Bernie Sanders (Clinton's former primary rival, who supported her in the general election) to win over voters who might be considering voting for Johnson or for Stein.
|Presidential ticket||Party||Ballot access||Votes||Percentage|
|States||Electors||% of voters|
|Trump / Pence||Republican||50 + DC||538||100%||62,984,828||46.09%|
|Clinton / Kaine||Democratic||50 + DC||538||100%||65,853,514||48.18%|
|Johnson / Weld||Libertarian||50 + DC||538||100%||4,489,341||3.28%|
|Stein / Baraka||Green||44 + DC||480||89%||1,457,218||1.07%|
|McMullin / Finn||Independent||11||84||15%||731,991||0.54%|
|Castle / Bradley||Constitution||24||207||39%||203,090||0.15%|
This is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission (FEC) and released in September 2016. Outside groups are independent expenditure only committees—also called PACs and SuperPACs. The sources of the numbers are the FEC and Center for Responsive Politics. Some spending totals are not available, due to withdrawals before the FEC deadline. As of September 2016, ten candidates with ballot access have filed financial reports with the FEC.
|Candidate||Campaign committee (as of December 9)||Outside groups (as of December 9)||Total spent|
|Money raised||Money spent||Cash on hand||Debt||Money raised||Money spent||Cash on hand|
|Rocky De La Fuente||$7,351,270||$7,354,663||-$3,392||$0||$0||$0||$0||$7,354,663|
|Gloria La Riva||$29,243||$24,207||$5,034||$0||$0||$0||$0||$24,207|
Clinton was endorsed by The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Houston Chronicle, the San Jose Mercury News, the Chicago Sun-Times and the New York Daily News editorial boards. Trump, who has frequently criticized the mainstream media, was not endorsed by the vast majority of newspapers, with the Las Vegas Review-Journal, The Florida Times-Union, and the tabloid National Enquirer his highest profile supporters. Several papers which endorsed Clinton, such as the Houston Chronicle, The Dallas Morning News, The San Diego Union-Tribune, The Columbus Dispatch and The Arizona Republic, endorsed their first Democratic candidate for many decades. USA Today, which had not endorsed any candidate since it was founded in 1982, broke tradition by giving an anti-endorsement against Trump, declaring him "unfit for the presidency". The Atlantic, which has been in circulation since 1857, gave Clinton its third-ever endorsement (after Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon Johnson).
Other traditionally Republican papers, including the New Hampshire Union Leader, which had endorsed the Republican nominee in every election for the last 100 years, The Detroit News, which had not endorsed a non-Republican in its 143 years, and the Chicago Tribune, endorsed Gary Johnson.
On December 9, 2016, the Central Intelligence Agency issued an assessment to lawmakers in the US Senate, stating that a Russian entity hacked the DNC and John Podesta's emails to assist Donald Trump. The Federal Bureau of Investigation agreed. President Barack Obama ordered a "full review" into such possible intervention. Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper in early January 2017 testified before a Senate committee that Russia's meddling in the 2016 presidential campaign went beyond hacking, and included disinformation and the dissemination of fake news, often promoted on social media.
President-elect Trump originally called the report fabricated, and Wikileaks denied any involvement by Russian authorities. Days later, Trump said he could be convinced of the Russian hacking "if there is a unified presentation of evidence from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and other agencies".
Several U.S. senators—including Republicans John McCain, Richard Burr, and Lindsey Graham—demanded a congressional investigation. The Senate Intelligence Committee announced the scope of their official inquiry on December 13, 2016, on a bipartisan basis; work began on January 24, 2017.
A formal Special Counsel investigation was initiated in May 2017, headed by former FBI director Robert Mueller, to uncover the detailed interference operations by Russia, and to determine whether any people associated with the Trump campaign were complicit in the Russian efforts. Mueller concluded his investigation on March 22, 2019 by submitting his report to Attorney General William Barr. On March 24, Barr submitted his initial summary of Muellers' conclusions, and on April 18 he published a partially redacted version of the full Mueller Report. The report concludes that "(a)lthough the investigation established that the Russian government perceived it would benefit from a Trump presidency and worked to secure that outcome, and that the Campaign expected it would benefit electorally from information stolen and released through Russian efforts, the investigation did not establish that members of the Trump Campaign conspired or coordinated with the Russian government in its election interference activities."
The 2016 presidential election was the first in 50 years without all the protections of the original Voting Rights Act. Fourteen states had new voting restrictions in place, including swing states such as Virginia and Wisconsin.
The Commission on Presidential Debates (CPD), a non-profit organization, hosted debates between qualifying presidential and vice-presidential candidates. According to the commission's website, to be eligible to opt to participate in the anticipated debates, "in addition to being Constitutionally eligible, candidates must appear on a sufficient number of state ballots to have a mathematical chance of winning a majority vote in the Electoral College, and have a level of support of at least 15 percent of the national electorate as determined by five selected national public opinion polling organizations, using the average of those organizations' most recently publicly-reported results at the time of the determination."
The three locations chosen to host the presidential debates, and the one location selected to host the vice presidential debate, were announced on September 23, 2015. The site of the first debate was originally designated as Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio; however, due to rising costs and security concerns, the debate was moved to Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York.
On August 19, Kellyanne Conway, Trump's campaign manager confirmed that Trump would participate in a series of three debates. Trump had complained two of the scheduled debates, one on September 26 and the other October 9, would have to compete for viewers with National Football League games, referencing the similar complaints made regarding the dates with low expected ratings during the Democratic Party presidential debates.
There were also debates between Independent Candidates.
|P1||September 26, 2016||9 p.m. EDT||Hofstra University||Hempstead, New York||Lester Holt||Donald Trump||84.0|
|VP||October 4, 2016||9 p.m. EDT||Longwood University||Farmville, Virginia||Elaine Quijano||Mike Pence||37.0|
|P2||October 9, 2016||8 p.m. CDT||Washington University in St. Louis||St. Louis, Missouri||Anderson Cooper
|P3||October 19, 2016||6 p.m. PDT||University of Nevada, Las Vegas||Las Vegas, Nevada||Chris Wallace||Donald Trump||71.6|
The news media and election experts were surprised twice: at Trump's winning the GOP nomination; and, in his winning the electoral college. English political scientist Lloyd Gruber said, "One of the major casualties of the 2016 election season has been the reputation of political science, a discipline whose practitioners had largely dismissed Donald Trump's chances of gaining the Republican nomination." The final polls showed a lead by Clinton—and in the end she did receive more votes. Trump himself expected, based on polling, to lose the election, and rented a small hotel ballroom to make a brief concession speech; "I said if we're going to lose I don't want a big ballroom", he later remarked. The Republican candidate performed surprisingly well in all battleground states, especially Florida, Iowa, Ohio and North Carolina. Even Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Michigan, states that had been predicted to vote Democratic, were won by Trump. Cindy Adams, present at Trump Tower, reported that "Trumptown knew they'd won by 5:30. Math, calculations, candidate dislike causing voter abstention begat the numbers." Trump said that he was surprised by how "that map was getting red as hell. That map was bleeding red ... I always used to believe in [polls]. I don't believe them anymore."
According to the authors of Shattered: Inside Hillary Clinton's Doomed Campaign, by late Tuesday night the White House had concluded that Trump would win the election. Obama aide David Simas called Clinton campaign manager Robby Mook to persuade Clinton to concede the election, with no success. Obama then called Clinton directly, citing the importance of continuity of government, to ask her to publicly acknowledge that Trump had won. Believing that Clinton was still unwilling to concede, the president then called her campaign chair John Podesta, but the call to Clinton had likely already persuaded her.
On Wednesday morning at 2:30 a.m. Eastern Time (ET), it was reported that Trump had secured Wisconsin's 10 electoral votes, giving him a majority of the 538 electors in the Electoral College, enough to make him the president-elect of the United States.
Clinton called Trump early that morning to concede defeat, and at 2:50 a.m., Trump gave his victory speech. Clinton was unable to make a public concession that night, as she had no concession speech written.  Later that day, Clinton asked her supporters to accept the result and hoped that Trump would be "a successful president for all Americans". In his speech, Trump appealed for unity, saying "it is time for us to come together as one united people", and praised Clinton as someone who was owed "a major debt of gratitude for her service to our country".
Six states plus a portion of Maine that Obama won in 2012 switched to Trump (Electoral College votes in parentheses): Florida (29), Pennsylvania (20), Ohio (18), Michigan (16), Wisconsin (10), Iowa (6), and Maine's second congressional district (1). Initially, Trump won exactly 100 more Electoral College votes than Mitt Romney had in 2012, with two lost to faithless electors in the final tally. Thirty-nine states swung more Republican compared to the previous presidential election, while eleven states and the District of Columbia swung more Democratic.
Based on United States Census Bureau estimates of the voting age population (VAP), turnout of voters casting a vote for President was nearly 1% higher than 2012. Examining overall turnout in the 2016 election, University of Florida Prof. Michael McDonald estimated that 138.8 million Americans cast a ballot. 65.9 million of those ballots were counted for Clinton and just under 63 million for Trump, representing 20.3% (Clinton) and 19.4% (Trump) of a census estimate of U.S. population that day of 324 million. Considering a VAP of 250.6 million people and voting eligible population (VEP) of 230.6 million people, this is a turnout rate of 55.4% VAP and 60.2% VEP. Based on this estimate, voter turnout was up compared to 2012 (54.1% VAP) but down compared to 2008 (57.4% VAP). A FEC report of the election recorded an official total of 136.7 million votes cast for President — more than any prior election.
Data scientist Hamdan Azhar noted the paradoxes of the 2016 outcome, saying that "chief among them [was] the discrepancy between the popular vote, which Hillary Clinton won by 2.8 million votes, and the electoral college, where Trump won 304-227". He said Trump outperformed Mitt Romney's 2012 results, while Clinton only just matched Barack Obama's 2012 totals. Hamdan also said Trump was "the highest vote earner of any Republican candidate ever," exceeding George W. Bush's 62.04 million votes in 2004, though neither reached Clinton's 65.9 million, nor Obama's 69.5 million votes in 2008, the overall record. He concluded, with help from The Cook Political Report, that the election hinged not on Clinton's large 2.8 million overall vote margin over Trump, but rather on about 78,000 votes from only three counties in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Michigan (by the same logic, Obama won in 2012 due to three counties in Florida, Ohio, and Pennsylvania).
|Presidential candidate||Party||Home state||Popular vote||Electoral
|Count||Percentage||Vice-presidential candidate||Home state||Electoral vote|
|Donald Trump||Republican||New York||62,984,828||46.09%||304 (306)||Mike Pence||Indiana||304|
|Hillary Clinton||Democratic||New York||65,853,514||48.18%||227 (232)||Tim Kaine||Virginia||227|
|Gary Johnson||Libertarian||New Mexico||4,489,341||3.28%||0||Bill Weld||Massachusetts||0|
|Jill Stein||Green||Massachusetts||1,457,218||1.07%||0||Ajamu Baraka||Illinois||0|
|Evan McMullin||Independent||Utah||731,991||0.54%||0||Mindy Finn||District of Columbia||0|
|Darrell Castle||Constitution||Tennessee||203,090||0.15%||0||Scott Bradley||Utah||0|
|Bernie Sanders[c]||Independent||Vermont||111,850[d]||0.08%[d]||1 (0)||Elizabeth Warren[c]||Massachusetts||1|
|Gloria La Riva||Socialism and Liberation||California||74,401||0.05%||0||Eugene Puryear||District of Columbia||0|
|John Kasich[c][e]||Republican||Ohio||2,684[d]||0.00%[d]||1 (0)||Carly Fiorina[c][e]||Virginia||1|
|Ron Paul[c][e]||Libertarian||Texas||124[d]||0.00%[d]||1 (0)||Mike Pence||Indiana||1|
|Colin Powell[c]||Republican||Virginia||25[d]||0.00%[d]||3 (0)||Elizabeth Warren[c]||Massachusetts||1|
|Faith Spotted Eagle[c]||Democratic||South Dakota||0||0.00%||1 (0)||Winona LaDuke[c]||Minnesota||1|
|Needed to win||270||270|
The table below displays the official vote tallies by each state's Electoral College voting method. The source for the results of all states is the official Federal Election Commission report. The column labeled "Margin" shows Trump's margin of victory over Clinton (the margin is negative for every state that Clinton won).
A total of 29 third party and independent presidential candidates appeared on the ballot in at least one state. Former Governor of New Mexico Gary Johnson and physician Jill Stein repeated their 2012 roles as the nominees for the Libertarian Party and the Green Party, respectively. With ballot access to the entire national electorate, Johnson received nearly 4.5 million votes (3.27%), the highest nationwide vote share for a third-party candidate since Ross Perot in 1996, while Stein received almost 1.45 million votes (1.06%), the most for a Green nominee since Ralph Nader in 2000.
Independent candidate Evan McMullin, who appeared on the ballot in 11 states, received over 732,000 votes (0.53%). He won 21.4% of the vote in his home state of Utah, the highest share of the vote for a third-party candidate in any state since 1992. Despite dropping out of the election following his defeat in the Democratic primary, Senator Bernie Sanders received 5.7% of the vote in his home state of Vermont, the highest write-in draft campaign percentage for a presidential candidate in American history. (Because of this, some of his supporters have suggested that Bernie would have won, meaning that Sanders could have beaten Trump even though Clinton was unable to.) Johnson and McMullin were the first third party candidates since Nader to receive at least 5% of the vote in one or more states, with Johnson crossing the mark in 11 states and McMullin crossing it in two.
Aside from Florida and North Carolina, the states which secured Trump's victory are situated in the Great Lakes/Rust Belt region. Wisconsin went Republican for the first time since 1984, while Pennsylvania and Michigan went Republican for the first time since 1988. Trump also won Maine's 2nd congressional district, which had also not been won by a Republican presidential candidate since 1988. Stein petitioned for a recount in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. The Clinton campaign pledged to participate in the Green Party recount efforts, while Trump backers challenged them in court. Meanwhile, American Delta Party/Reform Party presidential candidate Rocky De La Fuente petitioned for and was granted a partial recount in Nevada.
|States won by Clinton/Kaine|
|States won by Trump/Pence|
|District of Columbia||WTA||282,830||90.48%||3||12,723||4.07%||–||4,906||1.57%||–||4,258||1.36%||–||–||–||–||6,551||2.52%||–||−270,107||−86.78%||311,268||DC|||
★Two states (Maine and Nebraska) allow for their electoral votes to be split between candidates.[a] The winner within each congressional district gets one electoral vote for the district. The winner of the statewide vote gets two additional electoral votes. Results are from The New York Times.
Red denotes states (or congressional districts whose electoral votes are awarded separately) won by Republican Donald Trump; blue denotes those won by Democrat Hillary Clinton.
States where the margin of victory was under 1% (50 electoral votes; 46 won by Trump, 4 by Clinton):
States/districts where the margin of victory was between 1% and 5% (83 electoral votes; 56 won by Trump, 27 by Clinton):
States where the margin of victory was between 5% and 10% (94 electoral votes; 76 won by Trump, 18 by Clinton):
|State||Party||Presidential vote||Vice presidential vote||Name of Elector||References|
|Nationwide||Donald Trump, 304||Mike Pence, 305||Pledged|
|Hillary Clinton, 227||Tim Kaine, 227|
|Hawaii||Bernie Sanders (I-VT)||Elizabeth Warren (D-MA)||David Mulinix|||
|Texas||John Kasich (R-OH)||Carly Fiorina (R-VA)||Christopher Suprun|||
|Ron Paul (L-TX / R-TX)||Mike Pence (as pledged)||Bill Greene|||
|Washington||Colin Powell (R-VA)||Maria Cantwell (D-WA)||Levi Guerra|||
|Susan Collins (R-ME)||Esther John|||
|Elizabeth Warren (D-MA)||Bret Chiafalo|||
|Faith Spotted Eagle (D-SD)||Winona LaDuke (G-MN)||Robert Satiacum, Jr.|||
Most media outlets announced the beginning of the presidential race about twenty months prior to Election Day. Soon after the first contestants declared their candidacy, Larry Sabato listed Virginia, Colorado, Iowa, New Hampshire, Florida, Nevada, and Ohio as the seven states most likely to be contested in the general election. After Donald Trump clinched the Republican presidential nomination, many pundits felt that the major campaign locations might be different from what had originally been expected.
Rust Belt states such as Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and even Michigan were thought to be in play with Trump as the nominee, while states with large minority populations, such as Colorado and Virginia, were expected to shift towards Clinton. By the conventions period and the debates, however, it did not seem as though the Rust Belt states could deliver a victory to Trump, as many of them were considered to be part of the "blue wall" of Democratic-leaning states. Trump's courting of the Polish-American vote, a sizable number of whom were Reagan Democrats, has been cited as the cause for the loss of the Rust Belt by the Democratic nominee. According to Politico and the 538 online blog, his path to victory went through states such as Florida, North Carolina, Nevada, New Hampshire, and possibly Colorado.
Early polling indicated a closer-than-usual race in former Democratic strongholds such as Washington, Delaware, New Jersey, Connecticut, Maine (for the two statewide electoral votes), and New Mexico. Meanwhile, research indicators from inside of a host of Republican-leaning states such as Arizona, Indiana, Georgia, South Carolina, Alaska, Utah, Texas, Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, and South Dakota reported weaker support for Trump than expected, although the nominee's position solidified in a few other areas. Some reviews took this information as evidence of an expanded 'swing-state map'.
A consensus among political pundits developed throughout the primary election season regarding swing states. From the results of presidential elections from 2004 through to 2012, the Democratic and Republican parties would generally start with a safe electoral vote count of about 150 to 200. However, the margins required to constitute a swing state are vague, and can vary between groups of analysts. It was thought that left-leaning states in the Rust Belt could become more conservative, as Trump had strong appeal among many blue-collar workers. They represent a large portion of the American populace and were a major factor in Trump's eventual nomination. Trump's primary campaign was propelled by victories in Democratic states, and his supporters often did not identify as Republican. In addition, local factors may come into play. For example, Utah was the reddest state in 2012, although the Republican share was boosted significantly by the candidacy of Mormon candidate Mitt Romney. Despite its partisan orientation, some reports suggested a victory there by independent candidate Evan McMullin, particularly if there was a nationwide blowout.
Media reports indicated that both candidates planned to concentrate on Florida, Pennsylvania, Ohio and North Carolina. Among the Republican-leaning states, potential Democratic targets included Nebraska's second congressional district, Georgia, and Arizona. Trump's relatively poor polling in some traditionally Republican states, such as Utah, raised the possibility that they could vote for Clinton, despite easy wins there by recent Republican nominees. However, many analysts asserted that these states were not yet viable Democratic destinations. Several sites and individuals publish electoral predictions. These generally rate the race by the likelihood for each party to win a state. The "tossup" label is usually used to indicate that neither party has an advantage, "lean" to indicate a party has a slight edge, "likely" to indicate a party has a clear but not overwhelming advantage, and "safe" to indicate a party has an advantage that cannot be overcome.
As the parameters of the race established themselves, analysts converged on a narrower list of contested states, which were relatively similar to those of recent elections. On November 7, the Cook Political Report categorized Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin as states with close races. Additionally, a district from each of Maine and Nebraska were considered to be coin flips. Meanwhile, FiveThirtyEight listed twenty-two states as potentially competitive about a month before the election – Maine's two at-large electoral votes, New Mexico, Minnesota, Michigan, Colorado, Virginia, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Nevada, Florida, North Carolina, Ohio, Iowa, Arizona, Georgia, Alaska, South Carolina, Texas, Indiana, Missouri, and Utah – as well as Maine's second and Nebraska's second congressional districts. Nate Silver, the publication's editor-in-chief, subsequently removed Texas, South Carolina, Missouri, and Indiana from the list after the race tightened significantly. These conclusions were supported by models such as the Princeton Elections Consortium, the New York Times Upshot, and punditry evaluations from Sabato's Crystal Ball and the Cook Political Report.
Clinton won states like New Mexico by less than 10 percentage points. Among the states where the candidates finished at a margin of within 7 percent, Clinton won Virginia (13 electoral votes), Colorado (9), Maine (2), Minnesota (10), and New Hampshire (4). On the other hand, Trump won Michigan (16), Pennsylvania (20), Wisconsin (10), Florida (29), North Carolina (15), Arizona (11), Nebraska's second district (1), and Georgia (16). States won by Obama in the 2012, such as Ohio (18), Iowa (6), and Maine's second district (1), were also won by Trump. The close result in Maine was not expected by most commentators, nor were Trump's victory of over 10 points in the second district and their disparities. The dramatic shift of Midwestern states towards Trump were contrasted in the media against the relative movement of Southern states towards the Democrats. For example, former Democratic strongholds such as Minnesota and Maine leaned towards the GOP. Meanwhile, Iowa voted more Republican than Texas did, Georgia was more Democratic than Ohio, and the margin of victory for Trump was greater in North Carolina than Arizona. Trump's smaller victories in Alaska and Utah also took some experts by surprise.
After the conventions of the national parties, Clinton and Trump carried out a total of 72 visits to the following states of Florida, 59 to Pennsylvania, 52 to North Carolina, 43 to Ohio, 25 to Virginia, 24 to Michigan, 23 to Iowa, 22 to New Hampshire, 19 to Colorado, 16 to Nevada, 15 to Wisconsin, and 10 to Arizona.
Voter demographic data for 2016 were collected by Edison Research for the National Election Pool, a consortium of ABC News, CBS News, MSNBC, CNN, Fox News and the Associated Press. The voter survey is based on exit polls completed by 24,537 voters leaving 350 voting places throughout the United States on Election Day, in addition to 4,398 telephone interviews with early and absentee voters. Trump's crucial victories in the Midwest were aided in large part by his strong margins among non-college whites – while Obama lost those voters by a margin of 10 points in 2012, Clinton lost this group by 20 percent. The election also represented the first time that Republicans performed better among lower-income whites than among affluent white voters. To some analysts' surprise, Trump narrowed Clinton's margin compared to Obama by 7 points among blacks and African-Americans, 8 points among Latinos, and 11 points among Asian-Americans. Meanwhile, Trump increased his lead with non-Hispanic white voters through 1 percent over Mitt Romney's performance, and American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders shifted their support towards the Republican candidate using the same relative amount. Additionally, although 74 percent of Muslim voters supported Clinton, Trump nearly doubled his support among those voters compared to Mitt Romney, according to the Council on American–Islamic Relations exit poll.
However, "more convincing data" from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Hispanic vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Hispanic voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain). Additionally, the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study found that Clinton's share of the Hispanic vote was 1 percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was 7 percentage points lower than Romney's.
Similarly, a large, multi-lingual study by the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund found that Clinton won 79% of Asian-American voters, higher than the Edison exit poll showed, while Trump only won 18%, a decrease from McCain's and Romney's numbers. Furthermore, according to the AALDEF's report, Trump received merely 2% of the Muslim-American vote, whereas Clinton received 97%.
|2016 Presidential vote by demographic subgroup (Edison Exit Polling)|
|Demographic subgroup||Clinton||Trump||Other||% of|
|Party by gender|
|Gender by marital status|
|Hispanic (of any race)||65||29||6||11|
|Gender by race/ethnicity|
|Latino men (of any race)||62||33||4||5|
|Latino women (of any race)||68||26||5||6|
|All other races||61||32||5||6|
|Religious service attendance|
|Weekly or more||40||56||4||33|
|A few times a year||48||47||5||29|
|White evangelical or born-again Christian|
|White evangelical or born-again Christian||16||81||3||26|
|18–24 years old||56||35||9||10|
|25–29 years old||53||39||8||9|
|30–39 years old||51||40||9||17|
|40–49 years old||46||50||4||19|
|50–64 years old||44||53||3||30|
|65 and older||45||53||2||15|
|Age by race|
|Whites 18–29 years old||43||47||10||12|
|Whites 30–44 years old||37||54||9||16|
|Whites 45–64 years old||34||62||4||30|
|Whites 65 and older||39||58||3||13|
|Blacks 18–29 years old||85||9||6||3|
|Blacks 30–44 years old||89||7||4||4|
|Blacks 45–64 years old||89||7||4||5|
|Blacks 65 and older||91||9||n/a||1|
|Latinos 18–29 years old||68||26||6||3|
|Latinos 30–44 years old||65||28||7||4|
|Latinos 45–64 years old||64||32||4||4|
|Latinos 65 and older||73||25||2||1|
|First time voter|
|First time voter||56||40||4||10|
|High school or less||45||51||4||18|
|Some college education||43||52||5||32|
|Education by race/ethnicity|
|White college graduates||45||49||4||37|
|White no college degree||28||67||4||34|
|Non-white college graduates||71||23||5||13|
|Non-white no college degree||75||20||3||16|
|Education by race/ethnicity/sex|
|White women with college degrees||51||44||5||20|
|White men with college degrees||39||53||8||17|
|White women without college degrees||34||61||5||17|
|White men without college degrees||23||71||6||16|
|Issue regarded as most important|
|Cities (population 50,000 and above)||59||35||6||34|
Various methods were used to forecast the outcome of the 2016 election. For the 2016 election, there were many competing election forecast approaches including Nate Silver's FiveThirtyEight, The Upshot at The New York Times, Daily Kos, Princeton Election Consortium, Cook Political Report, Rothenberg and Gonzales, PollyVote, Sabato's Crystal Ball and Electoral-Vote. These models mostly showed a Democratic advantage since the nominees were confirmed, and were supported by pundits and statisticians, including Nate Silver of FiveThirtyEight, Nate Cohn at The New York Times, and Larry Sabato from the Crystal Ball newsletter, who predicted a Democratic victory in competitive presidential races and projected consistent leads in several battleground states around the country. The near-unanimity of forecasters in predicting a Clinton victory may have been the result of groupthink. However, FiveThirtyEight's model pointed to the possibility of an Electoral College-popular vote split widening in the final weeks based on Trump's improvement in swing states like Florida or Pennsylvania. This was due to the demographics targeted by Trump's campaign which lived in big numbers there, in addition to Clinton's poor performance in several of those swing states in comparison with Obama's performance in 2012, as well as having a big number of her potential voters in very populated traditionally 'blue' states, but also in some very populated states traditionally 'red', like Texas, which were projected safe for Trump.
Early exit polls generally favored Clinton. After the polls closed and some of the results came in, the forecasts were found to be inaccurate, as Trump performed better in the competitive Midwestern states, such as Iowa, Ohio, and Minnesota, than expected. Three states (Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Michigan) which were considered to be part of Clinton's firewall, were won by Trump. Of the states in the Great Lakes region, Clinton won the swing state of Minnesota by 1 point, as well as traditional Democratic strongholds such as New York and Illinois with populous urban centers. This result stands in contrast to that of 2012, when President Obama won all but Indiana, which he carried in 2008. This table displays the final polling average published by Real Clear Politics on November 7, the actual electoral margin, and the over-performance by either candidate relative to the polls.
|State||Electoral votes||Polling average||Final result||Difference|
|Arizona||11||Trump +4||Trump +3.5||Clinton +0.5|
|Colorado||9||Clinton +2.9||Clinton +4.9||Clinton +2|
|Florida||29||Trump +0.2||Trump +1.2||Trump +1|
|Georgia||16||Trump +4.8||Trump +5.1||Trump +0.3|
|Iowa||6||Trump +3||Trump +9.5||Trump +6.5|
|Maine||4||Clinton +4.5||Clinton +2.9||Trump +1.6|
|Michigan||16||Clinton +3.4||Trump +0.3||Trump +3.7|
|Minnesota||10||Clinton +6.2||Clinton +1.5||Trump +4.7|
|Nevada||6||Trump +0.8||Clinton +2.4||Clinton +3.2|
|New Hampshire||4||Clinton +0.6||Clinton +0.3||Trump +0.3|
|New Mexico||5||Clinton +5||Clinton +8.3||Clinton +3.3|
|North Carolina||15||Trump +1||Trump +3.7||Trump +2.7|
|Ohio||18||Trump +3.5||Trump +8.1||Trump +4.6|
|Pennsylvania||20||Clinton +1.9||Trump +0.7||Trump +2.6|
|Virginia||13||Clinton +5||Clinton +5.4||Clinton +0.4|
|Wisconsin||10||Clinton +6.5||Trump +0.7||Trump +7.2|
Many pollsters were puzzled by the failure of mainstream forecasting models to predict the outcome of the 2016 election. Some journalists compared the 2016 election to the failure of prognosticator Arthur Henning in the "Dewey Defeats Truman" incident from the 1948 presidential election. Sean Trende, writing for RealClearPolitics, wrote that many of the polls were accurate, but that the pundits' interpretation of these polls neglected polling error. Nate Silver found that the high number of undecided and third-party voters in the election was neglected in many of these models, and that many of these voters decided to vote for Trump. According to a February 2018 study by Public Opinion Quarterly, the main sources of polling error were "a late swing in vote preference toward Trump and a pervasive failure to adjust for over-representation of college graduates (who favored Clinton)," whereas the share of "shy" Trump voters (who declined to admit their support for Trump to the pollsters) proved to be negligible.
FiveThirtyEight's final polls-plus forecast predicted 18 states, plus the second congressional districts of Maine and Nebraska, with an interval of confidence lower than 90%. However, every major forecaster, including FiveThirtyEight, the New York Times Upshot, prediction markets aggregator PredictWise, ElectionBettingOdds from Maxim Lott and John Stossel, the DailyKos, the Princeton Election Consortium, the Huffington Post, the Cook Political Report, Larry Sabato's Crystal Ball, and the Rothenberg and Gonzales Report, called every state the same way (although Cook and Rothenberg-Gonzales left two and five states as toss-ups, respectively). The lone exception was Maine's 2nd congressional district. Of the forecasters who published results on the district, the Times gave Trump a 64% chance of winning and PredictWise a 52% chance, FiveThirtyEight gave Clinton a 51% chance of winning in polls-only and 54% in polls-plus, Princeton gave her a 60% chance, Cook labelled it a toss-up, and Sabato leaned it towards Trump. The following table displays the final winning probabilities given by each outlet, along with the final electoral result. The states shown have been identified by Politico, WhipBoard, the New York Times, and the Crystal Ball as battlegrounds.
|State||New York Times Upshot||FiveThirtyEight||PredictWise||Princeton Election Consortium||Sabato's Crystal Ball||2012 margin||2016 margin|
|Alaska||83% R||76% R||94% R||96% R||Likely R||14 R||15 R|
|Arizona||84% R||67% R||82% R||91% R||Lean R||9 R||4 R|
|Colorado||89% D||78% D||95% D||96% D||Likely D||5 D||5 D|
|Florida||67% D||55% D||77% D||69% D||Lean D||1 D||1 R|
|Georgia||83% R||79% R||91% R||88% R||Likely R||8 R||6 R|
|Iowa||62% R||70% R||79% R||74% R||Lean R||6 D||10 R|
|Maine (statewide)||91% D||83% D||98% D||98% D||Likely D||15 D||3 D|
|Maine (CD-2)||64% R||51% D||52% R||60% D||Lean R||9 D||10 R|
|Michigan||94% D||79% D||95% D||79% D||Lean D||9 D||1 R|
|Minnesota||94% D||85% D||99% D||98% D||Likely D||8 D||2 D|
|Nebraska (CD-2)||80% R||56% R||75% R||92% R||Lean R||7 R||3 R|
|New Mexico||95% D||83% D||98% D||91% D||Likely D||10 D||8 D|
|Nevada||68% D||58% D||91% D||84% D||Lean D||7 D||2 D|
|New Hampshire||79% D||70% D||84% D||63% D||Lean D||6 D||1 D|
|North Carolina||64% D||56% D||66% D||67% D||Lean D||2 R||4 R|
|Ohio||54% R||65% R||67% R||63% R||Lean R||3 D||9 R|
|Pennsylvania||89% D||77% D||93% D||79% D||Lean D||5 D||1 R|
|Utah||73% R||83% R||86% R||99% R||Lean R||48 R||18 R|
|Virginia||96% D||86% D||98% D||98% D||Likely D||4 D||5 D|
|Wisconsin||93% D||84% D||98% D||98% D||Likely D||7 D||1 R|
Total television viewers
Total cable TV viewers
Cable TV viewers 25 to 54
Trump's victory, considered unlikely by most forecasts, was characterized as an "upset" and as "shocking" by the media. Trump himself thought he would lose even as the polls were closing.
Protesters have held up a number of different signs and chanted various shouts including "Not my president" and "We don't accept the president-elect". The movement organized on Twitter under the hashtags #Antitrump and #NotMyPresident.
High school and college students walked out of classes to protest. The protests were peaceful for the most part. At some protests fires were lit, flags and other items were burned and people yelled derogatory remarks about Trump. Rioters also broke glass at certain locations. Celebrities such as Madonna, Cher, and Lady Gaga took part in New York. Some protesters took to blocking freeways in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Portland, Oregon, and were dispersed by police in the early hours of the morning. In a number of cities, protesters were dispersed with rubber bullets, pepper spray and bean-bags fired by police. In New York City, calls were made to continue the protests over the coming days after the election. Former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani called protesters "a bunch of spoiled cry-babies". Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti expressed understanding of the protests and praised those who peacefully wanted to make their voices heard.
After the election, computer scientists, including J. Alex Halderman, the director of the University of Michigan Center for Computer Security and Society, urged the Clinton campaign to request an election recount in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania (three swing states where Trump had won narrowly) for the purpose of excluding the possibility that the hacking of electronic voting machines had influenced the recorded outcome. However, statistician Nate Silver performed a regression analysis which demonstrated that the alleged discrepancy between paper ballots and electronic voting machines "completely disappears once you control for race and education level". On November 25, 2016, the Obama administration said the results from November 8 "accurately reflect the will of the American people". The following day, the White House released another statement, saying: "the federal government did not observe any increased level of malicious cyberactivity aimed at disrupting our electoral process on Election Day."
Donald Trump and New Hampshire governor Chris Sununu both complained that liberal voters from Massachusetts were illegally bused into New Hampshire for the 2016 election, and Scott Brown blamed the same phenomenon for losing his senate race in 2014. The New Hampshire Secretary of State and New Hampshire Department of Justice issued a report in 2018 regarding complaints of voters being bused in from Vermont, Maine, and Massachusetts for the 2016 election. They found that in every case, field inspectors were able to determine that the voters were from New Hampshire, though they were riding a bus operated by an out-of-state company (which has its name and address written on the outside of the bus, presumably the source of the confusion). Out of 743,000 votes cast, four were determined to be cast illegally, either because the voters were told to go to the wrong location, or because the voter believed they were able to vote in each town in which they owned property. Out of about 6,000 same-day voter registrations in the state, the report says only 66 voters could not have their residency confirmed (though fraud is not the only explanation for such a failure).
On November 23, Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein launched a public fundraiser to pay for recounts in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, asserting that the election's outcome had been affected by hacking in those states; Stein did not provide evidence for her claims. Changing the outcome of these three states would make Clinton the winner, and this would require showing that fewer than 60,000 votes had been counted for Trump which should have been counted for Clinton. Stein filed for a recount in Wisconsin on November 25, after which Clinton campaign general counsel Marc Elias stated that their campaign would join Stein's recount efforts in that state and possibly others "in order to ensure the process proceeds in a manner that is fair to all sides". Stein subsequently filed for a recount in Pennsylvania on November 28, and in Michigan on November 30. Concurrently, American Delta Party/Reform Party presidential candidate Rocky De La Fuente sought and was granted a partial recount in Nevada that was unrelated to Stein's efforts.
President-elect Donald Trump issued a statement denouncing Stein's Wisconsin recount request saying, "The people have spoken and the election is over." Trump further commented that the recount "is a scam by the Green Party for an election that has already been conceded". The Trump campaign and Republican Party officials moved to block Stein's three recount efforts through state and federal courts.
U.S. District Judge Mark Goldsmith ordered a halt to the recount in Michigan on December 7, dissolving a previous temporary restraining order against the Michigan Board of Elections that allowed the recount to continue, stating in his order: "Plaintiffs have not presented evidence of tampering or mistake. Instead, they present speculative claims going to the vulnerability of the voting machinery – but not actual injury." On December 12, U.S. District Judge Paul Diamond rejected an appeal by the Green Party and Jill Stein to force a recount in Pennsylvania, stating that suspicion of a hacked Pennsylvania election "borders on the irrational" and that granting the Green Party's recount bid could "ensure that no Pennsylvania vote counts" given the December 13, 2016, federal deadline to certify the vote for the Electoral College. Meanwhile, the Wisconsin recount was allowed to continue as it was nearing completion and had uncovered no significant irregularities.
The recounts in Wisconsin and Nevada were completed on schedule, resulting in only minor changes to vote tallies. A partial recount of Michigan ballot found some precinct imbalances in Detroit, which were corrected. A subsequent state audit found no evidence of voter fraud and concluded that the mistakes, which were "almost entirely" caused by poll-worker mistakes attributed to poor training, did not impair "the ability of Detroit residents to cast a ballot and have their vote counted". The overall outcome of the election remained unchanged by the recount efforts.
Intense lobbying (in one case involving claims of harassment and death threats) and grass-roots campaigns were directed at various GOP electors of the United States Electoral College to convince a sufficient number of them (37) to not vote for Trump, thus precluding a Trump presidency. Members of the Electoral College themselves started a campaign for other members to "vote their conscience for the good of America" in accordance with Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Paper No. 68. This group's members may have become faithless electors in the presidential election.
On December 5, former candidate Lawrence Lessig and attorney Laurence Tribe established The Electors Trust under the aegis of EqualCitizens.US to provide pro bono legal counsel as well as a secure communications platform for members of the Electoral College who were considering a vote of conscience against Trump.
On December 6, Colorado Secretary of State Wayne W. Williams castigated Democratic electors who had filed a lawsuit in Federal court to have the state law binding them to the popular vote (in their case for Hillary Clinton) overturned.
On December 10, ten electors, in an open letter headed by Christine Pelosi to the Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, demanded an intelligence briefing in light of Russian interference in the election to help Trump win the presidency. Fifty-eight additional electors subsequently added their names to the letter, bringing the total to 68 electors from 17 different states. On December 16, the briefing request was denied.
On December 19, several electors voted against their pledged candidates: two against Trump and five against Clinton. A further three electors attempted to vote against Clinton but were replaced or forced to vote again.
In the Electoral College vote on December 19, for the first time since 1808, multiple faithless electors voted against their pledged qualified presidential candidate.[b] Five Democrats rebelled in Washington and Hawaii, while two Republicans rebelled in Texas. Two Democratic electors, one in Minnesota and one in Colorado, were replaced after voting for Bernie Sanders and John Kasich, respectively. Electors in Maine conducted a second vote after one of its members voted for Sanders; the elector then voted for Clinton.
Of the faithless votes, Colin Powell and Elizabeth Warren were the only two to receive more than one; Powell received three electoral votes for President and Warren received two for Vice President. Receiving one valid electoral vote each were Sanders, John Kasich, Ron Paul and Faith Spotted Eagle for President, and Carly Fiorina, Susan Collins, Winona LaDuke and Maria Cantwell for Vice President. Sanders is the first Jewish American to receive an electoral vote for President. LaDuke is the first Green Party member to receive an electoral vote, and Paul is the third member of the Libertarian Party to do so, following the party's presidential and vice-presidential nominees each getting one vote in 1972. It is the first election with faithless electors from more than one political party. The seven people to receive electoral votes for president were the most in a single election since 1796, and more than any other election since the enactment of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804.
.@realDonaldTrump will be presumptive @GOP nominee, we all need to unite...
States that allow write-ins in the general election, and don't have write-in filing laws, are legally obliged to count all write-ins: Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Vermont.... Only one state, South Carolina, has a law that says that although write-ins in general elections are permitted, they are not permitted for president.
What is perhaps more surprising, at least to Washington-based conservatives, is how many Republicans are also embracing Trump's populist lines on ending free trade, protecting Social Security, and providing basic health care.
For years the Republican elite has gotten away with promoting policies about trade and entitlements that are the exact opposites of the policies favored by much of their electoral base. Populist conservatives who want to end illegal immigration, tax the rich, protect Social Security and Medicare, and fight fewer foreign wars have been there all along. It's just that mainstream pundits and journalists, searching for a libertarian right more to their liking (and comprehension), refused to see them before the Summer of Trump.
While wages declined and workers grew anxious about retirement, Republicans offered an economic program still centered on tax cuts for the affluent and the curtailing of popular entitlements like Medicare and Social Security.
Steve Rattner breaks down the demographics of who is supporting Donald Trump and how these supporters are doing financially. Duration: 2:25
Even after controlling for these other factors, the middle-aged white death rate in a county was still a significant predictor of the share of votes that went to Trump
it makes all the political sense in the world for Mrs. Clinton to ignore them
The remarks also remind of inflammatory remarks in recent presidential elections on both sides — from Barack Obama's assertion in 2008 that people in small towns are "bitter" and "cling to guns or religion," to Mitt Romney's 2012 statement that 47 percent of Americans vote for Democrats because they are "dependent upon government" and believe they are "victims," to his vice presidential pick Paul Ryan's comment that the country is divided between "makers and takers."
Republican pollster Frank Luntz described Clinton's comments as her "47 percent moment," a reference to Republican Mitt Romney's remarks at a private fundraiser in the 2012 campaign.
Prof. Jennifer Mercieca, an expert in American political discourse at Texas A&M University, said in an email that the "deplorable" comment "sounds bad on the face of it" and compared it to Mr. Romney's 47 percent gaffe. "The comment demonstrates that she (like Romney) lacks empathy for that group," Professor Mercieca said.
Johnson tried to put a string of foreign policy gaffes behind him on Friday ..
Then one day I said, 'what do you have to lose?' I mean what do you have to lose? I'm going to fix it. What do you have to lose?" Trump said. "And somehow that resonated.
The 2016 United States presidential election in Alabama was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Alabama voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On March 1, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Alabama voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, Republican, and Libertarian parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote. Alabama has voted for the Republican candidate in every election since it was won by Ronald Reagan in 1980. Trump was heavily favored to win the state.
Donald Trump won the election in Alabama with 62.1% of the vote. Hillary Clinton received 34.4% of the vote. The state gave 60.55% of its votes to Republican nominee Mitt Romney in 2012, meaning that it shifted about 1.5% more Republican from the previous election.2016 United States presidential election in American Samoa
American Samoa did not participate in the November 8, 2016, general election because it is a territory and not a state. However, the five non-incorporated territories that send Delegates to the House of Representatives did participate in the presidential primaries.
In the presidential primaries, American Samoa voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party could only vote in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated were allowed to choose any one primary in which to vote.2016 United States presidential election in Arizona
The 2016 United States presidential election in Arizona was won by Donald Trump on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Arizona voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On March 22, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Arizona voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, Republican, and Green parties' respective nominees for president. (The Libertarian Party uses a privately funded caucus to select its presidential delegates and does not allow independents to vote in its primary.) Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote, except in presidential elections.2016 United States presidential election in Connecticut
The 2016 United States presidential election in Connecticut was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Connecticut voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On April 26, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Connecticut voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated could choose any one primary in which to vote, provided they registered with the party they wished to vote with in person by noon the day before.
Hillary Clinton won the election in Connecticut with 54.5% of the vote, a reduced margin from President Obama's 58.06% in 2012. Donald Trump, who later went on to win the presidency, received 40.9% of the vote. Clinton carried six of the state's eight counties; however, this was the first time a Republican had won Windham County since George H. W. Bush in 1988.2016 United States presidential election in Delaware
The 2016 United States presidential election in Delaware was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Delaware voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On April 26, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Delaware voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, Republican, and Libertarian parties' respective nominees for president (Green on April 2). Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote.
Hillary Clinton won the election in Delaware with 53.4% of the vote. Donald Trump, who went on to win the presidency, received 41.9% of the vote. Although Democrats had once again carried Delaware's three electoral votes, the state swung 7.19% Republican from the 2012 election, and Kent County flipped from Democratic to Republican. This was the first time since 1968 that Delaware did not vote for the same candidate as neighboring Pennsylvania.2016 United States presidential election in Hawaii
The 2016 United States presidential election in Hawaii was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States presidential election in which all 50 states and the District of Columbia participated. Hawaii voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College by a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On March 1, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Hawaii voters expressed their preferences for the Republican and Constitution parties' respective nominees for president. The Green Party held its convention on May 21, along with its primary on May 28. The Democratic Party held its caucus on March 26. Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary to vote in.
Hillary Clinton won the election in Hawaii with 62.2% of the vote, her highest vote percentage of any state, though a significant decrease from President Obama's 70.55% from 2012. Donald Trump received 30.0% of the vote, surpassing Mitt Romney's 2012 performance by 3%. Hawaii was one of two states where Hillary Clinton won every county, the other being Massachusetts. Hawaii was Green Party nominee Jill Stein's strongest performance, being the only state where she reached 3%.
Despite all of Hawaii's electoral votes being pledged to the Clinton/Kaine ticket, one faithless elector voted for Bernie Sanders for president and Elizabeth Warren for vice president.2016 United States presidential election in Kansas
The 2016 United States presidential election in Kansas was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Kansas voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On March 5, 2016, in the presidential primaries, voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president.
Donald Trump won the election in Kansas with 56.16% of the vote. Hillary Clinton received 35.74% of the vote. Kansas was among the eleven states in which Hillary Clinton outperformed Barack Obama's margin in 2012 (though her percentage was lower than Obama's 38% of the vote), largely due to a significant shift towards Democrats in Johnson County.2016 United States presidential election in Massachusetts
The 2016 United States presidential election in Massachusetts was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States president election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Massachusetts voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence; against the Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On March 1, 2016, in the presidential primaries, voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, Republican, and Green parties' respective nominees for president, as well as for state committee man, state committee woman, and city/town committee members for each party. Ballots also were available for members of the United Independent Party, but there were no candidates on the ballot. Registered members of each party only could vote in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated could have chosen any one primary to vote in.
In the general election, Clinton won Massachusetts with 60% of the vote, and was assigned all 11 of the state's electoral votes. This marked the fourth consecutive election in which the Democratic candidate won over 60% of the vote, and the seventh in a row in which they won in every single county in the state, thus making Massachusetts and Hawaii the only states in which Trump failed to carry a single county.2016 United States presidential election in Mississippi
The 2016 United States presidential election in Mississippi was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Mississippi voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On March 8, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Mississippi voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, and Republican, parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote.
Mississippi has not voted Democratic since 1976. Since that time, Republicans have dominated the state's political elections, and so Trump was widely expected to win the election. Donald Trump won the election in Mississippi with 57.9% of the vote. Hillary Clinton received 40.1% of the vote. Trump's 17.8% margin of victory proved to be a 6.8% increase over the 11.5% margin of victory by which Republican nominee Mitt Romney won the state over Barack Obama in 2012.2016 United States presidential election in New Hampshire
The 2016 United States presidential election in New Hampshire was won with a plurality by Hillary Clinton and an 0.4% margin, the second closest percentage behind Michigan, on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States presidential election. New Hampshire voters chose the four electors to represent them in the Electoral College by a popular vote.
On February 9, 2016, in the presidential primaries, voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, and Republican, parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote.2016 United States presidential election in New Jersey
The 2016 United States presidential election in New Jersey was won by Hillary Clinton on November 8, 2016, with 55.5% of the vote over Donald Trump's 41.35%. New Jersey's 14 electoral votes were assigned to Clinton and her Vice-presidential running mate Tim Kaine.2016 United States presidential election in Oregon
The 2016 United States presidential election in Oregon was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Oregon voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On May 17, 2016, in the presidential primaries, voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic, Republican and Constitution parties' respective nominees for president (the Green primary was on May 21 and the Libertarian primary was on May 27, with the Independent primary on July 18). The Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated were unable to vote.
The Democratic candidate has won Oregon in every election since 1988. Hillary Clinton continued the Democratic tradition in Oregon, carrying the state with 50% of the vote, a slightly reduced margin from President Obama in 2012. Donald Trump received 39% of the vote, but did achieve a notable feat in carrying Columbia County, becoming the first Republican to do so since Herbert Hoover in 1928.2016 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania
The 2016 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States elections in which all fifty states and the District of Columbia participated. Pennsylvania voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote.
On April 26, 2016, in the presidential primaries, voters selected the Democratic, Republican, and Green parties' respective nominees for president. Pennsylvania is a closed primary state, meaning voters must have been previously registered with a particular political party in order to vote for one of that parties' candidates, to participate in their respective party primary.The Republican party candidate, businessman and former host of The Apprentice, an American reality television program, Donald Trump, who won Pennsylvania by 44,292 votes out of more than six million cast, a difference of 0.72% and the narrowest margin in a presidential election for the state in 176 years, since 1840 when William Henry Harrison defeated Martin Van Buren by just 0.12%.
Prior to the election, Pennsylvania was expected to be close as polling showed the results within the margin of error. However, most election experts viewed Pennsylvania as solidly Clinton. On Election Day, Pennsylvania swung to Donald Trump. Trump carried 56 of the state's 67 counties, predominantly rural or semi-rural counties, while Clinton carried much of the Philadelphia metropolitan area as well as other cities including Pittsburgh, Harrisburg and Scranton. Nonetheless, some areas of traditional Democratic strength such as Luzerne County, where Wilkes-Barre is located, saw swings in margins of up to 25% toward Donald Trump, making him the first Republican candidate for president to carry Pennsylvania since George H. W. Bush in 1988. 2016 would also be the first presidential election in which Pennsylvania voted to Republican Party of the nation since 1948. Pennsylvania's vote for Donald Trump marked the fall of the Democratic Blue Wall, a block of over 240 electoral votes that voted solidly Democratic from 1992 to 2012.
Pennsylvania had been one of the eleven states to vote twice for Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996 which Hillary Clinton lost in 2016.2016 United States presidential election in Rhode Island
The 2016 United States presidential election in Rhode Island took place on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Rhode Island voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote.
On April 26, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Rhode Island voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party voted only in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote.
In the 2012 election, Mitt Romney won only three towns in Rhode Island. Donald Trump won 14 towns and even narrowly flipped Kent County, making this the first time a Republican has won a county in the state since Ronald Reagan in 1984.2016 United States presidential election in Tennessee
The 2016 United States presidential election in Tennessee was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 General Election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Tennessee voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine.
On March 1, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Tennessee voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote.
Although southern Democrat Bill Clinton won the state twice due to having Tennessee native Al Gore as his running mate, Donald Trump won the election in the Volunteer State with 60.7% of the vote. Hillary Clinton received 34.7% of the vote.
This is the largest margin of victory for a presidential candidate for either party since 1972 with Richard Nixon, and also the first time since that either party has earned over 60% of the vote in Tennessee.
Tennessee was one of eleven states Bill Clinton won in 1992 and 1996 which Hillary Clinton lost.2016 United States presidential election in Vermont
The 2016 United States presidential election in Vermont was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 United States presidential election in which all 50 states plus The District of Columbia participated. Vermont voters chose three electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, and running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine, and Independent write-in candidate, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders.
Hillary Clinton easily won Vermont, regarded as one of the most progressive states in the country, with 56.7% of the vote, although her margin was reduced by 8.34 percentage points from outgoing President Barack Obama in 2012. Donald Trump received 29.3% of the vote and won only Essex County–the most rural and sparsely populated county in the state. He was the first Republican presidential candidate to win a county in Vermont since George W. Bush in 2004. Bernie Sanders received 5.7% of the vote.
Libertarian nominee Gary Johnson, received 3.1%, and Green Party nominee Jill Stein received 2.1%. Third-place finisher Bernie Sanders received the highest write-in draft campaign percentage for a statewide presidential candidate in history.With a combination of Sanders' and other write-in votes totaling to 7.04%, Vermont was the strongest state in the 2016 election for write-in candidates.With 29.26% of the vote, Trump's performance is the worst showing for a Republican in Vermont, setting a record low for the party since George H. W. Bush lost the state in 1992 with 30.4% of the vote. Vermont was once a liberal Republican stronghold, having voted Republican in every election from 1856 to 1988 with the exception of 1964. Since 1992, the Democratic Party has carried the state in every election, most often by landslide margins. No Republican has received over 40% of the vote in Vermont since George W. Bush in 2000. As a measure of how Republican Vermont once was at the presidential level, Trump is only the second Republican to win the White House without winning Vermont. George W. Bush failed to carry Vermont in either of his bids, losing both times by double digits.
Despite Democratic dominance at the federal level, Vermont has continued to elect liberal Republican governors, such as the election of Phil Scott on the same day.2016 United States presidential election in Washington (state)
The 2016 United States presidential election in Washington was won by Hillary Clinton on November 8, 2016, with 52.6% of the vote over Donald Trump's 36.9%. All of Washington's 12 electoral votes were assigned to Clinton, though four defected. Nationally, Trump prevailed in the 2016 United States presidential election.
In the presidential primaries, Washington voters chose Democratic and Republican parties' nominees, and Green Party nominee was chosen in a convention.2016 United States presidential election in Wisconsin
The 2016 United States presidential election in Wisconsin was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election in which all 50 states plus Washington, D.C. participated. Wisconsin voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting Republican Party nominee Donald Trump against Democratic Party nominee Hillary Clinton.
On April 5, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Wisconsin voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican Parties' respective nominees for president in an open primary; voters were allowed to vote in either party's primary regardless of their own party affiliation. U.S. Sen. Bernie Sanders prevailed in Wisconsin's Democratic primary, while U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz won Wisconsin's Republican primary.
In the general election, Republican nominee Donald Trump unexpectedly won Wisconsin by a narrow margin of 0.77%, with 47.22% of the total votes over the 46.45% of Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton. Wisconsin was the tipping-point state of the 2016 election; that is, when the State of Wisconsin was called for Trump, its 10 Electoral College votes brought Trump's electoral vote total to 270 (the amount needed to win the national election).Trump's victory in Wisconsin was attributed to overwhelming and underestimated support from white working-class voters, a demographic group that had previously tended to vote for the Democratic candidate. By winning Wisconsin, Trump became the first Republican candidate to win the state since Ronald Reagan in 1984. Following a statewide recount requested by Green Party candidate Jill Stein's campaign, Trump was certified to have won Wisconsin by a narrow margin of 1,405,284 votes to Clinton's 1,382,536.Wisconsin was also one of eleven states to have voted twice for Bill Clinton in the 1990s which Hillary Clinton lost.2016 United States presidential election in the Northern Mariana Islands
The Northern Mariana Islands did not participate in the November 8, 2016 general election for President of the United States, because it is a territory and not a state. However, the five non-incorporated territories that send delegates to the House of Representatives participated in the presidential primaries of both major parties.
In the presidential primaries, voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote. The caucuses were held in March 2016.2016 United States presidential election in the U.S. Virgin Islands
The U.S. Virgin Islands did not participate in the November 8, 2016 general election because it is a territory and not a state. However, the five non-incorporated territories that send Delegates to the House of Representatives did participate in the presidential primaries.
In presidential caucuses, Virgin Islands voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party only voted in their party's primary, while voters who were unaffiliated chose any one primary in which to vote.
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State and district results of the 2016 United States presidential election
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