The 2016 Summer Olympics (Portuguese: Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016),[a] officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. These were the first Olympic Games ever to be held in South America and the third to be held in a developing country, after the 1968 games in Mexico City and the 1988 games in Seoul, South Korea.
More than 11,000 athletes from 205 National Olympic Committees, including first time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, and the Refugee Olympic Team, took part. With 306 sets of medals, the games featured 28 Olympic sports, including rugby sevens and golf, which were added to the Olympic program in 2009. These sporting events took place at 33 venues in the host city, and at five separate venues in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Brasília, and Manaus.
These were the first Summer Olympic Games to take place under the International Olympic Committee (IOC) presidency of Thomas Bach. The host city Rio de Janeiro was announced at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. Rio became the first South American city ever to host the Olympic Games. These were the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first summer edition to be held entirely in the host country's winter season, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, and the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.
The lead-up to these Games was marked by controversies, including the instability of Brazil's federal government; the country's economic crisis; health and safety concerns surrounding the Zika virus and significant pollution in the Guanabara Bay; and a doping scandal involving Russia, which affected the participation of its athletes in the Games; nobody competing in or attending the Olympics contracted the Zika virus.
The United States topped the medal table, winning the most gold and overall medals, 46 and 121, as well as its 1,000th Summer Olympic gold medal overall. Great Britain finished second and became the first country of modern Olympics history to increase its tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation. China finished third. Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, its most at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place. Bahrain, Fiji, Jordan, Kosovo, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Tajikistan, Ivory Coast and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes (from Kuwait).
|Games of the XXXI Olympiad|
|Host city||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Motto||A new world|
(Portuguese: Um mundo novo)
|Events||306 in 28 sports (41 disciplines)|
The process for the 2016 Olympic Games was officially launched on 16 May 2007. The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each 14 January 2008. Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020. The IOC did not promote Doha to the candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, because of their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku also failed to make the cut.
Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids. The commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections.
Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift. Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media.
The final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Madrid and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting, respectively, while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round. The lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics.
|2016 Summer Olympics bidding results|
|City||NOC||Round 1||Round 2||Round 3|
|Rio de Janeiro||Brazil||26||46||66|
On 26 June 2011, it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes just five months after CCO Flávio Pestana quit for personal reasons. Pestana withdrew later during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was then appointed as COO.
Events took place at eighteen existing venues, nine new venues constructed specifically for the Games, and seven temporary venues.
Each event was held in one of four geographically segregated Olympic clusters: Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro, and Maracanã. The same was done for the 2007 Pan American Games. Several of the venues were located at the Barra Cluster Olympic Park. Athletes could access their venues in shorter than ten minutes and about 75 percent could do so in less than 25 minutes. Of the 34 competition locations, eight of them underwent permanent works, seven were limited, and nine were perpetual legacy venues.
The largest venue at the games in terms of seating capacity was the 74,738-seat Maracanã Stadium, which served as the ceremonies venue and site of the football finals. The second largest stadium was the 60,000-seat Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, which hosted track and field events.
The athletes' village was said to be the largest in Olympic history. Fittings included about 80,000 chairs, 70,000 tables, 29,000 mattresses, 60,000 clothes hangers, 6,000 television sets and 10,000 smartphones.
The Barra Olympic Park is a cluster of nine sporting venues in Barra da Tijuca, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The site of the Olympic Park was formerly occupied by the Autódromo Internacional Nelson Piquet, also known as Jacarepaguá.
The nine venues within the Olympic Park were: Carioca Arena 1: basketball (capacity: 16,000); Carioca Arena 2: wrestling, judo (capacity: 10,000); Carioca Arena 3: fencing, taekwondo (capacity: 10,000); Future Arena: handball (capacity: 12,000); Maria Lenk Aquatics Centre: diving, synchronised swimming, water polo (capacity: 5,000); Olympic Aquatics Stadium: swimming, water polo play-offs (capacity: 15,000); Olympic Tennis Centre: tennis (capacity: 10,000 Main Court); Rio Olympic Arena: gymnastics (capacity: 12,000); and Rio Olympic Velodrome: track cycling (capacity: 5,000).
Rio's historical downtown underwent an urban waterfront revitalization project called Porto Maravilha. It covers 5 km2 (1.9 sq mi) in area. The project aimed to redevelop the port area, increasing the city center's attractiveness and enhancing Rio's competitive position in the global economy. The urban renovation involves: 700 km (430 mi) of public networks for water supply, sanitation, drainage, electricity, gas and telecom; 4 km (2.5 mi) of tunnels; 70 km (43 mi) of roads; 650 km2 (250 sq mi) of sidewalks; 17 km (11 mi) of bike path; 15,000 trees; three sanitation treatment plants. As part of this renovation, a new tram was built from the Santos Dumont Airport to Rodoviária Novo Rio. It was due to open in April 2016.
The Games required more than 200 kilometres of security fencing. A 15,000 square metre warehouse in Barra da Tijuca in western Rio was used to assemble and supply the furniture and fittings for the Olympic Village. A second warehouse of 90,000 square metres, located in Duque de Caxias near the roads that provide access to the venues, contained all the equipment needed for the sporting events.
The medal design was unveiled on 15 June 2016; they were produced by the Casa da Moeda do Brasil. The bronze and silver medals contained 30% recycled materials, while the gold medals were produced using gold that had been mined and extracted using means that met a series of sustainability criteria, such as being extracted without the use of mercury. The medals feature a wreath design, while the obverse, as is traditional, features Nike, the Greek goddess of victory. They were accompanied by a wooden carrying box, while medallists also received a trophy of the Games' emblem.
In May 2017, an Associated Press article disclosed that more than 100 athletes from around the world reported that their medals had damage, including black spots, flaking, or surface degrading. Rio officials offered to replace any defective medals and found problems with 6 to 7 percent of all awarded medals.
As an aspect of its bid, Rio's organizing committee planned to focus on sustainability and environmental protection as a theme of these Games, going on to dub them a "Green Games for a Blue Planet". As legacy projects, organisers intended to introduce a wider array of public transport options, upgrade the infrastructure of the favelas to provide improved transport and access to utilities, upgrade Rio's sewer system in order to remediate the level of pollution in the Guanabara Bay. and plant 24 million seedlings to offset the expected carbon emissions of the Games. However, some of these projects were met with delays or faced with economic shortfalls, which led some critics to believe that Rio would not be able to accomplish them.
The focus on environmental protection also influenced the implementation of certain Olympic protocols: the Olympic cauldron was designed to be smaller than previous iterations in order to reduce emissions, and used a kinetic sculpture to enhance its appearance in lieu of a larger body of flames. The bronze and silver medals, as well as ribbons on all medals, incorporate recycled materials, and athletes were not presented with flowers during medal ceremonies, as had been traditionally done at prior Olympics (although flowers were still used as part of the staging of medal presentations). Organisers considered the practice to be wasteful since they were often thrown away, and "would struggle to survive in the tropical Brazilian climate" if kept. The podiums were also designed so that their materials could be recycled to make furniture. The Future Arena, host of handball competitions, was designed as a modular temporary venue whose components can be reconstructed to build schools. However, as of November 2017, the arena is still standing because of lack of money to dismantle it and no allocation of funds to do so in the 2018 budget.
The Olympic flame was lit at the temple of Hera in Olympia on 21 April 2016, the traditional start of the Greek phase of the torch relay. On 27 April the flame was handed over to the Brazilian organisers at a ceremony at the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens. A brief stop was made in Switzerland to visit the IOC headquarters and the Olympic Museum in Lausanne as well as the United Nations Office at Geneva.
The torch relay began its Brazilian journey on 3 May at the capital Brasília. The torch relay visited more than 300 Brazilian cities (including all the 26 states capitals and the Brazilian Federal District), with the last part held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, lighting the cauldron during the 2016 Summer Olympics opening ceremony on 5 August.
Unpaid volunteers performed a variety of tasks before and during the Games. A target of 50,000 volunteers was set as early as 2012. When recruitment took place in 2014, over 240,000 applications were received. The volunteers wore clothing which included yellow polo shirts and jackets, beige trousers, white socks and green trainers which they collected from the Uniform Distribution and Accreditation Centre. But many volunteers have stopped to due long working hours and one free meal a day. Volunteers also wore photo accreditation badges which were also worn by officials, athletes, family members and media which gain them access to specific venues and buildings around the site.
The ticket prices were announced on 16 September 2014, all of which were sold in Brazilian reais (BRL). A total of 7.5 million tickets were to be sold in total, with ticket prices ranging from BRL 40 for many events to BRL 4,600 for the most expensive seats at the opening ceremony. About 3.8 million of these tickets were available for BRL 70 or less.
The opening ceremony took place at Maracana Stadium on 5 August 2016, and was directed by Fernando Meirelles, Daniela Thomas and Andrucha Waddington. The ceremony highlighted aspects of Brazilian history and culture, and featured a segment narrated by Fernanda Montenegro and Judi Dench with an appeal to environmental conservation and preventing global warming.
The ceremony also featured the inaugural presentation of the Olympic Laurel, an honour bestowed by the IOC to those that have made "significant achievements in education, culture, development and peace through sport", to Kipchoge "Kip" Keino. The Games were officially opened by Acting President of Brazil Michel Temer.
The Olympic cauldron was lit by Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima, the men's marathon bronze medallist at the 2004 Summer Olympics who was also awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship by the IOC after being attacked by a spectator and losing his lead. The cauldron was originally expected to be lit by Brazilian footballer Pelé, but he declined to participate due to health problems.
The 2016 Summer Olympic programme featured 28 sports encompassing 306 events. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.
|2016 Summer Olympic Sports Programme|
In April 2008, the IOC began accepting applications for two new sports to be introduced to the Olympic programme, which included baseball and softball (which were dropped in 2005), karate, squash, golf, roller sports, and rugby union all applied to be included. Formal presentations were held for the IOC executive board in June 2009. In August, the executive board initially gave its approval to rugby sevens—a seven-player version of rugby union—by a majority vote, thus removing baseball, roller sports, and squash from contention; leaving golf, karate, and rugby sevens. A final vote was held on 9 October 2009, the final day of the 121st IOC Session. A new system was in place at this session; a sport now needed only a simple majority from the full IOC committee for approval rather than the two-thirds majority previously required.
The International Sailing Federation announced in May 2012 that windsurfing would be replaced at the 2016 Olympics by kitesurfing, but this decision was reversed in November. The IOC announced in January 2013 that it would review the status of cycling events, following Lance Armstrong's admission of using performance-enhancing drugs and accusations that cycling's governing body had covered up doping.
All 206 National Olympic Committees have qualified at least one athlete. The first three nations to qualify athletes for the Games were Germany, Great Britain, and the Netherlands who each qualified four athletes for the team dressage by winning medals in the team event at the 2014 FEI World Equestrian Games.
As host nation, Brazil has received automatic entry for some sports including in all cycling disciplines and six places for weightlifting events. The 2016 Summer Olympics were the first games in which Kosovo and South Sudan were eligible to participate. Bulgarian and Russian weightlifters were banned from Rio Olympics for numerous anti-doping violations.
|Participating National Olympic Committees|
|TTO||Trinidad and Tobago||32|
|UAE||United Arab Emirates||13|
|BIH||Bosnia and Herzegovina||11|
|CGO||Republic of the Congo||10|
|ROT||Refugee Olympic Team||10|
Due to the European migrant crisis and other reasons, the IOC allowed athletes to compete as Independent Olympians under the Olympic Flag. In the previous Summer Olympic Games, refugees were ineligible to compete because of their inability to represent their home NOCs. On 2 March 2016, the IOC finalised plans for a specific Refugee Olympic Team (ROT); out of 43 refugee athletes deemed potentially eligible, 10 were chosen to form the team.
Due to the suspension of the National Olympic Committee of Kuwait, participants from Kuwait were allowed to participate under the Olympic Flag as Independent Olympic Athletes.
In November 2015, Russia was provisionally suspended from all international track and field athletic competitions by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) following a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) report into a doping program in the country. The IAAF announced that it would allow individual Russian athletes to apply for "exceptional eligibility" to participate in the Games as "neutral" athletes, if it were independently verified that they had not engaged in doping nor in the Russian doping program.
On 24 July 2016, the IOC rejected the IAAF and WADA's recommendations to allow clean athletes to compete neutrally, stating that the Olympic Charter "does not foresee such 'neutral athletes'" and that it was up to each country's National Olympic Committee to decide which athletes would be competing.
During the Games some countries and continents had a national house. These temporary meeting places for supporters, athletes and other followers were located throughout Rio de Janeiro.
|Africa House||Barra da Tijuca||Casa da África|
|Australia||Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange Convention Center||Casa da Austrália|
|Austria||Botafogo||Casa da Áustria|
|Brazil||Gamboa||Casa do Brasil|
|Colombia||Centro||Casa da Colômbia|
|Czech Republic||Barra da Tijuca||Casa da República Tcheca|
|Finland||Centro||Casa da Finlândia|
|France||Lagoa||Clube da França|
|Germany||Leblon||Casa de Praia da Alemanha|
|Great Britain||Parque Lage, Jardim Botânico||Casa Olímpica da Grã-Bretanha|
|Hungary||Gávea||Casa da Hungria|
|Jamaica||Gávea||Casa da Jamaica|
|Mexico||Centro||Casa do México|
|Netherlands||Lagoa||Holland Heineken House|
(Casa da Holanda)
|Portugal||Centro||Casa de Portugal|
|PyeongChang 2018||Copacabana Beach||Casa de PyeongChang 2018|
|Russia||Copacabana||Casa do Time Olímpico do Rússia|
|Slovakia||Barra da Tijuca||Casa Eslovaca|
|Tokyo 2020||Barra da Tijuca||Casa de Tóquio 2020|
|Tokyo Metropolitan Government||Paço Imperial||Casa do Governo Metropolitano de Tóquio|
This is currently based on the schedule released on the same day as ticket sales began, 31 March 2015.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Gold medal events||EG||Exhibition gala||CC||Closing ceremony|
|Daily medal events||12||14||14||15||20||19||24||21||22||17||25||16||23||22||30||12||306|
Twenty-seven world records and ninety-one Olympic records were set during the 2016 Summer Olympics. The records were set in archery, athletics, canoeing, cycling track, modern pentathlon, rowing, shooting, swimming and weightlifting.
The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below. Host nation Brazil finished in 13th place with a total of 19 medals (7 gold, 6 silver, and 6 bronze).
Host nation (Brazil)
|1||United States (USA)||46||37||38||121|
|2||Great Britain (GBR)||27||23||17||67|
|8||South Korea (KOR)||9||3||9||21|
|Totals (86 NOCs)||307||307||359||973|
|Athletics||Women's 100 metre hurdles||United States||Brianna Rollins||Nia Ali||Kristi Castlin|
A number of events, most notably in aquatics, beach volleyball, and track and field, were scheduled with sessions and matches occurring as late as 10:00 p.m. to midnight BRT. These scheduling practices were influenced primarily by United States broadcast rightsholder NBC (due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has sometimes allowed NBC to have influence on event scheduling to maximise U.S. television ratings when possible), as well as the main Brazilian rightsholder Rede Globo. As Brasília time is only one hour ahead of the U.S. Eastern Time Zone, certain marquee events were scheduled to occur during U.S. primetime hours (traditionally 8:00 to 11:00 p.m. ET, 9:00 p.m. to midnight BRT) allowing them to be broadcast live on the east coast as opposed to being delayed. This practice was also to the benefit of Globo; a Brazilian television critic noted that Globo very rarely pre-empts its primetime telenovelas, which are among the highest-rated programs on Brazilian television. Globo artistic developer Monica Albuquerque did not rule out doing so during special circumstances, however.
The closing ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics was held on 21 August 2016 from 20:00 to 22:50 BRT at the Maracanã Stadium. As per traditional Olympic protocol, the ceremony featured cultural presentations from both the current (Brazil) and following (Japan) host countries, as well as closing remarks by IOC president Thomas Bach and the leader of the Games' organizing committee Carlos Arthur Nuzman, the official handover of the Olympic flag from Rio de Janeiro mayor Eduardo Paes to Tokyo governor Yuriko Koike, whose city will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, and the extinguishing of the Olympic flame.
The creative director for the ceremony was Rosa Magalhães. Amid heavy rainfall, the ceremony began with interpretive dancers representing various landmarks in the host city. Martinho da Vila then performed a rendition of the classic song "Carinhoso" by Pixinguinha. In another segment, introducing the athletes, pop singer Roberta Sá channeled Carmen Miranda, the fruit-headdress-wearing, midcentury Hollywood diva who endures as a beloved camp figure. The Parade of Flags followed shortly after a choir of 27 children, representing the states of Brazil, sang the Brazilian national anthem.
The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimated the out-turn cost of the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics at US$4.6 billion in 2015-dollars. This figure included sports-related costs, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, of which the largest components were technology, transportation, workforce, and administration costs, while other operational costs included security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which were required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs were not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Rio Olympics' cost of US$4.6 billion compares with costs of US$40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and US$51 billion for Sochi 2014, the two most expensive Olympics in history. The average cost of the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion.
Olympic Broadcasting Services served as the host broadcaster for these Games; produced from a total of 7 mobile units, OBS distributed 40,000 hours of television footage and 60,000 hours of digital footage of the Games to its international rightsholders; for the first time in Olympic history, digital-oriented footage exceeded the amount of television-oriented footage. The International Broadcast Centre was constructed in the Barra da Tijuca cluster. NHK and OBS once again filmed portions of the Games, including the opening ceremony and selected events, in 8K resolution video. Additionally, expanding upon a 180-degree trial at the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics, 85 hours of video content were originated in 360-degree virtual reality formats. In the United States, NBC offered 4K content, downconverted from the 8K footage and with HDR and Dolby Atmos support, to participating television providers. Owing to their expertise in domestic broadcasts of the new sports introduced in Rio, NBC and Sky New Zealand staff handled the production of the golf and rugby sevens events on behalf of OBS.
In August 2009, the IOC reached a deal to sell domestic broadcast rights to the 2016 Summer Olympics to Grupo Globo. Replacing Record TV the deal covers free-to-air coverage on Rede Globo, pay TV, and digital rights to the Games. In turn, Globo sub-licensed partial free-to-air rights to Rede Record, along with Rede Bandeirantes. IOC board member Richard Carrión described the agreement as "unprecedented", touting that "by working with Brazil's leading media organizations, we are confident that this represents a great deal for Olympic fans in the region. There will be a huge increase in the amount of Olympic action broadcast, both during and outside Games time, and Brazilians will have more choice of how, when and where they follow their Olympic Games."
Following the conclusion of the games the International Olympic Committee in November 2017 announced the winners of the Golden rings in six categories for the best broadcast coverage of the games. The Best Olympic Sports Production was awarded to Beach Volleyball. It was producted by Geoff Johnson. and directed by Greg Breakell and Gary Milkis. The production for the cycling road race and Sailing came second and third. The next category was best Olympic feature. TV Globo's feature entitle "Esporte Espetacular" finished third and China Central Television's feature - A Sequel of Love came second. The winner was NBC Olympics for their feature titled The Most Beautiful Thing. The third category was The Best Athlete Profile. RTBF Radio Télévision de la Communauté Française de Belgique for their profile of Nafi Thiam collected the third place prize. TV Globo went one better than the previous category coming second with their profile of Izaquias Queiroz. The winner of the category again was NBC this time for their piece on Wayde van Niekerk. The Best On-Air Promotion was announced next with the BBC Sport winning with NBC this time coming second and Bulgarian National Television finished third. The Best Olympic Digital Service went to NBC with ZDF-German TV and SporTV/Globosat picking up the second and third places. The Best Olympic Programme was awarded to SporTV/Globosat while TV Globo and BBC Sport completed the podium.
An ongoing outbreak of the mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil raised fears regarding its potential impact on athletes and visitors. To prevent puddles of stagnant water that allow mosquitoes to breed, organisers announced plans to perform daily inspections of Olympic venues. Zika virus transmission was also attributed to inefficient sewage treatment in the area—an issue that was also in the process of being addressed for the Games. In May 2016, a group of 150 physicians and scientists sent an open letter to the World Health Organization, calling upon them to, according to co-author Arthur Caplan, have "an open, transparent discussion of the risks of holding the Olympics as planned in Brazil". The WHO dismissed the request, stating that "cancelling or changing the location of the 2016 Olympics will not significantly alter the international spread of Zika virus", and that there was "no public health justification" for postponing them. Some athletes did not attend the Games because of the epidemic. On 2 September 2016, the World Health Organization reported that there were no confirmed cases of Zika among athletes or visitors during the Olympics.
The Guanabara Bay, whose waters were used for sailing and windsurfing competitions, is heavily polluted. Among the chief causes of the pollution are uncollected trash fed into the bay via polluted rivers and slums along the coast. Pollution of the Guanabara has been a long-term issue. Officials promised at the Earth Summit in 1992 that they would begin to address the pollution but previous attempts to do so have been insufficient. As an aspect of their bid for the Games, Rio once again committed to making efforts towards cleaning the bay. However, some of these proposed initiatives have faced budgetary issues. Prior to these efforts, only 17% of Rio's sewage was treated; this raw sewage also leaked into the bay. Although Mayor of Rio Eduardo Paes stated that the city may not be able to reach its goal of having 80% of sewage treated, at least 60% of sewage was treated by March 2016, with a projected goal of 65% of sewage being treated by the time the Olympics started.
In 2014, Operation Car Wash, an investigation by the Federal Police of Brazil, uncovered unprecedented money laundering and corruption at the state-controlled oil company Petrobras. In early 2015, a series of protests against alleged corruption by the government of President Dilma Rousseff began in Brazil, triggered by revelations that numerous politicians were involved in the Petrobras affair. By early 2016, the scandal had escalated into a full-blown political crisis affecting not only President Rousseff, but also former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, resulting in massive demonstrations all over the country involving millions of protesters, both anti and pro-Rousseff. At the same time, Brazil faced its worst economic recession since the 1990s, raising questions about whether the country was adequately prepared for the Games against a volatile political and economic backdrop. On 12 May, President Rousseff was stripped of her powers and duties for 180 days, after an impeachment vote in the Federal Senate, thus Vice President Michel Temer acted as acting president during the Games.
Rio's crime problems also received renewed attention after it was awarded the Games; Mayor Paes stated that the city was facing "big issues" in heightening security, but that such concerns and issues were presented to the IOC throughout the bidding process. The governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro also highlighted the fact that London faced security problems, with a terrorist attack occurring just one day after it was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics. The estimate was that 5,000 men of the National Public Security Force and 22,000 military officers (14,800 Army; 5,900 Navy and 1,300 of the Brazilian Air Force), in addition to the fixed quota of Rio January, would act during the Olympic Games. On 21 July 2016, two weeks before the scheduled start of the Games, the Brazilian Federal Police broke up an Islamic jihadist terrorist ring by arresting 12 people.
While the whole city underwent major infrastructure improvements, there were concerns that some of the projects would never materialise. On 21 April—the day that the Olympic torch was lit—a 50 metres (164 ft) section of the Tim Maia bike path, crossing the Oscar Niemeyer Avenue in São Conrado neighborhood and a part of the legacy of the Games, was hit by a giant wave and collapsed, causing the death of two pedestrians and injuries to three more. The athlete's village has been described as the largest in Olympic history, but two weeks before the Olympics opened, officials also described it as "unliveable" and unsafe because of major plumbing and electrical hazards, blocked toilets, leaking pipes, exposed wiring, darkened stairwells where no lighting has been installed, and dirty floors. More than 500 employees of the local Olympic committee worked to fix the problems reported by the delegations.
On 5 October 2017, the head of the Brazilian Olympic Committee Carlos Nuzman, was arrested amid an money laundering investigation that a $2 million payment was made to secure votes for the bid to bring the Olympics to Rio. The money was allegedly paid to Lamine Diack and his son Papa Massata who was a member of the IOC at the time of the alleged payment which was three days before the vote in 2009. All 3 were charged with money laundering along with the former governor of Rio state Sergio Cabral, who was already in prison for money laundering offences at the time, Brazilian businessman Arthur Soares and ex Brazilian Olympic Committee chief Leonardo Gryner. All 6 were charged with running a criminal organisation, money laundering and violating currency laws in their own native countries.
Media attention began growing in December 2014 when German broadcaster ARD reported on state-sponsored doping in Russia, comparing it to doping in East Germany. In November 2015, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) published a report and the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) suspended Russia indefinitely from world track and field events. The United Kingdom Anti-Doping agency later assisted WADA with testing in Russia. In June 2016, they reported that they were unable to fully carry out their work and noted intimidation by armed Federal Security Service (FSB) agents. After a Russian former lab director made allegations about the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, WADA commissioned an independent investigation led by Richard McLaren. McLaren's investigation found corroborating evidence, concluding in a report published in July 2016 that the Ministry of Sport and the FSB had operated a "state-directed failsafe system" using a "disappearing positive [test] methodology" (DPM) from "at least late 2011 to August 2015".
In response to these findings, WADA announced that RUSADA should be regarded as non-compliant with respect to the World Anti-Doping Code and recommended that Russia be banned from competing at the 2016 Summer Olympics. The IOC rejected the recommendation, stating that the IOC and each sport's international federation would make decisions on each athlete's individual basis. One day prior to the opening ceremony, 278 athletes were cleared to compete under the Russian flag, while 111 were removed because of doping. In contrast, the entire Kuwaiti team was banned from competing under their own flag (for a non-doping related matter).
Unlike the IOC, the International Paralympic Committee voted unanimously to ban the entire Russian team from the 2016 Summer Paralympics and suspended the Russian Paralympic Committee, having found evidence that the DPM was also in operation at the 2014 Winter Paralympics.
On 9 December 2016, Canadian lawyer Richard McLaren published the second part of his independent report. The investigation found that from 2011 to 2015, more than 1,000 Russian competitors in various sports (including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports) benefited from the cover-up. Emails indicate that they included five blind powerlifters, who may have been given drugs without their knowledge, and a fifteen-year-old.
Other countries had minor doping bans too. The entire Bulgarian team were banned from competing in the weightlifting competition and Azerbaijan, Romania, Uzbekistan, Belarus, Moldova and North Korea all had some athletes banned from weightlifting for past doping violations. The Romanian and Belarusian teams were banned from the canoeing events all for past doping violations also. (see Doping at the Olympic Games )
| Summer Olympic Games
Rio de Janeiro
XXXI Olympiad (2016)
The following medal table is a list of National Olympic Committees (NOCs) and one non-NOC team ranked by the number of gold medals won by their athletes during the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, from 5 to 21 August 2016.Vietnam, Kosovo, Fiji, Singapore, Puerto Rico, Bahrain, Jordan, Tajikistan and Ivory Coast won their first Olympic gold medals (however, Bahrain retroactively won a gold medal for the 2012 Summer Olympics due to medals reallocation). They were also Kosovo's, Fiji's, and Jordan's first Olympic medals of any kind. Kuwaiti shooter Fehaid Al-Deehani became the first independent athlete to win a gold medal, though gold medals have been won under the Olympic flag by other entities, such as countries that competed under the flag at 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow or the Unified Team in 1992.
For the fifth time in the last six Games, the United States led the medal table both in number of gold medals won (as the medals are listed on the official website of the Games, and internationally by tradition), and in overall medals (the traditional method by which the table is listed in the United States). Behind the United States, Great Britain were second on the medal table by golds (27), and third by overall medals (67) – their highest finish in the former case since the home games of 1908 and in the latter since 1920, while China were third by golds (26), but second by overall medals (70). Both countries were well clear of a group of challengers for fourth in the table including Russia, Germany, France and 2020 hosts Japan.
Athletes from 87 nations earned medals at the 2016 Summer Olympics, breaking the record of most nations winning a medal at a single edition of the Olympics. However, following reallocation due to doping sanctions, an 87th country was later awarded a medal at the 2008 Olympics, tying the record. Athletes from 59 nations earned gold medals at these games, also breaking the record for the most number of nations winning gold at a single games. Great Britain became the first country in the history of the modern Olympics to increase their tally of medals in the subsequent games after being the host nation – winning 67 total medals (with 27 golds) at these games compared to the 65 (with 29 golds) won in London four years previously. Host country Brazil won seven gold medals, their most at any single Summer Olympics.Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Athletics at the 2016 Summer Olympics were held during the last 10 days of the games, from 12–21 August 2016, at the Olympic Stadium. The sport of athletics in the 2016 Summer Olympics was split into three distinct sets of events: track and field events, road running events, and racewalking events.Basketball at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Basketball at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was held from 6 to 21 August 2016. The preliminary and knockout matches for men were played inside the Carioca Arena 1 in Olympic Park which seats up to 16,000 spectators, and the matches for women were played in Youth Arena. This marked the first time that the men's and women's Olympic tournaments were played in multiple/separate venues.
Hosting country, Brazil, failed to make it to the quarterfinals of both the men's and women's division after being eliminated from the group stage. Three countries in both categories took all of the medals: United States (who took both gold medals), Serbia and Spain.Basketball at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament
The men's tournament in basketball at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro began on 6 August and ended on 21 August.The gold medal game in this discipline was the final competitive event before the Closing Ceremony.The United States won their fifteenth gold medal after defeating Serbia, 96–66, in the gold medal match, the largest margin of victory in a gold medal game since the 1992 Olympics. Spain won the bronze medal after an 89–88 win over Australia.The medals were presented by Patrick Baumann, Switzerland, Dr. Rene Fasel, Switzerland, and Kirsty Coventry, Zimbabwe, members of the International Olympic Committee and the gifts were presented by Horacio Muratore, president of the FIBA, Hamine Niang, first vice-president of FIBA and Jerry Colangelo, chairman of USA Basketball.Basketball at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Women's tournament
The women's tournament in basketball at the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro began on 6 August and ended on 20 August 2016.The United States won their eighth total and sixth consecutive gold medal by defeating Spain 101–72 in the final.
Serbia captured their first bronze medal after beating France 70–63.The medals were presented by Patrick Baumann, Switzerland, Sir Philip Craven, Great Britain, and Angela Ruggiero, United States of America, members of the International Olympic Committee and the gifts were presented by Horacio Muratore, Lena Wallin Kantzy and José Luis Sáez, President and Central Board Members of FIBA.Field hockey at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Field hockey at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 6 to 19 August at the Olympic Hockey Centre in Deodoro. The competition had instituted several changes in the format and structure from the 2012 Summer Olympics. Twenty-four teams (twelve each for men and women) competed in the tournament.Field hockey at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament
The men's field hockey tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics was the 23rd edition of the field hockey event for men at the Summer Olympics. It took place over a thirteen-day period beginning on 6 August, and culminated with the medal finals on 18 August. All games were played at the Olympic Hockey Centre in Deodoro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Argentina won the gold medal for the first time after defeating Belgium 4–2 in the final. Defending champions Germany won the bronze medal by defeating the Netherlands 4–3 on a penalty shoot-out after a 1–1 draw.The medals for the tournament were presented by Rene Fasel, Switzerland; Pierre-Olivier Beckers-Vieujant, Belgium; and Gerardo Werthein, Argentina; members of the International Olympic Committee, and the gifts were presented by Coco Budeisky and Marc Coudron, executive board members of the International Hockey Federation and Leandro Negre, president of the International Hockey Federation.Football at the 2016 Summer Olympics
The association football tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics was held from 3 to 20 August in Brazil.In addition to the Olympic host city of Rio de Janeiro, matches were played in Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador, São Paulo, and Manaus. All six cities hosted matches during the 2014 World Cup, with the Estádio Olímpico João Havelange in Rio the only Olympic venue not to have been a World Cup venue.Associations affiliated with FIFA might send teams to participate in the tournament. Men's teams were restricted to under-23 players (born on or after 1 January 1993) with a maximum of three overage players allowed, while there were no age restrictions on women's teams. The Games made use of about 400 footballs.Football at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament
The men's football tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics was held from 4 to 20 August 2016. It was the 26th edition of the men's Olympic football tournament. Together with the women's competition, the 2016 Summer Olympics football tournament was held in six cities in Brazil, including Olympic host city Rio de Janeiro, which hosted the final at the Maracanã Stadium. Teams participating in the men's competition were restricted to under-23 players (born on or after 1 January 1993) with a maximum of three overage players allowed.
In March 2016, it was agreed that the competition would be part of IFAB's trial to allow a fourth substitute to be made during extra time.Brazil captured their first gold medal after defeating Germany on penalties. Nigeria won the bronze medal by beating Honduras 3–2.Football at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Women's tournament
The women's football tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics was held from 3 to 19 August 2016. It was the 6th edition of the women's Olympic football tournament. Together with the men's competition, the 2016 Summer Olympics football tournament was held in six cities in Brazil, including Olympic host city Rio de Janeiro, which hosted the final at the Maracanã Stadium. There were no player age restrictions for teams participating in the women's competition.
In March 2016, it was agreed that the competition would be part of IFAB's trial to allow a fourth substitute to be made during extra time. Title holders and 2012 Summer Olympics gold Olympic medalists the United States, were eliminated in a loss against Sweden in a penalty shoot-out in the quarter-finals. This marked the first time that the United States has not progressed to the semi-finals in a major international tournament.
Germany won their first gold medal by defeating Sweden 2–1 in the final.
Canada won bronze after beating host Brazil with the same scoreline in the bronze medal game.Gymnastics at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Gymnastics at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro was held in three categories: artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics and trampolining. All gymnastics events were staged at the Arena Olímpica do Rio from 6 to 21 August 2016.Judo at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Judo at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 6 to 12 August at the Carioca Arena 2 inside the Barra Olympic Park in Barra da Tijuca. Around 386 judoka competed in 14 events (seven each for both men and women).Refugee Olympic Team at the 2016 Summer Olympics
The Refugee Olympic Team competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 5 to 21 August 2016, as independent Olympic participants. In March 2016, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) President Thomas Bach declared that the IOC would choose five to ten refugees to compete at the Rio Olympics, in the context of the "worldwide refugee crisis", of which the European migrant crisis is a prominent part. The athletes competed under the Olympic Flag. Initially, they were labeled "Team of Refugee Olympic Athletes", with the IOC country code ROA, but this was updated to Refugee Olympic Team with the country code ROT.As part of an effort "to show solidarity with the world's refugees", the United Nations Refugee Agency selected Ibrahim Al-Hussein, a Syrian refugee residing in Athens, Greece, to carry the Olympic flame through the Eleonas refugee and migrant camp in the city as part of the 2016 torch relay.In addition, Kuwaiti athletes competed under the Olympic flag and the "Independent Olympic Athletes" title as a result of the suspension of the Kuwait Olympic Committee, their national Olympic Committee.Rugby sevens at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Rugby sevens at the 2016 Summer Olympics was held over six days in August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. The 2016 Olympics was the debut for rugby sevens at the Summer Olympics, though rugby union was last played at the 1924 games.
The usual laws of rugby sevens applied.Rugby sevens at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament
The men's rugby sevens tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics was held in Brazil. It was hosted at the Deodoro Stadium, a temporary outdoor stadium constructed as part of the Deodoro Modern Pentathlon Park in Rio de Janeiro. The tournament was held from 9 August to 11 August 2016, starting with group matches before finishing with the medal ceremony on 11 August. The 2016 Games marked the first time that rugby sevens has been played at the Olympics, and the first time since 1924 that any form of rugby had been played at the Olympics.
The gold medal for Fiji represented the first Olympic medal earned by Fiji at any Olympics. Great Britain won silver and South Africa defeated Japan to win the bronze medal.Swimming at the 2016 Summer Olympics
The swimming competitions at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 6 to 13 August at the Olympic Aquatics Stadium. The women's open-water marathon was held on August 15, and the men's open water race on August 16 in Fort Copacabana.Tennis at the 2016 Summer Olympics
The tennis tournament at the 2016 Summer Olympics was held at the Olympic Tennis Centre, from 6 to 14 August. The competition was played on a fast hardcourt surface used in numerous North American tournaments that aims to minimize disruption for players.Initially a total of 172 players were expected to compete in five events: singles and doubles for both men and women and the return of the mixed doubles for the second consecutive time. However, eventually 105 male and 94 female players were granted places in the draws. The Olympic tennis events were run and organized by the Brazilian Olympic Committee (COB) and the International Tennis Federation (ITF), and were part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) and Women's Tennis Association (WTA) tours.
The 2016 Olympic tournament was the fifteenth edition of tennis at the Olympics (excluding the two Olympics, 1968 and 1984, when tennis was a demonstration event), and the eighth since 1988, when the sport was officially brought back into the Games. Unlike previous editions of the Olympic event, it was decided that the Olympic tournaments would not offer ATP and WTA ranking points for the players.Weightlifting at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Weightlifting competitions at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 6 to 16 August at the Pavilion 2 of Riocentro. Around 260 athletes (156 men and 104 women) competed in 15 different events according to their respective weight categories. Bulgaria and Russia were banned from participating in the sport due to multiple doping cases.Wrestling at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Wrestling at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro took place from 14 to 21 August at the Carioca Arena 2 in Barra da Tijuca. Wrestling had been split into two disciplines, freestyle and Greco-Roman, which were further divided into different weight categories. Men competed in both disciplines whereas women only participated in the freestyle events, with 18 gold medals awarded. Wrestling had been contested at every modern Summer Olympic Games, except Paris 1900.
Around 344 wrestlers competed in 18 events at the 2016 Summer Olympics. In September 2013, a new change to the rules and guidelines of the sport had been instituted and overhauled by the International Olympic Committee and FILA (now known as the United World Wrestling). A single Olympic weight class was removed each from the men's freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestling to add two more weights for the women. Other changes in wrestling at these Games also featured a single-round tournament within a six-minute limit, instead of two-round or tiebreaker.