2016 Louisiana floods

In August 2016, prolonged rainfall resulted in catastrophic flooding in the state of Louisiana; thousands of houses and businesses were submerged. Louisiana's governor, John Bel Edwards, called the disaster a "historic, unprecedented flooding event" and declared a state of emergency. Many rivers and waterways, particularly the Amite and Comite rivers, reached record levels, and rainfall exceeded 20 inches (510 mm) in multiple parishes.

Because numerous homeowners who were affected were without flood insurance, the federal government is providing disaster aid through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).[3] The flood has been called the worst US natural disaster since Hurricane Sandy in 2012.[4] Thirteen deaths have been reported as a result of the flooding.

2016 Louisiana Historic Floods
2016 Louisiana floods map of parishes declared federal disaster areas
The 21 Louisiana parishes that were designated as federal disaster areas by FEMA in the aftermath of the floods.
DateAugust 12, 2016–August 22, 2016[1]
LocationMost of southern Louisiana, United States
Property damage$10–15 billion[2]

Meteorological history

August 9-16, 2016, Louisiana rainfall
A map of radar-estimated rainfall accumulations across Louisiana between August 9 and 16, 2016; areas shaded in white indicate accumulations in excess of 20 in (510 mm).

Early on August 11, a mesoscale convective system flared up in southern Louisiana around a weak area of low pressure that was situated next to an outflow boundary. It remained nearly stationary, and as a result, torrential downpours occurred in the areas surrounding Baton Rouge and Lafayette. Rainfall rates of up to 2–3 inches (5.1–7.6 cm) an hour were reported in the most deluged areas where totals exceeded nearly 2 feet (61 cm) in some areas as a result of the system remaining stationary.[5] Accumulations peaked at 31.39 inches (797 mm) in Watson, just northeast of Baton Rouge.[6]

The Washington Post noted that the "no-name storm" dumped three times as much rain on Louisiana as Hurricane Katrina. It dropped the equivalent of 7.1 trillion gallons of water or enough to fill Lake Pontchartrain about four times. Hurricane Katrina, by comparison, dumped about 2.3 trillion gallons of rainwater in the state (though more in other states). The flooding rains also dumped more water than had Hurricane Isaac. According to the National Weather Service Hydrometeorological Design Studies Center, the amount of rainfall in the hardest-hit locations had a less than 0.1 percent chance of happening or was a (less than) 1-in-1,000-year event.[7]

Because the rain was not associated with a named storm, there was less warning to the public for emergency preparations.[3]

GPM provides a closer look at the Louisiana floods.

Climate change connection

A rapid attribution study, published within one month after the event, [8] indicates an anthropogenic climate warming role in the increased probability of the return time of a similar extreme event happening in the future. A follow-on peer-reviewed paper [9] indicates that the catastrophic flood in Louisiana was a result of intense precipitation produced by a slow-moving, tropical, low-pressure system interacting with an eastward-traveling baroclinic trough to the north. While tropical-midlatitude interactions of this nature are rare, they are not unprecedented.

Analyses point towards the tendency for more and perhaps stronger upper-level troughs propagating out of the western U.S. in summer; these have an increasing potential to cross paths with low-pressure systems that form around the Gulf Coast. Combined with the projected increase in precipitable water, resulting precipitation magnitude would increase. Large-ensemble modeling indicates that the prospect of future tropical-midlatitude interactions is a scenario that Louisiana will face in the future. Regional simulations suggest that the climate warming since 1985 may have increased the event precipitation (11-14 August 2016) on the order of 20%.[9]

Rainfall like this and the emergency help needed after the flooding subsides are straining the federal system for aid to states. Some analysts wonder if this is the new normal for storms and floods.[3]


Flooded Baton Rouge 20160815-OC-DOD-0009
An aerial view of flooding near Baton Rouge

Flooding began in earnest on August 12. On August 13, a flash flood emergency was issued for areas along the Amite and Comite rivers.[10] By August 15, more than ten rivers (Amite, Vermilion, Calcasieu, Comite, Mermentau, Pearl, Tangipahoa, Tchefuncte, Tickfaw, and Bogue Chitto) and many more had reached a moderate, major, or record flood stage. Eight rivers reached record levels, including the Amite and Comite rivers.[11]

The Amite River crested at nearly 5 ft (1.5 m) above the previous record in Denham Springs.[12] Nearly one-third of all homes—approximately 15,000 structures—in Ascension Parish were flooded after a levee along the Amite River was overtopped.[13] Water levels began to slowly recede by August 15, though large swaths of land remained submerged.[14] Livingston Parish was one the hardest hit areas; an official estimated that 75 percent of the homes in the parish were a "total loss".[15] It was thought over 146,000 homes were damaged in Louisiana.[16][17] This mass flooding also damaged thousands of businesses.[18][19]

August 2016 Flood in Baton Rouge Louisiana 20160815-OC-DOD-0005
The US Coast Guard rescuing Baton Rouge residents following the floods

Thirteen people have been confirmed dead as a consequence of the flooding.[20] An elderly woman in Livingston Parish was confirmed dead by parish officials. A man's body was found Wednesday on Whitehall Avenue in Denham Springs. Officials said they found a man in his 50s in the South Point subdivision off of Walker South. They added he had no obvious signs of trauma, and the area he was found in had five-feet of water in it at one point. Of the other deaths, five people have died in East Baton Rouge Parish, three in Tangipahoa Parish, two in St. Helena Parish, two in Livingston Parish and one in Rapides Parish from the storms and their aftermath.[21]

Evacuations and rescues

160816-G-EQ432-002 (28898040800)
The US Coast Guard coordinating rescue operations with the St. Amant Fire Department in the Baton Rouge area.

The widespread flooding stranded tens of thousands of people in their homes and vehicles. At least 30,000 people were rescued by local law enforcement, firefighters, the Louisiana National Guard, the Coast Guard and fellow residents, from submerged vehicles and flooded homes.[22] Many boat-owning residents of Louisiana and Mississippi, together with other volunteers, formed an informal rescue service known as the Cajun Navy and navigated through flooded areas to answer calls for help that they received via social media. They rescued as many as a thousand people and pets and distributed emergency supplies.[23][24][25][26] A group of 70 volunteers from St. Bernard Parish conducted hundreds of boat rescues in East Baton Rouge Parish.[14] By August 15, approximately 11,000 people sought refuge in 70 shelters.[27] Flash flooding swamped a 7-mile (11 km) section of Interstate 12 between Tangipahoa Parish and Baton Rouge, stranding 125 vehicles. At one point, an approximately 62-mile stretch was closed because of flooding concerns. State police and the National Guard used high-water vehicles to rescue trapped motorists, but many remained stuck for over 24 hours.[10] A cellular network outage complicated rescues over the affected area.[27] On August 12, a state of emergency was activated for the whole of Louisiana.[28]


Louisiana National Guard - August 2016 Flood - Baton Rouge River Center Bade 29021153055
The Baton Rouge River Center served as a shelter for hundreds of displaced flood victims.

With an estimated 146,000[29] homes damaged in the flooding thousands of Louisianans were forced into shelters, with more than 11,000 in state-operated shelters.[30] This prompted an estimated 1,500 American Red Cross volunteers to travel to Louisiana. Other groups such as Louisiana State University, the Catholic Charities Archdiocese of New Orleans, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Celebration Church, Grace Church of Central, and the Church of Scientology also sent aid.[31] There were media reports of one man who cooked 108 pounds (49 kg) of brisket for displaced people.[30] The Louisiana Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals attempted to rescue stray pets, and the Second Harvest Food Bank and the United Way of Southeast Louisiana sent supplies and food.[32] More than 109,398 individuals and households registered for FEMA assistance, and FEMA approved $132 million for assistance.[33][34] Singer Beyoncé, along with sister Solange and Kelly Rowland, held an event that raised more $4 million for those affected by the floods in Baton Rouge. In addition, singer Taylor Swift donated $1 million to Louisiana's relief fund.[35] Lady Gaga donated an unspecified amount of money.[36] On August 13, the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters was activated by the USGS, allowing for the humanitarian redeployment of satellite assets by the international community.[37] AT&T donated $100,000 to be split between the Baton Rouge Area Foundation and DonorsChoose.org for flood relief.[38] Randy Jackson and Harry Connick Jr. were scheduled to host a benefit concert at the Baton Rouge River Center Theatre on September 5, featuring over a dozen artists, and all proceeds went to the American Red Cross Louisiana Flood Relief fund.[39] On the "Ellen" show Friday, September 9, host Ellen DeGeneres announced that she and Britney Spears would each donate $125,000 to help victims of the Louisiana Flood of 2016. Both celebrities are from Louisiana. Spears gave $125,000 to the Louisiana Red Cross to buy a new emergency response vehicle. DeGeneres received a letter from Betsey Baldwin, a P.E. teacher at Galvez Middle School in Ascension parish, which was inundated with two feet of water. The school has 620 students, who after the floods have been forced to study at another, nearby school. "I thought of one person that would help me, and it was you," Baldwin said. The company Shutterfly, at the request of DeGeneres, donated $125,000 to help Galvez Middle School recover.[40]

Impact on school system

During the peak of the floods, around 265,000 children have been out of school, nearly 30% of the school-aged population in the state of Louisiana.[41] There were reports that 6 schools were heavily flooded in East Baton Rouge Parish with another 15 in Livingston Parish.[42][43]

Livingston Parish's Superintendent, Rick Wentzel, believes that their school system is in a similar position to the Northshore following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and he held a meeting with the school district to discuss possible options.[44] Livingston Parish conducted a teacher survey August 23–24, and a parent survey August 25 to assess how those are affected, and on Friday, August 26, 2016, Superintendent Rick Wentzel announced that Livingston Parish Public Schools will be resuming class on September 12, 2016. Wentzel, who was affected by the flooding himself, said he was "very pleased" that all schools will be resuming together. The late restart date is because LPPS received the most extensive damage with eight of the 15 flooded schools having "extensive damage." Wentzel said that each school will have a welcome back event for parents and students before returning on September 12, 27 school days following the August 4th start date. Wentzel said that the restart will have some unfortunate "side effects" as some schools will be temporarily platooned. The platooned schools were Denham Springs High School at Live Oak High School, Denham Springs Freshman High at Live Oak Middle School, Southside Junior High at Juban Parc High School, and Springfield High School at Springfield Middle School.[45] All host schools were in session from 6:30 am until 11:40 am and all platooned schools were in session from 2:25 pm until 5:37 pm. The two elementary schools were in class alongside their relocated school. Denham Springs Elementary was split among Eastside Elementary (Grades: PreK, K, 1, 2) and Freshwater Elementary (Grades: 3, 4, 5) while Southside Elementary was split among Lewis Vincent Elementary (Grades: PreK, K, 1) and Juban Parc Elementary (Grades: 2, 3, 4, 5). This announcement also came with Superintendent Wentzel saying ALL students will receive free lunch until September 30.[46] Following a school board meeting on Thursday, September 9, Assistant Superintendent Stephen Parill announced the "known and confident updates" for the 2016 Academic Calendar. Only four changes were made to the calendar that include: changing Thursday, September 15 from a half-day to a whole day, removing the parish fair holiday on Friday, October 7 (the fair was cancelled due to the flooding), removing a parent-teacher conference day on Thursday, October 20, and making Wednesday, November 16 a whole day instead of a half-day. The board also voted to add class time to the day. Parill said they are still waiting on their appeal to Louisiana BESE waiving the required minutes of class, and any further changes will be made after BESE's ruling.[47]

For the entire state, superintendent John White said that at least 22 schools had heavy damage and will need time to recover.[48] There were also many school closures due to flooding in the Lafayette area as well.[49]

Many teachers' homes flooded, with 4,000 staff members' homes in Baker sustaining damage and another 2,000 in East Baton Rouge Parish.[50] East Baton Rouge Parish schools announced they won't open back up until September 6, 25 days after school was originally canceled for the floods on August 12, the third day of school.[51]

Transportation was a challenge for many districts across the state, as many kids were displaced from their homes and many school buses were damaged from flood water.[52]

Prison system

The Louisiana Correctional Institute for Women (LCIW), located in St. Gabriel and the sole Louisiana state prison for women, had 985 prisoners at the time of the flooding.[53] The prison experienced flooding ranging from 8 inches (200 mm) to 3 feet (0.91 m).[54] LCIW, the only state-operated prison to receive flooding during the incident, temporarily closed.[53] It was the first time in state history that the whole population of a particular prison was evacuated to other facilities.[55] As of 2017 the prisoners were still housed in other prisons.[56] Elayn Hunt Correctional Center, next to LCIW, was not evacuated.[57]

Economic impact

Abandoned Truck I-12
An 18-wheeler abandoned on Interstate 12 during the 2016 Louisiana floods

Damages were anticipated to reach $10-15 billion, with this storm likely ranking as the seventh most expensive of natural disasters in the US since 1978.[2]

Because many of the areas that flooded were not in "high flood risk areas," the majority of homeowners affected by the flood did not have flood insurance. Across Louisiana, about 21% of all structures have coverage under the National Flood Insurance Program. Despite this, in many parishes that percentage is much lower. In St. Helena Parish, which was among the hardest hit parishes by the floods, less than 1% of all homeowners had flood insurance.[58][59]

Because of the large number of homeowners without flood insurance that were affected, the federal government is providing disaster aid through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).[3] The flood has been called the worst US natural disaster since Hurricane Sandy in 2012.[4]

FEMA, which has stepped in to help homeowners without flood insurance, has declared these 20 parishes as federal disaster areas: Acadia, Ascension, Avoyelles, East Baton Rouge, East Feliciana, Evangeline, Iberia, Iberville, Jefferson Davis, Lafayette, Livingston, Pointe Coupee, St. Helena, St. Landry, St. Martin, St. Tammany, Tangipahoa, Vermilion, Washington, and West Feliciana.[60] Homeowners with damage from the floods in those parishes are eligible for up to $33,000 in federal disaster aid and so far around 102,000 people have applied for help.[61][62][63] For business continuity and community rebuilding, private mobile flood recovery centers have also been made available, including a 10-piece modular building complex used in Baton Rouge by FEMA as a portable school for children of displaced families who moved north from New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.[64]Cite error: A <ref> tag is missing the closing </ref> (see the help page). This seems to have happened because of the heavy coverage of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 U.S. presidential election, along with the fact that the storm did not have a name since it was not a tropical storm nor hurricane.[65] In fact, the storm was not even a tropical depression, the lowest level a tropical system can have. The Times-Picayune expressed their frustrations in an article and noted that CNN and The New York Times had not covered the floods until late Sunday August 14, despite widespread flooding starting on August 12.[65][66]

During the floods, President Barack Obama was on vacation in Martha's Vineyard. On August 18, an editorial in The Advocate criticized the president for not coming to Louisiana during the crisis.[67] However, Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards defended the president's handling of the emergency, saying that he had been talking to him daily and that a visit by the president would require road closures for his motorcade and distract first responders when rescues are still underway.[68] On August 23, 2016, Obama visited the Baton Rouge area and made a speech, along with meeting residents affected by the floods. In his speech he said that the floods were not a photo op issue and that "after the TV cameras leave, the whole country is going to continue to support" Louisiana.[16][69] During his visit he also took the time to visit the family of Alton Sterling and the families of the slain police officers who were killed in a shooting earlier in the summer following unrest in Baton Rouge.[70]

Initially, presidential candidates Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump also faced criticism for paying little to no attention to the floods.[71] On August 19, 2016, four days before the President's visit, Trump and his running mate Mike Pence toured the flooded areas. Trump visited affected families in St. Amant, a community southeast of Baton Rouge, and handed supplies that he donated from an 18-wheeler truck at “The Church” on Hwy 431 in St. Amant. He met with local officials from Ascension Parish and the Ascension Parish Sheriff’s Office to listen & he supportive.[72][73][74] Hillary Clinton said she would not visit Louisiana in the near future, saying that her political campaign would cause distraction, though said she wanted Louisianans to have the resources they needed.[75]

High school football brought national coverage of the damage from the floods in September 2016. The focus was the local high school football teams in Livingston Parish. ESPN was "shining a spotlight" on Denham Springs High School's football program's rebound following the flooding.[76] DSHS had to forfeit their first game against East Ascension in wake of the flooding, and opened the season at home against Tara.[77] On Thursday night, September 8, DSHS hosted a pep rally to get fans and students ready for the upcoming season. During the pep rally, ESPN Sportscenter recorded various clips and interviews[78] that were set to play every hour between 7 am and noon on Friday (September 9). ESPN also held two "live remote feeds" covering pregame at Yellow Jacket Stadium from 5-6 pm airing on Sportscenter and ESPN2. Sportscenter ended their national coverage of the flood on Saturday morning (September 10) by having a live broadcast at James Grill in Denham Springs, Louisiana from 6-8am.[76] Denham Springs gained more national through baseball as the team traveled to Georgia for the Perfect Game National Showdown, it brought attention to what the community went through and how it brought them closer together.[79]


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External links

Amite River

The Amite River is a tributary of Lake Maurepas in Mississippi and Louisiana in the United States. It is about 117 miles (188 km) long. It starts as two forks in southwestern Mississippi and flows south through Louisiana, passing Greater Baton Rouge, to Lake Maurepas. The lower 37 miles (59.5 km) of the river is navigable. A portion of the river is diverted via the Petite Amite River and Amite Diversion Canal to the Blind River, which also flows to Lake Maurepas.

Ascension Parish, Louisiana

Ascension Parish (French: Paroisse de l'Ascension) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 107,215. Its parish seat is Donaldsonville. The parish was created in 1807.Ascension Parish is part of the Baton Rouge, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area. It is one of the fastest growing parishes in the state.

During the American Civil War, desertions had been of major concern to the Confederate States Army. Henry Watkins Allen, before he was governor, reported more than eight thousand deserters and draft-dodgers about Bayou Teche. There were some 1,200 deserters in Livingston, St. Tammany, and Ascension parishes.Planters in Ascension Parish later complained of raids by guerrillas. In 1864, planter W.R. Hodges requested soldiers to protect the planted fields from such attacks. Union soldiers were accused of "wandering about at will, and helping themselves . . . to whatever could be found," explains the historian John D. Winters in his The Civil War in Louisiana (1963).During the historic 2016 Louisiana Floods, around one third of all homes in Ascension Parish were flooded. 15,000 homes and businesses took on water, mostly in the Galvez-St. Amant area, prompting a visit to St. Amant by then-presidential candidate, Donald J. Trump. Ascension Parish is one of the 22 parishes that make up Acadiana, the heartland of the Cajun people and their culture. This is exhibited by the prevalence of the French or Cajun French language heard throughout the parish, as well as the many festivals celebrated by it's residents, including the Boucherie Festival, Lagniappe Music and Seafood Festival, Crawfish Festival, and the world famous Jamabalaya Festival. The largest city in Ascension Parish, Gonzales, is celebrated as the "Jambalaya Capital of the World".

Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Baton Rouge ( BAT-ən ROOZH; from French bâton rouge [bɑtɔ̃ ʁuʒ] (listen), meaning 'red stick') is the capital of the U.S. state of Louisiana and its second-largest city. Located on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, it is the parish seat of East Baton Rouge Parish.

As its capital city, Baton Rouge is the political hub of Louisiana. It is the second-largest city in the state, with an estimated population of 227,715 in 2016. The metropolitan area surrounding the city, known as Greater Baton Rouge, is also the second-largest in Louisiana, with a population of 830,480 people as of 2015. The urban area has around 594,309 inhabitants.

Baton Rouge is a major industrial, petrochemical, medical, research, motion picture, and growing technology center of the American South. It is the location of Louisiana State University, the LSU System's flagship university and the largest institution of higher education in the state. It is also the location of Southern University, the flagship institution of the Southern University System, the only historically black college system in the nation. The Port of Greater Baton Rouge is the 10th-largest in the United States in terms of tonnage shipped, and is the farthest upstream Mississippi River port capable of handling Panamax ships.The Baton Rouge area owes its historical importance to its strategic site upon the Istrouma Bluff, the first natural bluff upriver from the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. This allowed development of a business quarter safe from seasonal flooding. In addition, the city built a levee system stretching from the bluff southward to protect the riverfront and low-lying agricultural areas. The city is a culturally rich center, with settlement by immigrants from numerous European nations and African peoples brought to North America as slaves or indentured servants. It was ruled by seven different governments: French, British, and Spanish in the colonial era; the Republic of West Florida, as a United States territory and state, Confederate, and United States again since the end of the American Civil War.

Burners Without Borders

Burners Without Borders (BWB) is a community-led NGO which initiates civic works projects and disaster relief in local communities around the globe.

C. Paul Phelps Correctional Center

C. Paul Phelps Correctional Center (PCC) was a Louisiana Department of Public Safety & Corrections prison for men, located in unincorporated Beauregard Parish, Louisiana, about 3 miles (4.8 km) north of DeQuincy and 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Lake Charles. The center was located on Louisiana Highway 27. It had a capacity of 942 prisoners and was a medium security facility.

Cajun Navy

The Cajun Navy are informal ad-hoc volunteer groups comprising private boat owners who assist in search and rescue efforts in Louisiana and adjacent areas. These groups were formed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and reactivated in the aftermaths of the 2016 Louisiana floods, Hurricane Harvey, Hurricane Irma, the 2018 Hidalgo County flood, Hurricane Florence, Tropical Storm Gordon, and Hurricane Michael. They are credited with rescuing thousands of citizens during those disasters.These groups draw their name from the region's Cajun people, a significant number of whom are private boat owners and skilled boat pilots. Their boats consist of a number of types, but are typically small vessels such as bass boats, jonboats, air boats, and other small, shallow-draft craft easily transported to flooded areas.

Comite River

The Comite River is a right bank tributary of the Amite River, with a confluence near the city of Denham Springs, east of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The river is 56.1 miles (90.3 km) long. Its drainage basin comprises approximately 348 square miles (900 km2) and includes portions of Wilkinson and Amite counties in Mississippi, and East Feliciana and East Baton Rouge parishes in Louisiana. The river's source lies in the hills of the East and West Feliciana parishes, and it empties into the Amite River just north of U.S. Route 190 (Florida Blvd) near the eastern boundary of Baton Rouge.

Green Party of Louisiana

The Green Party of Louisiana is a state-level political party affiliated with the Green Party of the United States (GPUS). The nominee of the GPUS has been on every presidential ballot in the state since 1996.

The 2014 convention of the Green Party of Louisiana was held in New Orleans and featured former presidential nominee Jill Stein. The party's 2015 convention was held in Abita Springs, Louisiana.

International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters'

The International Charter "Space and Major Disasters" is a non-binding charter which provides for the charitable and humanitarian retasked acquisition of and transmission of space satellite data to relief organizations in the event of major disasters. Initiated by the European Space Agency and the French space agency CNES after the UNISPACE III conference held in Vienna, Austria in July 1999, it officially came into operation on November 1, 2000 after the Canadian Space Agency signed onto the charter on October 20, 2000. Their space assets were then, respectively, ERS and ENVISAT, SPOT and Formosat, and RADARSAT.

The assorted satellite assets of various corporate, national, and international space agencies and entities provide for humanitarian coverage which is wide albeit contingent. First activated for floods in northeast France in December 2001, the Charter has since brought space assets into play for numerous floods, earthquakes, oil spills, forest fires, tsunamis, major snowfalls, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes and landslides, and furthermore (and unusually) for the search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 and for the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak. As of 2015, fifteen space agencies are signatories; dozens of satellites are available with image resolutions ranging from 8 kilometres (5 mi) per pixel to about 0.3 metres (1 ft) per pixel. As of August 2018, it had had 579 activations, from 125 countries, and had 17 members, which contributed 34 satellites. It won the prestigious Pecora award in 2017.

List of disasters by cost

Disasters can be particularly notable for the high costs associated with responding to and recovering from them. This page lists the estimated economic costs of relatively recent disasters.

The costs of disasters vary considerably depending on a range of factors, such as the geographical location where they occur. When a large disaster occurs in a wealthy country, the financial damage may be large, but when a comparable disaster occurs in a poorer country, the actual financial damage may appear to be relatively small. This is in part due to the difficulty of measuring the financial damage in areas that lack insurance. For example, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with a death toll of over 230,000 people, cost a 'mere' $15 billion, whereas in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in which 11 people died, the damages were six-fold.

Note: All damage figures are listed in billions of United States dollars.

List of floods

This is a list of major floods.

Livingston Parish, Louisiana

Livingston Parish (French: Paroisse de Livingston) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 128,026. Its parish seat is Livingston.Livingston Parish is part of the Baton Rouge, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Louisiana floods

Louisiana floods may refer to several events throughout Louisiana history:

Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 - The worst river flood in U.S. history caused damage in Louisiana along with other states

Mississippi flood of 1973 - Affected areas around the Mississippi River in Louisiana and other states

May 1995 Louisiana flood - Much of New Orleans flooded after heavy rainfall across South Louisiana

2005 levee failures in Greater New Orleans - After Hurricane Katrina many levees failed in New Orleans causing widespread catastrophic flooding in 80% of the city

2011 Mississippi River floods - Severe flooding across the Mississippi River Valley affected Louisiana

2015 Louisiana floods - The Red River reached record levels, resulting in flooding

2016 Louisiana floods - Prolonged rainfall across South Louisiana caused catastrophic flooding resulting in over 146,000 flooded homes and 13 deaths

One Man Gang

George Gray (born February 12, 1960) is an American professional wrestler, better known by his ring name, (The) One Man Gang. For two years in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF), he was Akeem "The African Dream". Prior to this, he was the top heel for the WWF's short-lived national competitor, the Universal Wrestling Federation (UWF), and UWF Heavyweight Champion for six months in 1986 and 1987.

St. Amant, Louisiana

St. Amant (or Saint Amant) is an unincorporated community located in Ascension Parish, in the U.S. state of Louisiana. This community has not been incorporated into a city or town. It is situated about 25 miles south-east of Baton Rouge. and 50 miles north west of New Orleans. It is named after the St. Amant family, some of the early settlers in the region. The Saint Amant post office has the ZIP code of 70774.

Tony Perkins (politician)

Anthony Richard Perkins (born March 20, 1963) is president of the Family Research Council, a Christian conservative policy and lobbying organization based in Washington, D.C. Perkins was previously a police officer and television reporter, served two terms as a Republican member of the Louisiana House of Representatives and unsuccessfully ran for the U.S. Senate in 2002. On May 14 2018, he was appointed to the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom.

Vermilion River (Louisiana)

The Vermilion River (or the Bayou Vermilion, French: Rivière Vermilion) is a 70.0-mile-long (112.7 km) bayou in southern Louisiana in the United States. It is formed on the common boundary of Lafayette and St. Martin parishes by a confluence of small bayous flowing from St. Landry Parish, and flows generally southward through Lafayette and Vermilion parishes, past the cities of Lafayette and Abbeville. At the port of Intracoastal City, the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway crosses the river before the latter flows into Vermilion Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico. The river originates at Bayou Fusilier, which is fed by Bayou Teche; winds its way through Lafayette Parish; and drains into the Vermilion Bay below Vermilion Parish.

The river is a "consequent stream" or a "tidal river", which means that the Vermilion was formed from the bottom up. The river was created by Vermilion Bay: tides and other natural actions in the bay slowly eroded the marshes and other features of the landscape as the river crept northward. This process brought the channel that would one day become the Vermilion River as far north as Lafayette, Louisiana. Much later a distributary of Bayou Teche made its way south and eventually linked up with the consequent stream, forming a true north-south flowing river. During times of heavy-rain events, parts of the Vermilion will experience negative discharge, reversing direction and flowing north. At the Surrey Street stream gauge in Lafayette, Louisiana, maximum historic positive discharge was 6,280 ft³/s on July 17, 1989. Maximum negative discharge, -11,300 ft³/s, occurred on August 13, 2016 during the 2016 Louisiana floods. The reverse-flow phenomenon occurs because the watershed areas in the city of Lafayette are highly developed. Rainfall runoff from this urban area enters the Vermilion River with larger volumes and at a faster rate than runoff upstream. This raises the water level in the Vermilion River along the southern areas of Lafayette. This rise in water levels sometimes exceeds the water level in reaches upstream of Lafayette, thus causing the reverse-flow effect. Also, when water levels in the Vermilion River exceed certain stages, water begins to enter the Bayou Tortue Swamp Area. This swamp has a great capacity to hold water, which also contributes to the reverse flow effect. The water from the Vermilion River enters Bayou Tortue Swamp through two coulees. Coulee Crow and Bayou Tortue are located upstream of the Surrey Street bridge on the Vermilion River.

In its early stage of development, the only point in the city where water transportation could be secured was at the site of the Pinhook Bridge. Consequently, property owners and businesses located there. In later years, steamboats ran on the bayou. However, low water levels and submerged logs hampered their ability to travel.The importance of the Vermilion as a means of transportation and commerce declined with the introduction of the railroad and the paving in 1936 of all highways leading into Lafayette. The Army Corps of Engineers also had a significant impact on Bayou Vermilion. Their dredging, completed in 1944, gave the bayou a depth of 9 feet (3 m) and a bottom width of 100 feet (30 m). Water from the Vermilion River is used primarily for rice irrigation and for the dilution of municipal and industrial effluents.A pumping station operated by the Teche-Vermilion Freshwater District was built on the Atchafalaya River West Protection Levee near Krotz Springs with the capacity to pump up to 1,040 cubic feet (29 m3) of fresh water per second into Bayou Courtableu and eventually into the Vermilion River. The Teche-Vermilion Freshwater Project began in 1976 and was completed in 1982.

In the 1970s, the Vermilion gained a reputation as the most polluted river in the United States. Since that time, improved sewage treatment, low flow streamflow augmentation, and regular in-stream trash collection have changed the public perception to that of a celebrated recreational resource. A Bayou Vermilion Paddle Trail map has been developed to facilitate and enhance the public’s enjoyment of Bayou Vermilion.

Yesterday's Song

"Yesterday's Song" is a song recorded by American singer Hunter Hayes as the lead single for his upcoming fourth studio album. Hayes co-wrote the track with Barry Dean and Martin Johnson and also assisted Dann Huff with production. It was released to digital retailers on September 23, 2016 and officially impacted American country radio on October 24, 2016.

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