The 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit was the eleventh meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20). It was held on 4–5 September 2016 in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang. It was the first ever G20 summit to be hosted in China and the second in an Asian country after 2010 G20 Seoul summit was hosted in South Korea.
|2016 G20 Hangzhou summit|
|Date||4–5 September 2016|
|Venue(s)||Hangzhou International Exhibition Centre|
Guest invitees: Chad, Egypt, Kazakhstan, Laos, Senegal, Spain, Singapore, Thailand
|Chair||Xi Jinping, President|
|Follows||2015 G20 Antalya summit|
|Precedes||2017 G20 Hamburg summit|
In the days before the G20 Hangzhou summit, only some vehicles were allowed through the city, construction sites were stopped, inhabitants received a week-long holidays (and were encouraged to leave the city) and factories in the region (including more than two hundred steel mills) were asked to stop their production (in order to temporarily reduce air pollution).
On 3 September 2016, Barack Obama and Xi Jinping announced the ratification of the Paris Agreement (of the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference) by their countries. After they did it, it is 26 countries which have ratified the agreement so far; the United States and China represent respectively 18 percent and 20 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions (the driving force behind global warming).
The main themes of final communiqué of the summit are:
The heads of state and government of G20 issued a joint statement with a summary of the main results of the meeting. The statement is divided in the following documents:
List of leaders who took part in the 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit:
Xi Jinping in the speech quoted "Guoyu", Traditional Chinese history books, in Chapter 9 of the "通商宽农" (tōng shāng kuān nóng, meaning reducing taxes and make road easy to walk, promote commercialization, and relax agriculture), but he mistakenly pronounced it as "通商宽衣" ("宽衣" kuān yī means Undress), the Central Propaganda Department ordered media and social platforms to prohibit this discussion.
A number of concerns and controversies surfaced before, during, and after the 2008 Summer Olympics, and which received major media coverage. Leading up to the Olympics, there were concerns about human rights in China, such that many high-profile individuals, such as politicians and celebrities, announced intentions to boycott the games to protest China's role in the Darfur conflict, and Myanmar, its stance towards Tibet, or other aspects of its human rights record. During the games in Beijing, the city was also under a high alert because of security concerns following civil unrest in Tibet and terrorist attacks by Xinjiang separatists. The levels of air pollution in Beijing also came under much scrutiny, due both to concerns about athletes' health and concerns that Beijing had failed to live up to promises it made during its Olympic bid. Foreign journalists at the games reportedly faced various restrictions to their work, limitations to internet access, and threats of physical violence. The gymnastics competition caused a major worldwide controversy during and after the games when some Chinese gymnasts were accused of being under the minimum age, but then cleared after an investigation. Other controversies surrounding the 2008 Summer Olympics included ticketing problems, displacement of Beijing residents due to construction and demolitions, and alleged persecution of individuals applying to protest.
In spite of the various controversies, International Olympic Committee president Jacques Rogge said at the closing ceremony that they were "truly exceptional Games".FAIR data
FAIR data are data which meet standards of findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability. A March 2016 publication by a consortium of scientists and organizations called these the "FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship", using FAIR as an acronym and making the concept easier to discuss.At the 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit, the G20 leaders issued a statement endorsing the application of FAIR principles to research.
The Association of European Research Libraries recommends the use of FAIR principles.A 2017 paper by advocates of FAIR data reported that awareness of the FAIR concept was increasing among various researchers and institutes, but also, understanding of the concept was becoming confused as different people apply their own differing perspectives to it.Guides on implementing FAIR data practices state that the cost of a data management plans in compliance with FAIR data practices should be 5% of the total research budget.Before FAIR a 2007 paper was the earliest paper discussing similar ideas related to data accessibility.Harvard Summit for Young Leaders in China
The Harvard Summit for Young Leaders in China (HSYLC) is an annual conference for Chinese high school students organized by the Harvard Association for US-China Relations (HAUSCR). The eight-day conference, conducted by Harvard College undergraduates, faculty, and prominent leaders from both nations, seeks to expose 600 Chinese high school students to liberal arts education. The conference includes Student Seminars led by 60 Harvard College undergraduate students, a Distinguished Speaker Series, and an entrepreneurial program organized in connection with China Thinks Big.Kaluga Queen
Kaluga Queen is a Chinese brand of caviar made by the caviar company Hangzhou Qiandaohu Xunlong Sci-Tech Co., Ltd. The company produces 60 tonnes of caviar annually, making it the largest producer of caviar in the world and responsible for 30% of world production.Kaluga Queen supplies caviar for 21 of the 26 3-starred Michelin restaurants in Paris.List of international presidential trips made by Joko Widodo
This is a list of international presidential trips made by Joko Widodo (Jokowi), the 7th President of Indonesia. He assumed presidency on 20 October 2014. As of October 2018, Jokowi had visited 32 countries.Pollution in China
Pollution in China is one aspect of the broader topic of environmental issues in China. Various forms of pollution have increased as China has industrialised, which has caused widespread environmental and health problems.China will either shut down or curtail operations at dozens of steel plants from November 2017, over the next five months under an aggressive action plan to reduce winter pollution in Beijing and its surrounding areas.Premiership of Theresa May
The premiership of Theresa May began on 13 July 2016, when May accepted Queen Elizabeth II's invitation to form a government. This followed the resignation of May's predecessor as Prime Minister, David Cameron, who resigned in the aftermath of the European Union membership referendum.Rodrigo Duterte
Rodrigo Roa Duterte, (; Tagalog: [roˈdɾigo ɾowa dʊˈtɛɾtɛ] (listen); born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician who is the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, the southernmost major island group of the country, to hold the office. He is the chair of the ruling PDP–Laban party. Taking office at 71 years old in June 2016, Duterte is the oldest person to assume the Philippine presidency; the record was previously held by Sergio Osmeña at the age of 65.Duterte studied political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating in 1968, before obtaining a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972. He then worked as a lawyer and was a prosecutor for Davao City, a highly urbanized city on Mindanao island, before becoming vice mayor and, subsequently, mayor of the city in the wake of the Philippine Revolution of 1986. Duterte was among the longest-serving mayors in the Philippines, serving seven terms and totaling more than 22 years in office.
Frequently described as a populist and a nationalist, Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug users and other criminals. Human rights groups have documented over 1,400 killings allegedly by death squads operating in Davao between 1998 and May 2016; the victims were mainly drug users, petty criminals and street children. A 2009 report by the Philippine Commission on Human Rights confirmed the "systematic practice of extrajudicial killings" by the Davao Death Squad. Duterte has alternately confirmed and denied his involvement. The Office of the Ombudsman closed an investigation in January 2016 stating that they found no evidence that the Davao Death Squad exists, and no evidence to connect the police or Duterte with the killings. The case has since been reopened. Duterte has repeatedly confirmed that he personally killed criminal suspects as mayor of Davao.On May 9, 2016, Duterte won the Philippine presidential election with 39.01% of the votes, defeating four other candidates, namely Mar Roxas of the Liberal Party (23.4%), Senator Grace Poe (21.6%), former vice president Jejomar Binay of the United Nationalist Alliance (12.9%), and the late Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago of the People's Reform Party (3%). During his campaign, he promised to kill tens of thousands of criminals and end crime within six months. His domestic policy has focused on combating the illegal drug trade by initiating the Philippine Drug War. According to the Philippine National Police the death total passed 7,000 in January 2017, after which the police stopped publishing data. Following criticism from United Nations human rights experts that extrajudicial killings had increased since his election, Duterte threatened to withdraw the Philippines from the UN and form a new organization with China and African nations. He has declared his intention to pursue an "independent foreign policy", and sought to distance the Philippines from the United States and European nations and pursue closer ties with China and Russia.Timeline of Chinese history
This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of China. See also the list of rulers of China, Chinese emperors family tree, dynasties in Chinese history and years in China.
Dates prior to 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe Regency, are provisional and subject to dispute.Timeline of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections
This is a timeline of major events related to election interference that Russia conducted against the U.S. 2016 elections. It also includes major events related to investigations into suspected inappropriate links between associates of Donald Trump and Russian officials. Those investigations continued in 2017, 2018, and 2019.Visa policy of China
Visitors to the Mainland of the People's Republic of China must obtain a visa from one of the Chinese diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. The two Special Administrative Regions – Hong Kong and Macau – maintain their own independent border control policy and thus have their own visa requirements.Chinese visas are issued both outside China, by the Chinese diplomatic missions, and in China, by the Exit and Entry Administrations (EEAs) of the county-level Public Security Bureaus (PSBs). In order to enter China, however, a non-Chinese national should apply to the visa-issuing authorities outside China for a Chinese visa. Because Hong Kong and Macau maintain their independent border control policies, ordinary Chinese visas are valid for Mainland China only and are not valid for Hong Kong or Macau, so travelers must apply for separate visas for Hong Kong or Macau should they require one for traveling to these regions.
The government of the People's Republic of China allows holders of normal passports issued by some countries to travel to Mainland China for tourism or business purposes for up to 15, 30 or 90 days without having to obtain a visa. Visitors of other nationalities, as well as residents of Hong Kong and Macau, are required to obtain either a visa or a permit prior to arrival, depending on their nationality. In order to increase the numbers of tourists visiting the country, some ports of entry of China allow nationals of certain countries to visit specified regions within 72 or 144 hours if they are in transit to a third country. In 2014 the PRC government announced its intention to sign mutual visa facilitation and visa-free agreements with more countries in the future. Since then, a number of such agreements were concluded with some countries.
All non-Chinese travelers as well as Hong Kong and Macau permanent residents who stay in Mainland China for more than 24 hours must register with the local PSBs. When staying in a hotel, the registration is usually done as a part of the check-in process. When staying in a private home, however, the visitor must physically report to the local PSB within 24 hours of arrival for cities or 72 hours for rural areas. All visa-free passengers, including those in transit who stay for more than 24 hours, must adhere to the rule, as failure to comply can result in a fine or being detained by PSB for up to 15 days. Since January 2018, persons who failed to register with the local PSBs will be banned from using visa-free transit for a period of 2 years from the day the offence was recorded.Starting from 9 February 2017, holders of non-Chinese travel documents aged between 14 and 70 will be fingerprinted upon entry, with the exception of holders of diplomatic passports. This new policy has started in Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport and will gradually roll out in all border checkpoints and international airports before the end of 2017.