2016 Canadian Census

The 2016 Canadian Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of the Canadian residents, which counted a population of 35,151,728, a 5% change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688. The census, conducted by Statistics Canada, was Canada's seventh quinquennial census.[N 1] The official census day was May 10, 2016. Census web access codes began arriving in the mail on May 2, 2016.[2] The 2016 census marked the reinstatement of the mandatory long-form census, which had been dropped in favour of the voluntary National Household Survey for the 2011 census.[3] With a response rate of 98.4%, this census is said to be the best one ever recorded since the 1666 census of New France.[4][5] Canada's next census is scheduled for 2021.

27th Census of Canada
Canada Census 2016

Statistics Canada's visual identifier for
its 2016 Census of Population
Statistics Canada logo
General information
Date takenMay 10, 2016 (official census day)
Total population35,151,728
Percent changeIncrease 5.0%
Annual percent change0.98%
Most populous province or territoryOntario (13,448,494)
Least populous province or territoryYukon (35,874)


Consultation with census data users, clients, stakeholders and other interested parties closed in November 2012. Qualitative content testing, which involved soliciting feedback regarding the questionnaire and tests responses to its questions, was scheduled for the fall of 2013, with more extensive testing occurring in May 2014. Statistics Canada was scheduled to submit its census content recommendations for review by the Parliament of Canada in December 2014 for subsequent final approval by the Cabinet of Canada.[6]

On November 5, 2015, during the first Liberal caucus meeting after forming a majority government, the party announced that it would reinstate the mandatory[7] long-form census,[8] starting in 2016. By early January 2016, Statistics Canada had announced a need for 35,000 people to complete this survey to commence in May.[9]

Data release schedule

The release dates for geography products from the 2016 Census were:[10]

  • November 16, 2016, for boundary files (first edition), road network files, hydrography files, reference maps (first edition), attribute information products (correspondence files), and reference guides and documents (first edition); and
  • February 8, 2017, for boundary files (second edition), reference maps (second edition), attribute information products (GeoSuite and geographic attribute file), and reference guides and documents (second edition).

The release dates for data by release topic from the 2016 Census are:[10]

  • February 8, 2017, for population and dwelling counts;
  • May 3, 2017, for age and sex, type of dwelling;
  • May 10, 2017, for Census of Agriculture;
  • August 2, 2017, for language and families, households and marital status;
  • September 13, 2017, for income;
  • October 25, 2017, for immigration and ethnocultural diversity, housing and Aboriginal peoples; and
  • November 29, 2017, for education, labour, journey to work, language of work and mobility and migration.


Portions of Canada's three territories and remote areas within Alberta, Labrador, Manitoba, Quebec and Saskatchewan were subject to early enumeration between February 1, 2016, and March 31, 2016.[11] Enumeration of the balance of Canada began on May 2, 2016, with the unveiling of the online census questionnaire,[12] eight days prior to the official census day of May 10, 2016.[13] Because of a wildfire in early May in northeast Alberta, Statistics Canada suspended enumeration efforts in the Fort McMurray area with alternate means to collect data from its evacuated residents to be determined at a later date.[14] Shortly after re-entry, residents were encouraged to complete their census form online or over the phone; however door-to-door enumeration remained suspended.[15]

Public response

Non-binary activists expressed concern that the choice between "male" and "female" on the "sex" question left them with no valid options.[16] In response, Statistics Canada stated that "Respondents who cannot select one category ... can leave the question blank and indicate, in the Comments section at the end of the questionnaire, the reason(s) for which they've chosen to leave this question unanswered."[17] Statistics Canada stated that they intend to analyze these comments but that because of the technical difficulties of analyzing free-form text, this analysis will not be released on the same schedule as the binary gender data.[17]


In the 2016 Census of Population, Canada recorded a population of 35,151,728 living in 14,072,079 of its 15,412,443 total private dwellings, a 5% change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688. With a land area of 8,965,588.85 km2 (3,461,633.21 sq mi), it had a population density of 3.9/km2 (10.2/sq mi) in 2016.[18] Canada's most and least populous provinces were Ontario at 13,448,494 and Prince Edward Island at 142,907 respectively. Among the three territories, the Northwest Territories was the largest with a population of 41,786 while Yukon was the smallest with a population of 35,874[19] after Nunavut's population overtook Yukon for the first time in its history.[20]

The majority of Canada's population in 2016 were females at 50.9%, while 49.1% were males. The average age of the population was 41.0 years (40.1 years for males and 41.9 years for females).[18]

In terms of occupied private dwellings, 53.6% of them were single detached dwellings, followed by 18% being units in apartment buildings less than five storeys, and 9.9% being apartment units in buildings with five or more storeys. The average household size was 2.4 people per household. Two-person households were the most frequent size among private households at 34.4%.[18]

In regards to the journey to work data in Ottawa, there was an increase of people driving their car to work of 51.3% which has the highest mode of transportation. On the other hand, public transit decreased to 25.1% comparing to the 2011 census. The census data in 2016 shows that people have been using other modes of transportation more than other years, this includes walking and cycling.

See also


  1. ^ Canada's first quinquennial census was conducted in 1956.[1]


  1. ^ "Overview of the Census: Census year 2011" (PDF). Statistics Canada. April 2012. p. 4. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  2. ^ "Statistics Canada on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  3. ^ "Liberal gov't restores mandatory long-form census". CTV News. November 5, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
  4. ^ "Canadians' overwhelming response enables 'best ever' Census in 2016". Statistics Canada. August 29, 2016. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  5. ^ "'Best census ever' in 2016, StatsCan says". Retrieved August 30, 2016.
  6. ^ "2016 Census Program Content Consultation Guide: Census year 2016" (PDF). Statistics Canada. p. 10. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
  7. ^ Berthiaume, Lee. "The long-form census is back – with penalties still possible if you ignore it". Ottawa Citizen.
  8. ^ "Liberals can restore long-form census for 2016, if they act quickly, observers say". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. October 28, 2015.
  9. ^ Tencer, Daniel (January 5, 2016). "Statistics Canada Hiring 35,000 For 2016 Census That Will Replace Harper's Voluntary Survey". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  10. ^ a b "2016 Census Program release schedule". Statistics Canada. February 23, 2016. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  11. ^ "Early enumeration jobs". Statistics Canada. April 29, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  12. ^ "The 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. April 29, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  13. ^ "2016 Census questions". Statistics Canada. April 10, 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  14. ^ "Statistics Canada suspends Census collection in Fort McMurray area". Statistics Canada. May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  15. ^ "Update on Census collection in the Fort McMurray area". Statistics Canada. June 17, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  16. ^ "Neither male nor female, transgender student calls for 3rd option on census form". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  17. ^ a b Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Who is included in the census?". www.census.gc.ca. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c "Census Profile, 2016 Census: Canada". Statistics Canada. August 25, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  19. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data". Statistics Canada. August 28, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  20. ^ "Population size and growth in Canada: Key results from the 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. March 30, 2017. Retrieved October 15, 2017. For the first time since Nunavut was founded in 1999, its population surpassed that of Yukon.

External links

Bredenbury, Saskatchewan

Bredenbury is a town, in the rural municipality of Saltcoats, No. 213, in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. Bredenbury is located on Highway 16 in eastern Saskatchewan. As of the 2016 Canadian Census, the population of Bredenbury was 372. The main industries in the area are farming as well as potash mining near Esterhazy. The community is known in the area for its enthusiastic Christmas light displays which have won national awards.

Dauphin, Manitoba

Dauphin (French for "heir to the French throne", see Dauphin of France) is a city in Manitoba, Canada, with a population of 8,457 as of the 2016 Canadian Census, with an additional 2,388 living in the surrounding Rural Municipality of Dauphin, for a total of 10,845 in the RM and City combined. Dauphin is Manitoba's 9th largest community and serves as a hub to the province's Parkland Region.

Filipino Canadians

Filipino Canadians (French: Canadiens philippins; Filipino: Pilipinong Kanadyano; Baybayin: ᜉᜒᜎᜒᜉᜒᜈᜓ ᜃᜈᜇᜒᜌᜈᜓ) are Canadians of Filipino descent. Filipino Canadians are the third largest subgroup of the overseas Filipinos and one of the fastest growing groups in Canada.

Canada only had a small population of Filipinos until the late 20th century. As of the 2016 Canadian Census, there are 851,410 people of Filipino descent living in Canada, most living in urbanized areas. This number is growing yearly due to Canada's more liberal immigration laws to compensate for their low population growth. Filipino Canadians are the third-largest Asian Canadian group in the nation after the Indian and Chinese communities. They are also the largest Southeast Asian group in the country. Between the 2011 Census and the 2016 Census, the Filipino community in Canada grew from 662,605 to 851,410, a growth of about 27%, compared to the rest of Canada which grew by 5% in the same time period.

German Canadians

German Canadians (German: Deutsch-Kanadier or Deutschkanadier) are Canadian citizens of ethnic German ancestry. The 2016 Canadian census put the number of Canadians of German ethnicity at over 3.3 million. Some immigrants came from what is today Germany, while larger numbers came from German settlements in Eastern Europe and Russia; others came from former parts of the German Confederation like the Austrian Empire and some emigrated from Switzerland.

Gimli, Manitoba

Gimli is a community in the Rural Municipality of Gimli on the west side of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba. The community's first European settlers were Icelanders who were part of the New Iceland settlement in Manitoba. The community maintains a strong connection to Iceland and Icelandic culture today, including the annual Icelandic Festival. It was incorporated as a village on March 6, 1908, and held town status between December 31, 1946, and January 1, 2003, when it amalgamated with the RM of Gimli. Census Canada now recognizes the community as a population centre for census purposes. The 2016 Canadian census recorded a population of 2,246 in the urban centre of Gimli.

The town's settlers sustained themselves primarily from agriculture and fishing. Gimli maintains a strong connection to the lake today, tourism has played a part in the town's current economic sustainability. Gimli Beach is a popular spot in the summer while the Gimli Harbour is the largest harbour on Lake Winnipeg and in Western Canada between Ontario and the Pacific Coast.

Greenstone, Ontario

Greenstone is an amalgamated town in the Canadian province of Ontario with a population of 4,636 according to the 2016 Canadian census. It stretches along Highway 11 from Lake Nipigon to Longlac and covers 2,767.19 square kilometres (1,068.42 sq mi).

The town was formed in 2001, as part of a wave of community amalgamations under the Progressive Conservative government of Ontario. It combined the former Townships of Beardmore and Nakina, the Towns of Geraldton and Longlac with large unincorporated portions of Unorganized Thunder Bay District.

It is the administrative office of the Animbiigoo Zaagi'igan Anishinaabek First Nation band government.

Hastings Highlands

Hastings Highlands is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario.

Located in the northernmost portion of Hastings County, the township had a population of 4,078 in the 2016 Canadian census. Big Mink Lake is one of many lakes located in Hastings Highlands.

Iranian Canadians

Iranian Canadians or Persian Canadians are citizens of Canada whose national background is traced from Iran or are people possessing Iranian and Canadian dual citizenship. From the 2016 Canadian census, the main communities can be found in Southern Ontario, British Columbia, and Quebec. The vast majority, however, live in the northern suburbs of Toronto such as Richmond Hill, Vaughan, Markham, and Thornhill, and in the municipalities of Vancouver such as: North Vancouver, West Vancouver, Burnaby, and Coquitlam. As of 2016 a total of 97,110 Iranians reside in the Greater Toronto Area, 46,255 in the Greater Vancouver Area, 23,410 in the Greater Montreal Area, and the remainder are spread out in the other major cities in Canada based on the 2016 Canadian Census. These numbers represent the people who stated "Iranian" as their (or one of their) ethnic origin in the census survey.


Kitcisakik is an Indian settlement of the Kitcisakik Anicinape Community located in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec, Canada. It is geographically located within the territory of La Vallée-de-l'Or Regional County Municipality. Its population was 274 in the 2016 Canadian Census. Prior to October 23, 1999, it was known as Grand-Lac-Victoria.

Leoville, Saskatchewan

Leoville is a village within the rural municipality of Spiritwood No. 496, in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The village is located along Highway 24 (named the worst road in Saskatchewan by the CAA). Highway 946 begins in the village and proceeds north. Leoville is home to the administrative headquarters of the Pelican Lake First Nation band government. Leoville had a population of 375 in the 2016 Canadian Census, (a 2.5% increase from 366 in the 2011 Canadian Census).

List of cities in Alberta

A city is the highest form of all incorporated urban municipality statuses used in the Canadian Province of Alberta. Alberta cities are created when communities with populations of at least 10,000 people, where a majority of their buildings are on parcels of land smaller than 1,850 m², apply to Alberta Municipal Affairs for city status under the authority of the Municipal Government Act. Applications for city status are approved via orders in council made by the Lieutenant Governor in Council under recommendation from the Minister of Municipal Affairs.Alberta has 19 cities that had a cumulative population of 2,837,511 (not including the population in the Saskatchewan portion of Lloydminster) and an average population of 149,343 in the 2016 Canadian Census. Alberta's largest and smallest cities are Calgary and Wetaskiwin, with populations of 1,239,220 and 12,655, respectively.Beaumont became Alberta's 19th city on January 1, 2019.157 elected city officials (19 mayors and 138 councillors) provide city governance throughout the province.The highest density of cities in Alberta is found in the Edmonton Metropolitan Region (Beaumont, Edmonton, Fort Saskatchewan, Leduc, Spruce Grove and St. Albert). The Calgary Metropolitan Region has three cities (Airdrie, Calgary` and Chestermere).

Macrorie, Saskatchewan

Macrorie is a village within the Rural municipality of Fertile Valley No. 285, in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The population was 68 at the 2016 Canadian Census, (a 4.6% increase from 65 in the 2011 Canada Census. The village contains a Co-op gas and grocery store. Danielson Provincial Park is 20 km southeast on Highway 44.


Napierville is a municipality in the Jardins de Napierville Regional County Municipality in Quebec, Canada, situated in the Montérégie administrative region. The population as of the 2016 Canadian Census was 3,899. It is the location of the seat of the Jardins de Napierville Regional County Municipality. It is surrounded by the municipality of Saint-Cyprien-de-Napierville.


The Okanagan (), also known as the Okanagan Valley and sometimes as the Okanagan Country, is a region in the Canadian province of British Columbia defined by the basin of Okanagan Lake and the Canadian portion of the Okanagan River. It is part of the Okanagan Country, extending into the United States as Okanogan County in north-central Washington. According to the 2016 Canadian census, the region's population is 362,258. The primary city is Kelowna.

The region is known for its dry, sunny climate, dry landscapes and lakeshore communities and particular lifestyle. The economy is retirement and commercial-recreation based, with outdoor activities such as boating and watersports, skiing and hiking. Agriculture has been focused primarily on fruit orchards, with a recent shift in focus to vineyards and wine.

The region stretches northwards via the Spallumcheen Valley to connect to Sicamous in the Shuswap Country, and reaches south of the Canada–United States border, where it continues as Okanagan Country. The Okanagan as a region is sometimes described as including the Boundary, Similkameen and Shuswap regions, though this is because of proximity and historic and commercial ties with those areas.

Paradise, Newfoundland and Labrador

Paradise is a town on the Avalon Peninsula in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. . The town is a part of the St. John's Metropolitan Area and borders the City of St. John's, the City of Mount Pearl, the Town of Portugal Cove-St. Philip's, and the town of Conception Bay South. According to the 2016 Canadian census the population of Paradise is 21,389, after recording a 21% increase in population over five years.

Perry, Ontario

Perry is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Almaguin Highlands region of Parry Sound District.

The township had a population of 2,454 in the 2016 Canadian census.

Ryerson, Ontario

Ryerson is an incorporated township in the Almaguin Highlands region of Parry Sound District in northeastern Ontario, Canada. It had a population of 648 in the 2016 Canadian census. It was named after Egerton Ryerson, the Chief Superintendent of Education for Ontario from 1844 to 1876.

South River, Newfoundland and Labrador

South River is a town in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, located at the junction of Cupids, Roaches Line, Makinsons and Clarke's Beach at the head of Bay de Grave. The town had a population of 647 in the 2016 Canadian Census. South River is the site of the western terminus of Newfoundland and Labrador Route 60, also known as the Conception Bay Highway, which proceeds eastward to downtown St. John's. The river is located on Taylor's road, which is off of Springfield.

In addition to the primary settlement at South River, the town also includes the smaller settlements of The Broads and Springfield. Salmon Cove Road occupies the north side of a hill known as Long Harry, the south side of which is occupied by Cupids, the oldest English settlement in North America. As such, Salmon Cove is among the oldest continually inhabited places on the continent.

The first mayor of South River was Mr. Harry L. Shepherd. The first female mayor was Ms. Veronica Rowe, who was the only mayor to die while in office (2004).

St. John's metropolitan area

The St. John's metropolitan area is the most populous census metropolitan area (CMA) in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. With a population of 205,955 in the 2016 Canadian Census, the CMA is the second largest in Atlantic Canada and the 20th largest CMA in Canada.The St. John’s CMA has an estimated population of 219,207 as of 2017. The CMA comprises the City of St. John's and twelve other communities, the largest of which are the town of Conception Bay South and the city of Mount Pearl.

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