The 2015 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet for "its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011".
The National Dialogue Quartet was formed in 2013 and comprises four organizations in Tunisian civil society:
The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
|The Nobel Peace Prize|
Tunisian national dialogue (October 2012)
|Awarded for||Outstanding contributions to peace|
|Date||9 October 2015|
|Presented by||Norwegian Nobel Committee|
|Reward(s)||8 million SEK ($1M, €0.9M)|
|2015 laureate||Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet|
The Norwegian Nobel Committee received 273 different nominations for the Peace Prize. 68 of these nominations were for organizations and 205 for persons. It is the second highest number of candidates as of 2015, after 278 in 2014.
Many news media speculated about who would be awarded. The award was a surprise to many. Media favourites included German Chancellor Angela Merkel for admitting large numbers of refugees and migrants to Germany in the European migrant crisis, American and Iranian foreign ministers John Kerry and Mohammad Javad Zarif for the Iran nuclear deal, Pope Francis for his assistance in the United States–Cuban Thaw, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos and FARC guerrilla leader Timoleón Jiménez for the peace process in the Colombian conflict, and Congolese gynecologist Denis Mukwege who treats victims of sexual violence and has been nominated for this before.
The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. For the 2015 award, the members were:
The 2016 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos "for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people." The conflict is the longest running war, and last remaining guerrilla struggle, in the Americas. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". The announcement was made on 7 October at a press conference at the Nobel Peace Center, and the formal award ceremony took place on 10 December at the Oslo City Hall.
The award was conferred only five days after the government's narrow defeat in the Colombian peace agreement referendum to ratify the final agreement on the peace process. The committee Chair Kaci Kullmann Five emphasized the effort and good intentions of Santos at the announcement press conference and also in the award citation: The Norwegian Nobel Committee emphasizes the importance of the fact that President Santos is now inviting all parties to participate in a broad-based national dialogue aimed at advancing the peace process. Even those who opposed the peace accord have welcomed such a dialogue. The Nobel Committee hopes that all parties will take their share of responsibility and participate constructively in the upcoming peace talks.
Santos was first informed of the prize by his son in the pre-dawn of the day of the announcement. In his first public statement he declared, This honourable distinction is not for me, it is for all the victims of the conflict. Together we will win the most important prize of all: PEACE. In the days following he also announced that the 8 million SEK prize (approximately 2.7 billion Colombian pesos) would be donated to support victims of the conflict.Dawn Engle
Dawn Engle is the co-founder and former executive director of the non-profit organization, the PeaceJam Foundation. The PeaceJam program was launched in February 1996 by co-founders Dawn Engle and Ivan Suvanjieff to provide the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates with a programmatic vehicle to use in working together to teach youth the art of peace. To date, 14 Nobel Peace Laureates, including the Dalai Lama, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Rigoberta Menchú Tum, President Oscar Arias, Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Mairead Corrigan Maguire, Betty Williams, President José Ramos-Horta, Tawakkol Karman, Sir Joseph Rotblat (Emeritus), Leymah Gbowee, Jody Williams, Kailash Satyarthi, and Shirin Ebadi, serve as members of the PeaceJam Foundation. To date, over one million young people from 40 countries around the world have participated in the year long, award-winning PeaceJam curricular program. Engle and her husband Ivan Suvanjieff have been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize seventeen times, and they were leading contenders for the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize. Engle is the co-director of multiple documentaries, including PEACEJAM, and co-author of the book, PeaceJam: A Billion Simple Acts of Peace that was published by Penguin in 2008. She has also directed the award-winning documentary films, Children of the Light, Rivers of Hope, Daughter of the Maya, and Without A Shot Fired which are the first four films in PeaceJam's Nobel Legacy Film Series.Emel Mathlouthi
Emel Mathlouthi (Arabic: آمال المثلوثي) (born January 11, 1982) is a Tunisian singer-songwriter best known for her protest songs "Ya Tounes Ya Meskina" ("Poor Tunisia") and "Kelmti Horra" ("My Word is Free"), which became anthems for the Tunisian revolution. Her first studio album, also titled Kelmti Horra, was released worldwide by Harmonia Mundi in 2012 to critical acclaim. Her second album, "Ensen", was released by Partisan Records in 2017, also to considerable acclaim. In 2015 she performed at the Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony. Emel was titled as Voice of Tunisian Revolution due to her song Kelmti Horra.Esther Madudu
Esther Madudu (Born in 1980) is a Ugandan midwife. Madudu has had nearly 15 years of experience first at a maternity home in Kumi District, and now working at Tiriri Health Center IV in Uganda.Houcine Abassi
Houcine Abassi (Arabic: حسين العباسي; born August 19, 1947), is a Tunisian unionist.John Dear
John Dear (born August 15, 1959) is an American Catholic priest, Christian pacifist, vegetarianism advocate, author and lecturer, and a former member of the Society of Jesus. He has been arrested over 75 times in acts of nonviolent civil disobedience against war, injustice and nuclear weapons as part of his "consistent ethic of nonviolence". Dear has been nominated several times for the Nobel Peace Prize, in January 2008 by Archbishop Desmond Tutu and most recently with Leo Rebello for the 2015 award.Mexico–Sweden relations
Mexico–Sweden relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Mexico and Sweden. Both nations are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the United Nations.Mussie Zerai
Mussie Zerai, also known as Abba Mussie Zerai, Moses Zerai and Father Moses, (born 1975), is a Roman Catholic priest known for his work with migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea from North Africa to Europe during the European migrant crisis.Nomination
Nomination is part of the process of selecting a candidate for either election to a public office, or the bestowing of an honor or award. A collection of nominees narrowed from the full list of candidates is a short list.Socialism in Tunisia
Socialism in Tunisia or Tunisian socialism is a political philosophy that is shared by various political parties of the country. It has played a role in the country's history from the time of the Tunisian independence movement against France up through the Tunisian Revolution to the present day.Tarek Bouchamaoui
Tarek Bouchamaoui is a Tunisian businessman and football personality, member of the FIFA Council, member of the executive committee of the Confederation of African Football (CAF), and was head of CAF's referees committee from 2011 to 2013.
Bouchamaoui has been a FIFA Council member since 2015.Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts
Tunisian Union of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts (French: Union tunisienne de l'industrie, du commerce et de l'artisanat, Arabic: الاتحاد التونسي للصناعة والتجارة والصناعات التقليدية) or UTICA is an employers' organization in Tunisia representing industrial, trade and craft sectors. On October 9, 2015, the National Dialogue Quartet, comprising UTICA, the Tunisian General Labour Union, the Tunisian Human Rights League and the Tunisian Order of Lawyers, was announced as the laureate of the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize "for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011".Tunisian General Labour Union
The Tunisian General Labour Union (French: Union Générale Tunisienne du Travail, UGTT) is a national trade union center in Tunisia. It has a membership of 517,000 and was founded January 20, 1946.The UGTT is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation and the International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions.The UGTT worked together with the Tunisian Human Rights League, the Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts and the Tunisian Order of Lawyers – collectively labelled the National Dialogue Quartet – to address the national discord following the Jasmine Revolution of 2011. The National Dialogue Quartet was announced as the laureate of the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize "for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia".Tunisian Human Rights League
The Tunisian Human Rights League (Arabic: الرابطة التونسية للدفاع عن حقوق الإنسان, French: Ligue tunisienne des droits de l'homme) is an association to observe and defend human rights in Tunisia. It was founded in 1976, but associations had to be government-recognized, and the government delayed considerably before giving official recognition in May 1977. The organization's name is usually abbreviated LTDH, for its French name.Hassib Ben Ammar was an early organizer who later received a United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights. Saâdeddine Zmerli was the first president and a longtime officer from the beginning of the organization till the year 2000.LDTH had about 1000 members in 1982 and 3000 in 1985, partly because it had taken stands against the death penalty and the release from prison of Islamists who had been "imprisoned for acts of conscience.""Four of its leaders, including two of its founders and its first two presidents" were made ministers in the 1987 Tunisian government.The National Dialogue Quartet, comprising the Tunisian Human Rights League, the Tunisian General Labour Union, the Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts and the Tunisian Order of Lawyers, was announced as the laureate of the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize "for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011."Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet
The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet (Arabic: الرباعي التونسي للحوار الوطني, French: Quartet du dialogue national) is a group of four organizations that were central in the attempts to build a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011.The quartet was formed in the summer of 2013. On 9 October 2015, the quartet was awarded the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize.The National Dialogue Quartet comprises the following organizations in Tunisian civil society:
The Tunisian General Labour Union (UGTT, Union Générale Tunisienne du Travail)
The Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts (UTICA, Union Tunisienne de l'Industrie, du Commerce et de l'Artisanat)
The Tunisian Human Rights League (LTDH, La Ligue Tunisienne pour la Défense des Droits de l'Homme)
The Tunisian Order of Lawyers (Ordre National des Avocats de Tunisie)Tunisian Order of Lawyers
The Tunisian Order of Lawyers (Arabic: الهيئة الوطنية للمحامين بتونس, French: Ordre National des Avocats de Tunisie) is a non-profit Tunisian organization and the bar association of the country. All lawyers in Tunisia are members of the Order, which does not belong to any political party. The headquarters of the Order are located in Tunis. The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet, of which the Tunisian Order of Lawyers forms part, was announced as the laureate of the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize on October 9, 2015, for its role building a constitutional democracy following the Tunisian Revolution.In July 2015, the president of the Order was Mohamed Fadhel Mahfoudh.Tunisian Revolution
The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance. It included a series of street demonstrations which took place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011. It eventually led to a thorough democratization of the country and to free and democratic elections.
The demonstrations were caused by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, a lack of political freedoms like freedom of speech and poor living conditions. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades and resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces.
The protests were sparked by the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi on 17 December 2010 and led to the ousting of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali 28 days later on 14 January 2011, when he officially resigned after fleeing to Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power. Labour unions were an integral part of the protests. The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet was awarded the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize for "its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Tunisian Revolution of 2011". The protests inspired similar actions throughout the Arab world, in a chain reaction which became known as the Arab Spring movement.Wided Bouchamaoui
Wided Bouchamaoui, also transcribed Ouided Bouchamaoui, (Arabic: وداد بوشماوي; born 1961) is a Tunisian businesswoman who since 2011 has been leader of the Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts (UTICA). As leader of the organization she took from 2013 part in Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet which led the latter organization to receive the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize. The French news magazine Jeune Afrique has identified her as one of the Top 25 Business Women in Africa.Wings of Hope (charity)
Wings of Hope is an aviation nonprofit organization which helps communities worldwide become more self-sufficient through improved health, education, economic opportunity, and food security. It was founded in 1962 in St. Louis, Missouri, and currently conducts operations in 11 countries, including the United States. The organization was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011 and 2012, holds a 4-Star rating on Charity Navigator and is a GuideStar Gold Participant. In 2015, 92.3% of the organization's budget was spent on its program services.
2015 Nobel Prize laureates
|Physiology or Medicine|