2015 Canning by-election

The 2015 Canning by-election was held for the Australian House of Representatives on Saturday 19 September from 8 am to 6 pm WST. The by-election in the seat of Canning was triggered by the death of sitting Liberal MP Don Randall on 21 July 2015.[1]

Speaker of the House of Representatives Tony Smith issued the writ for the by-election on 17 August 2015. Due to the requirement that the by-election must be held with at least 33 days' notice, the date set for polling day was the earliest possible day for holding it: 19 September.[2] The electoral roll in Canning closed on 24 August and candidate nominations closed on 27 August.[3]

Twelve candidates contested the election.[4] Edith Cowan University political analyst Harry Phillips said despite the Liberals holding Canning since the 2001 election, it would still be a "hotly contested seat".[1]

Canning by-election, 2015

19 September 2015

The Canning seat in the House of Representatives
Turnout79.53% Decrease 12.48
  Andrew Hastie Orignal
Candidate Andrew Hastie Matt Keogh
Party Liberal Labor
Popular vote 39,712 30,096
Percentage 46.92% 35.56%
Swing Decrease4.15 Increase8.92
TPP 55.26% 44.74%
TPP swing Decrease6.55 Increase6.55

Division of Canning 2010
The Division of Canning covered southeastern parts of the Perth metropolitan area and Western Australia's Peel region.

MP before election

Don Randall

Elected MP

Andrew Hastie


12 candidates in ballot paper order[4]
Party Candidate Background
  Palmer United Vimal Sharma Mining executive for Mineralogy, stood for Cowan at the 2013 federal election.[5][6]
  Liberal Democrats Connor Whittle Draughtsman from Bunbury.[7]
  Pirate Michelle Allen Software development manager, contested the Senate in Western Australia at the 2014 special election.[8]
  Defence Veterans Greg Smith Public relations agent and athlete, former journalist and Australian Army major.[9]
  Animal Justice Katrina Love Lead Animal Justice candidate for the WA Senate election in 2013 and the 2014 WA special election.[10]
  Liberal Andrew Hastie Former SAS captain, resigned to contest the election, joined the Australian military in 2001 following the September 11 attacks.[10]
  Independent Teresa van Lieshout Perennial candidate, most recently at the 2014 Vasse state by-election finishing last of six on 1.4 percent.[10] A warrant has been issued for her arrest.[11]
  Labor Matt Keogh Commercial lawyer, President of the Western Australian Law Society until stepping down to contest the election. Member of the ALP since the age of 16.[12]
  Greens Vanessa Rauland Lecturer at Curtin University, renewable energy advocate and small business owner.[13]
  Family First Jim McCourt Candidate for Hasluck in 2010 and Fremantle in 2013.[10]
  Christians Jamie van Burgel Previously contested Canning in 2010, state Armadale in 2010 and 2013, and was lead Senate candidate for the Australian Christians in 2013.[10]
  Sustainable Population Angela Smith Environmental scientist. Law/Arts student at Murdoch University.[14]

How-to-vote cards

How-to-vote cards are distributed to voters at polling stations to provide information with how the candidate suggests preferences be allocated. Candidates and parties which suggested preferences are shown in each column of the table below.[15] The Sustainable Population Party ran an open card at this by-election.

Palmer United Liberal Democrats Pirate Defence Veterans Animal Justice Liberal van Lieshout Labor Greens Family First Christians Stable Population
Palmer 1 9 8 No card 7 6 No card 6 6 6 5
LDP 2 1 5 11 5 7 8 7 7
Pirate 3 2 1 3 7 8 2 11 10
ADVP 4 3 6 6 4 9 7 4 6
Animal Justice 5 4 2 1 9 10 3 9 9
Liberal 6 11 9 12 1 11 9 3 2
van Lieshout 7 5 12 10 12 12 12 5 4
Labor 8 10 7 5 10 1 4 8 11
Greens 9 12 3 2 11 2 1 12 12
Family First 10 6 10 9 3 3 10 1 3
Christians 11 7 11 8 2 4 11 2 1
SPP 12 8 4 4 8 5 5 10 8 1

Timeline of political issues

Polling issues


The Canning by-election was described by many commentators as a key test for the Abbott government and for the leadership of Prime Minister Tony Abbott.[33][34][35] On 14 September, Malcolm Turnbull won the leadership spill against Mr Abbott.[36] In the lead-up to the spill, it was reported Foreign Minister Julie Bishop told Cabinet that Labor wanted the Liberals to win the seat of Canning, so Mr Abbott would not be ousted as Prime Minister, preferring to campaign against him at the next federal election.[37] Earlier in the year, Western Australian backbenchers Luke Simpkins and Don Randall moved a leadership spill against Mr Abbott declaring he had disconnected from voters.[38] The prediction of a 10-point swing against the Liberals in the Canning by-election may have sparked a realisation in the Liberal party that something had to change.[39] Current speculation centres on what effect the leadership spill will have on the by-election.[40] While Labor candidate Matt Keogh had begun to gain traction in the region, Turnbull's election "immediately boosted the numbers for the Liberals".[41] However, analysis of the postal votes, which had been cast before the leadership change, show a similar swing as the polling day votes, indicating that the change in federal Liberal leadership had no effect.[42]

Renewable energy

The solar industry letter-boxed all electors to vote against the Liberal Party and support Labor, Greens and PUP in response to the federal government's intention to scrap the small-scale renewable energy target.[43] The Greens chose renewable energy as one of their main campaign topics, by electing Curtin University sustainability lecturer Vanessa Rauland as their candidate.[44] An opinion poll conducted during the election campaign showed that 65% of voters would support a renewable energy target of 50% by 2030.[45]

Same-sex marriage

Same-sex marriage legislation was identified as an issue that might be decided by a conscience vote in federal parliament. The views of all Canning candidates were surveyed by the Australian Marriage Equality group[46] and the Mandurah Mail.[47] Opposed to same-sex marriage were Andrew Hastie (Liberal), Jamie Van Burgel (Christians), Jim McCourt (Family First) and independent Teresa van Lieshout, while Vimal Sharma (Palmer United) did not answer the question. All other candidates supported same-sex marriage.[47][48] A survey conducted by ReachTel during the campaign showed 47% of the electorate in support and 41% opposed to same-sex marriage.[46]



Police statistics in the lead-up to the by-election showed Armadale had one of the highest crime rates in the Perth metropolitan area.[49]

Liberal candidate Andrew Hastie cited crime as a top issue, alongside jobs, and pledged one of the first things he would do if elected would be to take action on methamphetamine and ice. Hastie blamed the previous Labor federal government for leaving a "huge fiscal hole". He advocated a combined "law enforcement and a compassionate community solution". He said, "I would look at bringing a whole bunch of stakeholders together, from law enforcement through to community councillors to educators to medical people and tackling ice head on."[49]

Labor candidate Matt Keogh also said crime and community safety were repeatedly raised by people in the electorate. He attacked the Abbott Government, saying it had cut funding to crisis services and community groups dealing with ice and other drugs, domestic violence and social breakdown. Keogh said the Abbott Government had stripped community organisations of certainty.[49]

Infrastructure funding

The cities of Armadale and Cockburn joined forces to lobby the federal government to try to secure millions of dollars during the campaign to upgrade major road infrastructure. The two councils believed $300 million was needed to transform more of Armadale Road into a dual carriageway and to build a new bridge over Kwinana Freeway to link North Lake Road at Cockburn Central. The councils planned to letter drop householders voting in the Canning by-election urging them to email federal and state MPs to help secure the funding.[50] At the Labor Party state conference on 29 August, Federal Opposition Leader Bill Shorten promised to spend $170 million on infrastructure projects in Canning.[51]

Voter demographics

The Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) announced 112,809 people were eligible to cast a vote in the by-election, after the electoral roll registration for the 19 September poll closed on 24 August. Almost half of those enrolled to vote in the by-election were aged 50 and over, reflecting the high number of retirees in the West Australian electorate.[52] Just 10 per cent were aged 25 or younger.[52]

Polling places and postal voting

The AEC planned 45 polling places for the by-election, with early postal voting from 25 August.[52] The AEC planned three mobile voting teams on the day, including two teams to visit nursing homes and hospitals, and the third to visit Karnet Prison Farm in Serpentine.[52]


Canning polling
Date Poll Primary vote TPP vote
14 September 2015* ReachTEL[53] 47.6% 32.9% 6.4% 10.4% 57% 43%
12 September 2015 Ipsos[54] 45% 36% 9% 10% 52% 48%
12 September 2015 Galaxy[55] 44% 36% 9% 11% 52% 48%
28 August 2015* ReachTEL[56] 47.7% 33.8% 8% 51% 49%
26 August 2015 ReachTEL[57] 44% 30% 9% 17% 49.9% 50.1%
15–16 August 2015 Newspoll[58] 41% 36% 11% 12% 51% 49%
29 July 2015 ReachTEL[59] 50.8% 49.2%
2013 election 51.1% 26.6% 7.4% 14.9% 61.8% 38.2%
* The poll conducted by ReachTEL on the night of 14 September (following Turnbull's election) had an "undecided" option. 2.6% chose this option.
* The poll conducted by ReachTel on 28 August had an "undecided" option. 6.5% voted undecided and there were no options for other candidates.

On 14 September, four days before the election and amid the rolling of Tony Abbott as Prime Minister of Australia, the ReachTel poll showed Liberal at a by-election campaign high of 57% compared to Labor at 43% on two party preferred vote.

Previously, the ReachTEL poll published in The West Australian on 28 August, showed Liberal ahead 51% to 49%. The poll of 782 voters was commissioned by Australian Marriage Equality and WA director Brian Greig said the 62% support for gay marriage among undecided voters could decide the by-election.[56]

Days earlier, the ReachTEL poll published in The West Australian on 26 August, Labor was slightly ahead 50.1% to Liberal on 49.9%. The poll of 768 voters was commissioned by the union United Voice.[60]

On 15–16 August 2015, 508 Canning voters (MoE of 4.3^) were polled by Newspoll via landline phone. Primary votes were Liberal 41% (−10.1), Labor 36% (+9.4), Greens 11% (+3.6), Palmer 2% (−4.9) and Others 10% (+2.0). Based on preference flows at the previous election (which have recently significantly favoured Liberal in national polling compared to respondent-allocated preferences[61]), the two-party vote equated to Liberal 51% (−10.8) and Labor 49% (+10.8).[62]

Two-party-preferred history since 2001

Election: 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013
Liberal: 50.4% 59.5% 55.6% 52.2% 61.8%
Labor: 49.6% 40.5% 44.4% 47.8% 38.2%


Canning by-election, 2015[10][63]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Andrew Hastie 39,712 46.92 −4.15
Labor Matt Keogh 30,096 35.56 +8.92
Greens Vanessa Rauland 4,967 5.87 −1.53
Palmer United Vimal Sharma 2,600 3.07 −3.81
Christians Jamie van Burgel 2,433 2.87 −0.23
Animal Justice Katrina Love 1,195 1.41 +1.41
Pirate Michelle Allen 775 0.92 +0.92
Defence Veterans Greg Smith 690 0.82 +0.82
Family First Jim McCourt 623 0.74 −0.61
Independent Teresa van Lieshout 539 0.64 +0.64
Sustainable Population Angela Smith 513 0.61 +0.61
Liberal Democrats Connor Whittle 492 0.58 +0.58
Total formal votes 84,635 94.34 −0.14
Informal votes 5,082 5.66 +0.14
Turnout 89,717 79.53 −12.48
Two-party-preferred result
Liberal Andrew Hastie 46,772 55.26 −6.55
Labor Matt Keogh 37,863 44.74 +6.55
Liberal hold Swing −6.55

Though the Turnbull Government was just four days old, their candidate Andrew Hastie retained the seat for the Liberals, declared 24 September, despite having to rely on preferences after a substantial, though dampened, primary (−4.15) and two-party (−6.55) swing away from the Liberals − solidly less than the double-digit swings polls had predicted under an Abbott Government − however, some double-digit swings did eventuate among the suburban booths in the north of the seat. The Canning Liberal margin was reduced from safe to marginal status. Political analysts agreed the by-election was a "good outcome for both major parties".[64]

See also


  1. ^ a b Death of federal MP opens way for by-election in WA seat of Canning: ABC 22 July 2015
  2. ^ Causes and Timing of Federal By-elections 1992–2015: Antony Green's Election Blog, ABC
  3. ^ Smith, Tony. "C2015G01318 – Issue of the writ for the Canning by-election". Australian Government Gazette. ComLaw. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b "Twelve candidates to contest the 2015 Canning by-election". Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  5. ^ Palmer United Party picks Vimal Sharma as Canning candidateThe Australian, 21 August 2015.
  6. ^ PUP's Clive Palmer lets slip Canning candidate Vimal Sharma on Radio 6PRWAtoday, 21 August 2015.
  7. ^ Aston, Heath (27 August 2015). "Liberal Democrat candidate in Canning a spanner in the works for Liberal Andrew Hastie". The Age. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  8. ^ Vote like a Pirate Day! Pirate Party announces Canning by-election candidatePirate Party Australia 25 August 2015
  9. ^ "Battlelines: Another former soldier steps forward for Canning byelection" – WAtoday. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  10. ^ a b c d e f 2015 Canning by-election: Antony Green ABC
  11. ^ Young, Emma (8 September 2015). "Canning byelection: arrest warrant for Teresa van Lieshout after court no-show". WA Today. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  12. ^ https://www.laborherald.com.au/politics/labor-nominations-open-for-canning-by-election-following-randalls-death/
  13. ^ Holland, Steve (23 August 2015). "Greens announce Curtin lecturer Vanessa Rauland as Canning candidate". WA Today. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  14. ^ Canning by-election | 19 September 2015 – Sustainable Population Party. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  15. ^ "2015 Canning by-election - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". ABC News. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  16. ^ "Australia confirms air strikes in Syria, announces additional 12,000 refugee places". ABC News online. 9 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  17. ^ "6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, Jul 2015". ABS Media Release online. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  18. ^ "6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, Jul 2015". ABC News online. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  19. ^ "Dyson Heydon to stay on as trade union royal commissioner; reveals he is 'incapable of sending or receiving' emails". ABC News online. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  20. ^ "Timeline: How Operation Fortitude unravelled". ABC News online. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  21. ^ "Treasurer Joe Hockey raises ire of colleagues over push to make Australia republic". ABC News online. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  22. ^ "Abbott government to take personal income tax cuts to the election". Sydney Morning Herald online. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  23. ^ "Abbott government to change environment laws in crackdown on 'vigilante' green groups". Sydney Morning Herald online. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  24. ^ "Tony Abbott reads 'riot act' to ministers over same-sex marriage". ABC News online. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  25. ^ "6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, Jul 2015". ABS Media Release online. 6 August 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  26. ^ "Anti-terror law needs repainting: inquiry". The Australian online. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  27. ^ "South Australia wins, Victoria, WA miss out in Abbott's $40b shipbuilding plan". Sydney Morning Herald online. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  28. ^ "Fight over penalty rates following report". Sky News online. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  29. ^ "Abbott rejects Indigenous leaders' plan on the way forward for constitutional recognition". ABC News online. 3 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  30. ^ "Bronwyn Bishop resigns as speaker; Tony Abbott announces review of entitlements system". ABC News online. 1 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  31. ^ "Tony Abbott has stuffed up the China Free Trade Agreement". youtube CFMEU TV advertisement. 29 July 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  32. ^ "ALP national conference: Bill Shorten outlines 'new direction' for Labor's immigration policies". ABC News online. 27 July 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  33. ^ Grattan, Michelle: "Canning byelection test set for September", in The Conversation, 17 August 2015
  34. ^ Hasham, Nicole: "Abbott government's popularity to be tested at expected Canning byelection after Don Randall's death" in The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 July 2015
  35. ^ Morris, Sophie: "Canning heat for Abbott in byelection", in The Saturday Paper, 22 August 2015
  36. ^ "Liberal leadership spill: Malcolm Turnbull to become prime minister after toppling Tony Abbott". ABC News online. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  37. ^ "Prime Minister Tony Abbott declares leadership not tied to Canning by-election". News.Com National. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  38. ^ "Liberal MP spill motion threatens to end Tony Abbott's time as Prime Minister". The Sydney Morning Herald, Federal Politics online. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  39. ^ Dominic Kelly (14 September 2015). "Turnbull defeats Abbott, set to become prime minister: experts respond". The Conversation.
  40. ^ "Liberal leadership spill: what does it mean for the Canning by-election?". Perth Now. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  41. ^ http://www.smh.com.au//breaking-news-national/voting-begins-in-canning-byelection-20150919-432ok.html
  42. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/sep/22/canning-postal-votes-show-change-in-liberal-leadership-did-not-help-andrew-hastie
  43. ^ Taylor, Lenore: "Canning byelection: solar industry urges voters to reject Liberals 'war on solar'" in The Guardian, 25 August 2015
  44. ^ Mercer, Daniel: "Greens target education, energy", in The West Australian, 24 August 2015
  45. ^ Wahlquist, Calla: "Canning byelection poll: renewable energy trumps national security" in The Guardian, 3 September 2015
  46. ^ a b Carmody, Rebecca: "Canning by-election: Australian Christians give first preference to Liberal Andrew Hastie as 'reward' for same-sex marriage stance" in ABC News, 7 September 2015
  47. ^ a b Hondros, Nathan: "Canning byelection – question time for candidates", in Mandurah Mail, 6 September 2015
  48. ^ Australian Marriage Equality: "Survey of Canning candidates position on marriage equality", retrieved 8 September 2015
  49. ^ a b c "Canning by-election: Candidates urged to tackle crime, anti-social behaviour in electorate". ABC News online. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  50. ^ "Councils in Canning electorate push for $300m in road funding". ABC News online. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  51. ^ "Canning by-election: Bill Shorten makes $170m infrastructure promise at WA Labor state conference". ABC News online. 29 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  52. ^ a b c d "Electoral roll shows extent of ageing population in Canning by-election". ABC News online. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  53. ^ "7 News – Canning Poll – 14 September 2015". ReachTEL. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  54. ^ Kenny, Mark (13 September 2015). "Fairfax-Ipsos poll points to Coalition win in Canning but Tony Abbott may face snap challenge". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  55. ^ Spagnolo, Joe (13 September 2015). "Canning by-election: 'Safe' Liberal seat hit by voter backlash". PerthNow. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  56. ^ a b "Turnbull Canning's PM choice". The West Australian online. 29 August 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  57. ^ "Canning poll on a knife edge". The West Australian. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  58. ^ "Newspoll: Canning by-election looks tight as Liberals' support sinks". The Australian. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  59. ^ "Unions rally for Canning byelection push". Seven West Media. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  60. ^ "Canning poll on a knife edge". The West Australian online. 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  61. ^ Coalition share of minor party and independent preferences: Nielsen, Morgan and Ipsos – The Poll Bludger
  62. ^ "Graphic: Canning by-election looks tight as Liberals' support sinks". The Australian. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  63. ^ First Preferences and Two Candidate Preferred, 2015 Canning by-election: AEC Archived 22 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  64. ^ Liberal and Labor parties hail success of campaigns: ABC 20 September 2015

External links

2015 North Sydney by-election

A by-election for the Australian House of Representatives seat of North Sydney was held on 5 December 2015 from 8 am to 6 pm AEDT.The trigger for the by-election was the 23 October parliamentary resignation of Joe Hockey, the backbench Liberal Member for North Sydney and former Abbott Coalition Government Treasurer.House of Representatives Speaker Tony Smith issued the writ for the by-election on 26 October. The electoral roll containing 104,352 electors closed on 2 November. Candidate nominations closed on 12 November, and the draw of the ballot paper order occurred on 13 November.The by-election was won by Liberal candidate Trent Zimmerman, a former Hockey staffer, whose pre-selection had been controversial. Zimmerman won with 48.2 percent of the primary vote after a larger-than-predicted 12.8 percent swing against the Turnbull Coalition Government. This was only the second time in North Sydney's history that the successful Liberal candidate did not obtain a majority of the primary vote and had to rely on preferences. Zimmerman faced a double-digit primary vote swing − more than triple that of the 2015 Canning by-election − despite the absence of a Labor candidate. Labor have never been successful in the safe Liberal seat.The Liberal two-candidate vote of 60.2 percent against independent Stephen Ruff compares to the previous election vote of 65.9 percent against Labor. The reduction of 5.7 percent cannot be considered a "two-party/candidate preferred swing" − when a major party is absent, preference flows to both major parties does not take place, resulting in asymmetric preference flows.Ian Macfarlane attempted to defect from the Liberal party room to the National party room with accompanying demands for additional Nationals cabinet representation, and the Mal Brough James Ashby diary controversy deepened in the last week of the campaign. Along with the unexpected by-election swing and Turnbull's significantly lessened personal ratings in the concurrent December Newspoll, some News Corp journalists opined Malcolm Turnbull's honeymoon to be over.Zimmerman became the first openly-LGBTI member of the House of Representatives.

2016 Australian federal election

The 2016 Australian federal election was a double dissolution election held on Saturday 2 July to elect all 226 members of the 45th Parliament of Australia, after an extended eight-week official campaign period. It was the first double dissolution election since the 1987 election and the first under a new voting system for the Senate that replaced group voting tickets with optional preferential voting.Unusually, the outcome could not be predicted the day after the election, with many close seats in doubt. After a week of vote counting, no party had won enough seats in the House of Representatives to form a majority government. Neither the Liberal/National Coalition's incumbent Turnbull Government nor the Australian Labor Party's Shorten Opposition were in a position to claim victory. During the uncertain week following the election, contradicting his earlier statements, Turnbull negotiated with the crossbench. He secured confidence and supply support from Bob Katter, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and resulting minority government, as seen in 2010. On 10 July, Shorten conceded defeat, acknowledging that the Coalition had enough seats to form either minority or majority government. Turnbull claimed victory later that day. In the closest federal majority result since 1961, the ABC declared on 11 July that the Coalition could form a one-seat majority government.In the 150-seat House of Representatives, the one-term incumbent Coalition government was reelected with a reduced 76 seats, marking the first time since 2004 that a government had been reelected with an absolute majority. Labor picked up a significant number of previously government-held seats for a total of 69 seats, recovering much of what it had lost in its severe defeat of 2013. On the crossbench, the Greens, the Nick Xenophon Team, Katter's Australian Party, and independents Wilkie and McGowan won a seat each. For the first time since federation, the post-election opposition won more seats than the post-election government in the two most populous states, New South Wales and Victoria. One re-count was held by the Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) for the Division of Herbert, confirming that Labor won the seat by 37 votes.The final outcome in the 76-seat Senate took over four weeks to complete despite significant voting changes. Announced on 4 August, it revealed a reduced plurality of 30 seats for the Coalition, 26 for Labor, and a record 20 for crossbenchers including 9 Greens, 4 from One Nation and 3 from the Xenophon Team. Former broadcaster and Justice Party founder Derryn Hinch won a seat, while Jacqui Lambie, Liberal Democrat David Leyonhjelm and Family First's Bob Day retained theirs. The Coalition will require nine additional votes for a Senate majority, an increase of three. Both major parties agreed to allocate six-year terms to the first six senators elected in each state, while the last six would serve three-year terms. Labor and the Coalition each gained a six-year Senator at the expense of Hinch and the Greens, who criticised the major parties for rejecting the "recount" method despite supporting it in two bipartisan senate resolutions in 1998 and 2010.A number of initially-elected senators were declared ineligible a result of the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, and replaced after recounts.

Abbott Government

The Abbott Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 28th Prime Minister Tony Abbott. The government was made up of members of the Liberal–National Coalition. The Leader of The Nationals, Warren Truss, served as Deputy Prime Minister. Following the 2013 Australian federal election held on 7 September, the Coalition defeated the second Rudd Government, ending six years of Labor Government. The Abbott Government was sworn into office on 18 September 2013. Less than two years later on 14 September 2015, Malcolm Turnbull defeated Abbott in a leadership ballot, 54 votes to 44 and the Turnbull Government became the executive government of Australia.

In economic policy, the Abbott Government aimed to rein in a budget deficit that reached A$48.5 billion by June 2014. It concluded free trade agreements with China, Japan and South Korea. It removed the Rudd-Gillard era Resource Super Profits Tax and carbon pricing. It established the National Commission of Audit to advise on restoring the Budget to surplus; instituted the Royal Commission into trade union governance and corruption; founded the Medical Research Future Fund; and produced White Papers on Developing Northern Australia and the Agricultural Competitiveness. Treasurer Joe Hockey delivered two Budgets, the first focused on expenditure reduction measures, but faced a hostile reception in the Senate and media. Partial deregulation of universities, and a $7 contribution to doctor visits were proposed, but blocked by the Senate. The second Budget emphasised stimulus for the small business sector.

Abbott campaigned in opposition and in office to halt the people smuggling trade, and unauthorised maritime arrivals ceased during his term of office under Operation Sovereign Borders. In foreign policy, Australia continued its military engagement in the Mid-East, amid the worsening Syrian conflict. In 2015, The Abbott Government agreed to resettle an additional 12,000 refugees from the region. Abbott and Foreign Minister Julie Bishop challenged Russia at the United Nations over the shooting down of Malaysian Flight MH17 in Ukraine. The Government launched the New Colombo Plan to encourage educational exchange with the Indo-Pacific region.

Domestically, Abbott campaigned for recognition of Indigenous Australians in the Australian Constitution, flagging a referendum for 2017, and promised a plebiscite on the issue of same-sex marriage. Air and road infrastructure was prioritised. Abbott had to negotiate a hostile Senate. The Palmer United Party had emerged at the 2013 election, but fractured soon after. The Liberal Party faced Cabinet leaks and early leadership instability, after a poorly received first Budget and amid media criticism. Abbott became the shortest-serving Australian Prime Minister since William McMahon, when his government was succeeded by the Turnbull Government. Turnbull cited Newspoll results and "economic leadership" as reasons for mounting his challenge against Abbott.

Andrew Hastie (politician)

Andrew William Hastie (born 30 September 1982) is an Australian politician who serves as Chair of the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security and as the Federal Member for Canning, WA in the Australian House of Representatives. He was first elected in the 2015 Canning by-election and re-elected in 2016.Hastie was born in Wangaratta, Victoria before moving to Sydney in 1987. He attended The Scots College from 1993-2000 before completing his Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in History, Politics & Philosophy through the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in conjunction with the Australian Defence Force Academy. He was later recruited into the Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) where he served in Papua New Guinea, Jordan, and multiple deployments to Afghanistan as Captain and Troop Commander. He featured in SBS Documentary SAS – The Search For Warriors as “Candidate 10”.

Australian Defence Veterans Party

The Australian Defence Veterans Party (often shortened to Veterans Party) was a minor political party which formed in Australia in 2015 to advocate for military veterans.

In November 2014, Senator Jacqui Lambie—then a member of the Palmer United Party, and an advocate for defence veterans and personnel—liked the proposed party's Facebook page, triggering an increase in membership enquiries and speculation that Lambie could join the ADVP (however she instead registered a separate party called the Jacqui Lambie Network on 14 May 2015).The party was registered with the Australian Electoral Commission on 15 June 2015. In August 2015, the ADVP announced that former Army Officer Dr Greg Smith would be the party's first candidate for the Canning by-election. The ADVP and Smith finished eighth out of twelve candidates with a 0.8% vote.The Veterans Party fielded two senate candidates in each of Queensland and New South Wales, and four candidates for seats in the House of Representatives (three in Queensland and one in New South Wales) in the 2016 federal election. On 26 January 2017, Veterans Party ceased operating as a registered political party, and it was de-registered by the Australian Electoral Commission on 8 February.

Division of Burt

The Division of Burt is an Australian electoral division in the state of Western Australia.

Division of Canning

The Division of Canning is an Australian Electoral Division in Western Australia.

Division of North Sydney

The Division of North Sydney is an Australian electoral division in the state of New South Wales. It was proclaimed in 1900 and was one of the original 65 divisions contested at the first federal election.

Located along Sydney's Lower North Shore, the division is named after the suburb of North Sydney. It also includes the suburbs of Artarmon, Cammeray, Castlecrag, Crows Nest, Greenwich, Henley, Hunters Hill, Huntleys Cove, Huntleys Point, Kirribilli, Lane Cove, Lane Cove North, Lane Cove West, Lavender Bay, Linley Point, Longueville, McMahons Point, Middle Cove, Milsons Point, Naremburn, North Willoughby, Northbridge, Northwood, Riverview, St Leonards, Tarban, Waverton, Willoughby, Willoughby East, Wollstonecraft, and Woolwich; as well as parts of Chatswood, Chatswood West, Cremorne, Gladesville, Gore Hill, and Neutral Bay.

Second only to the nearby Division of Wentworth, the Division of North Sydney has the nation's second highest proportion (56.4%) of high income families. As with all North Shore seats, the division has usually been a comfortably safe seat for the Liberal Party of Australia and its predecessors. Labor has usually run dead in this seat, though it came within 3.1 percent of winning it at the 1943 election landslide. North Sydney and Wentworth are the only two federation divisions in New South Wales to have never been held by Labor. It has been held by a member of a non-Labor party for all but six years of its existence, when held by "father of the independents" Ted Mack, from the 1990 election before choosing to resign from federal parliament after two terms at the 1996 election, for the same reason he previously chose to resign from state parliament after two terms − to avoid receiving a parliamentary pension.However, during Mack's tenure, North Sydney was always a safe Liberal seat in traditional two-party matchups, and it was a foregone conclusion that it would revert to the Liberals once Mack retired. As expected, when Mack retired in 1996, Joe Hockey reclaimed the seat for the Liberals on a swing large enough to revert the seat to its traditional status as a comfortably safe Liberal seat. Hockey held it easily until 2015, serving as Treasurer from 2013 to 2015 in the Abbott Government. After Abbott was ousted as Liberal leader and Prime Minister by Malcolm Turnbull in the September 2015 Liberal leadership spill Hockey moved to the backbench, however six days later he announced his intention to resign from parliament, taking effect from 23 October. The 2015 North Sydney by-election occurred on 5 December to elect his replacement, Trent Zimmerman, a former Hockey staffer, despite a large swing.Zimmerman won with 48.2 percent of the primary vote after a larger-than-predicted 12.8 percent swing against the Turnbull Coalition Government. This was only the second time in North Sydney since federation that the successful Liberal candidate did not obtain a majority of the primary vote and had to rely on preferences. Zimmerman faced a double-digit primary vote swing − more than triple that of the 2015 Canning by-election − even though Labor did not even contest the seat.The Liberal two-candidate vote of 60.2 percent against independent Stephen Ruff compares to the previous election vote of 65.9 percent against Labor. The reduction of 5.7 percent cannot be considered a "two-party/candidate preferred swing" − when a major party is absent, preference flows to both major parties does not take place, resulting in asymmetric preference flows.Zimmerman became the first openly LGBTI member of the House of Representatives.Besides Mack and Hockey, other notable members from this seat include Dugald Thomson, a minister in the Reid Government, and Billy Hughes, the longest-serving parliamentarian in Australian history and a minister in the Lyons, Menzies and Fadden governments.

Don Randall

Donald James Randall (2 May 1953 – 21 July 2015) was an Australian politician of the Liberal Party. He represented the Division of Swan, Western Australia in the Australian House of Representatives from 1996 to 1998, as well as the Division of Canning, Western Australia, from 2001 until his death in 2015. He was born in Merredin, Western Australia, and was educated at Graylands Teachers College, Perth. He was a teacher and marketing consultant before entering politics.

Randall died of a heart attack while in office, and the 2015 Canning by-election was held in his seat.

Electoral results for the Division of Canning

This is a list of electoral results for the Division of Canning in Australian federal elections from the division's creation in 1949 until the present.

Perennial candidate

A perennial candidate is a political candidate who frequently runs for an elected office but seldom wins. The term is not generally extended to incumbent politicians who successfully defend their seats repeatedly.

Perennial candidates can vary widely in nature. Some are independents who lack the support of the major political parties in an area or are members of alternative parties (such as "third parties" in the United States). Others may be mainstream candidates who can consistently win a party's nomination, but because their district is gerrymandered or a natural safe seat for another party, the candidate likewise never gets elected (thus these types are often paper candidates). Still others may typically run in primary elections for a party's nomination and lose repeatedly. Numerous perennial candidates, although not all, run with the full knowledge of their inability to win elections and instead use their candidacy for satire, to advance non-mainstream political platforms, or to take advantage of benefits afforded political candidates (such as campaign financing and television advertising benefits).

September 2015 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spill

A motion seeking a leadership spill of the federal parliamentary leader of the Liberal Party of Australia and Prime Minister was proposed by Malcolm Turnbull, who requested the ballot on 14 September 2015. The incumbent Prime Minister, Tony Abbott, announced that a meeting of Liberal members of the House and Senate would take place at 9:15 pm AEST on 14 September 2015 for the purpose of a spill motion. During the meeting a vote was held for the leadership and deputy leadership. Turnbull defeated Abbott, 54 votes to 44, becoming the leader of the Liberal Party of Australia and Prime Minister-nominee. Julie Bishop retained her position of deputy leader defeating Kevin Andrews 70 votes to 30.With no contender, a February 2015 leadership spill motion had seen Abbott defeat a motion to spill the leadership 61 votes to 39.

Sustainable Australia

Sustainable Australia (originally the Sustainable Population Party and officially registered as #Sustainable Australia) is an Australian political party. Formed in 2010, it describes itself as being "from the political centre".Campaigning against a "big Australia", the party seeks to establish an Australia that is "better, not bigger". At the Federal level of government, a policy is to reduce the country's immigration intake, from record high levels of over 200,000 to 70,000 people per annum. Despite this, the party has strongly rejected accusations of being classified as anti-immigration. At the state government level, a policy is to strengthen planning laws in order to reduce overdevelopment.

Sustainable Australia has policies on other issues including housing affordability and the environment. On housing affordability, Sustainable Australia bases its solutions on restricting foreign ownership of residential property, cutting immigration, and on taxation measures (such as phasing out the 50% Capital Gains Tax discount on residential investment property and abolishing negative gearing on residential investment property). On the environment, the party advocates for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below year 2000 levels by 2050, or cutting further if possible. The party believes that "with a sustainable environment and much more stable population, you can simultaneously achieve affordable housing (due to less buyer demand) and better planning (to stop over-development)".Sustainable Australia describes itself as a centrist party with strong focus on environment, resource levels, infrastructure, and population. It criticises excessive urban densification and sprawl. It strongly supports public transport; but in the 2016 Australian Capital Territory election it opposed the proposed light rail, calling it "a Trojan horse for over-development".

Trent Zimmerman

Trent Moir Zimmerman (born 15 October 1968) is an Australian politician. He was elected to succeed Joe Hockey as the Liberal Party of Australia member of the House of Representatives seat of North Sydney at the 2015 by-election. Zimmerman is one of eight openly LGBTI current members of the Parliament of Australia and the first openly LGBTI member of the House of Representatives.He was a vice-president and acting-President of the NSW Division of the Liberal Party of Australia and was also previously Deputy Chief Executive and director, Transport Policy, of the Tourism and Transport Forum of Australia. He is a member of the board of Epilepsy Action Australia.

Turnbull Government

The Turnbull Government was the federal executive government of Australia led by the 29th Prime Minister of Australia, Malcolm Turnbull, from 2015 to 2018. It succeeded the Abbott Government, which brought the Coalition to power at the 2013 Australian federal election. The Government consisted of members of Australia's Liberal-Nationals Coalition. Turnbull took office by challenging his leader, Tony Abbott, in an internal leadership ballot. Warren Truss, the leader of the Nationals, served as Deputy Prime Minister until he retired in 2016 and was replaced by Barnaby Joyce. Joyce resigned in February 2018 and the Nationals' new leader Michael McCormack became Deputy Prime Minister. The Turnbull Government concluded with Turnbull's resignation ahead of internal leadership ballot which saw him succeeded as Prime Minister by Scott Morrison and the Morrison Government.

In mounting his 2015 public challenge for the leadership, Turnbull cited extended poor polling in Newspoll by the Abbott Government and said Australia needed a new style of "economic leadership". Turnbull appointed Morrison as Treasurer in an expanded ministry, promoting several key supporters. Julie Bishop remained as Minister for Foreign Affairs. Conservatives Tony Abbott, Eric Abetz and Kevin Andrews were sent to the backbench. Joe Hockey left Parliament. The Turnbull Government continued a number of Abbott Government initiatives, promising a plebiscite legalising same-sex marriage, concluding Abbott era initiatives on an anti-domestic violence campaign, funding the National Disability Insurance Scheme, signing a China free trade deal, and reforming Senate voting.The April 2016 refusal of the Senate to pass the Government's bill to re-establish a watchdog for the construction industry provided Turnbull with a double dissolution trigger. An election was held on 2 July, and the government was returned with its majority in the House of Representatives reduced to one seat. The 2016 election saw a resurgence of the right wing Pauline Hanson's One Nation Party, and discontented conservative Liberal Senator Cory Bernardi left the party and established the Australian Conservatives soon after. The now elected Turnbull Government secured passage of the Registered Organisations and Australian Building and Construction Commission legislation. In 2017, it announced Federal funds for expansion of Snowy Hydro. In June 2017, it introduced the "Gonski 2.0" reforms to schools funding. Factional strains continued.

Turnbull's ousting of Abbott had divided the Liberal Party rank and file and tensions continued in the parliamentary Party. Abbott said Turnbull supporters had plotted against him. The Government reached the 30-consecutive-Newspoll-losses benchmark Turnbull had used to unseat Abbott, in April 2018. The Parliament faced a period of instability under the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, and the Turnbull Government briefly lost its parliamentary majority and Deputy Prime Minister Joyce. Joyce was re-elected, but in February 2018 Turnbull denounced him and forced his resignation after the press reported on an office affair he had been conducting with a staffer. By-election losses in July 2018 further diminished Turnbull's authority. Dissent from conservative MPs over issues such as energy prices and immigration levels grew during Turnbull's final months. On 21 August, Turnbull announced a leadership spill ahead of his 39th consecutive Newspoll loss, which he narrowly won against Peter Dutton. Turnbull resigned three days later after narrowly losing the confidence of his Party room. Turnbull blamed Abbott, Dutton and conservative media commentators.

United Australia Party (2013)

The United Australia Party (UAP), formerly known as the Palmer United Party (PUP), is an Australian political party formed by mining magnate Clive Palmer in April 2013 and deregistered in 2017. It was initially announced as the United Australia Party, and branded as a revival of the historic party of that name. However, it adopted the name "Palmer United Party" less than a month after its founding, to ease registration and to avoid a conflict with a similarly named party. It was revived under the original name in 2018, with ex-Pauline Hanson's One Nation senator Brian Burston representing it in parliament.The party fielded candidates in all 150 House of Representatives seats at the September 2013 federal election. Palmer, the party's leader, was elected to the Division of Fairfax and it reached a peak of three Senators following the rerun of the Western Australian senate election in 2014.

At state and territory level, Palmer United has been represented in the Parliament of the Northern Territory (NT) and the Parliament of Queensland. Two former Liberal National (and later independent) members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly joined the PUP in April 2013, while three former Country Liberal (CLP) (and briefly independent) members of the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly, joined the party in April 2014. Both of the Queensland members left to become independents again during 2014, and all the NT members left the party that same year, with two becoming independents and one re-joining the CLP. The party contested the South Australian, Tasmanian, and Victorian state elections in 2014, but none of its candidates have been elected to a state or territory parliament.

The second incarnation of the party was registered by the Australian Electoral Commission on 12 December 2018.


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