2015 Bamako hotel attack

On 20 November 2015, Islamist militants took 170 hostages and killed 20 of them in a mass shooting at the Radisson Blu hotel in Bamako, the capital city of Mali.[5][6][7] Malian commandos raided the hotel and freed the surviving hostages.[8][9] Al-Mourabitoun claimed that it carried out the attack "in cooperation with" Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb; an Al Qaeda member confirmed that the two groups cooperated in the attack.[10]

2015 Bamako hotel attack
Mali map
Location of Bamako within Mali
LocationBamako, Mali
Coordinates12°38′07″N 8°01′51″W / 12.6352°N 8.0308°WCoordinates: 12°38′07″N 8°01′51″W / 12.6352°N 8.0308°W
Date20 November 2015 (UTC)
Attack type
Mass shooting, 170 hostages taken
WeaponsAK-47 assault rifles,
hand grenades
Deaths22 total
  • 20 hostages
  • 2 gunmen[1]
Non-fatal injuries
7 and at least two Malian Special Forces[2][3][4]
PerpetratorsAl-Mourabitoun
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

Background

Following the Libyan civil war, many ethnic Tuareg who had fought for the Gaddafi government and the rebels took their weapons and left for Azawad (a region in Northern Mali that the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) wants to be an independent state). Following several previously failed Tuareg rebellions, the MNLA managed to take over the area and declare independence. However, the secular movement was soon overrun by Islamist-oriented groups such as MOJWA and Ansar Dine. The French launched a military operation that ousted the rebels,[11] with additional military support from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).[12] However, simmering tensions and irregular incidents continued to occur. The Macina Liberation Front is a new jihadist group operating in central and southern Mali led by the radical Muslim cleric Amadou Kouffa, a strong proponent of strict Islamic law in Mali. The group draws most of its support from the Fulani ethnic group, who are found across the Sahel region. Kouffa is a close ally of Ansar Dine leader Iyad ag Ghali. A Human Rights Watch report said the Macina Liberation Front militants had carried out serious abuses in parts of central Mali since January and killed at least five people they accused of being aligned to the government. The group has attacked police and military particularly in the Mopti region, most recently killing three soldiers in Tenenkou in August. The Malian military recently arrested Alaye Bocari, a man they say was a key MLF financier and Kouffa's right-hand man.[13]

The Radisson Blu hotel in Bamako is in a business district that is close to the embassies, and is frequented by foreign businesspeople and government employees.[14] It is part of a chain of up-market hotels that is operated by the Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group, which has headquarters in the United States and Belgium.[15]

Attack

Two gunmen arrived at the hotel[16] between 7 and 7:30 a.m.; according to a hotel employee, the men were driving a vehicle with diplomatic license plates.[6] Malian army commander Modibo Nama Traoré said that at least 10 gunmen had stormed the hotel shouting "Allahu Akbar" before firing on guards and taking hostages.[17] Guinean singer Sekouba Bambino, who was in the hotel but escaped,[12] reported that the perpetrators were speaking in English.[18] This was supported by many other witnesses, who said the attackers spoke something that was neither Arabic nor local.[19]

Kassim Traoré, a Malian journalist, said that hostages were asked to recite the shahada in order to get released.[6] Soon after, Malian special forces stormed the hotel.[20] According to the hotel operators, 125 guests and 13 employees were inside the hotel when the siege began.[6] According to General Didier Dacko of the Malian Army, "about 100 hostages" were taken at the beginning of the siege.[6] The Associated Press[21] and Al Jazeera have reported that in the chaos of the initial attack, many present were able to escape, but around 170 people were held hostage.[22]

A delegation of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie was in the hotel at the time of the attack.[6] Ten Chinese citizens; twenty Indian citizens;[23] about a dozen American citizens, including personnel from the US Embassy;[24] seven Algerian citizens, including six diplomats; two Russian citizens; two Moroccan citizens; seven Turkish Airlines staff; and an unknown number of French citizens were reported to have been among those taken hostage.Two Canadian mining executives were some of the last hostages rescued. [12] Twelve crew from Air France, who were also in the hotel, were extracted and safely released.[25] Three United Nations staff were safely removed from the hotel, but it remains unknown how many were caught inside. Several delegates from MINUSMA were present at the hotel attending a meeting on the peace process in the country.[26] More than 100 hostages were freed.[27]

UN peacekeepers supported the Malian Armed Forces by reinforcing security around the hotel.[12] 25 U.S. Special Forces were in Bamako at the time of the attack and assisted Malian forces in evacuating civilians to secure locations.[25] An official from the U.S. Defense Department said that 22 military and civilian department personnel were in the city, including five people who were at the hotel. However, he added that everyone was accounted for and there were no reports of injuries. One member, who was outside, entered the hotel to help first responders move civilians to secure locations while the Malian operation was ongoing. Another member helped at the Joint Operations Center, which was set up to respond to the incident. The official also said that the forces did not directly participate in the operation. A further 12 U.S. citizens were rescued by security forces, according to AFRICOM.[28]

Although there were earlier reports of more gunmen involved in the hotel attack, the investigation determined that in fact there were only two attackers.[16]

Victims

Deaths by nationality
Country Number Ref.
 Mali 6 [29]
 Russia 6 [29]
 China 3 [29]
 Belgium 2 [29]
 United States 1 [29]
 Senegal 1 [29]
 Israel 1 [29]
Total 20 [29]

Twenty people were murdered in the attack: six Malians, six Russians, three Chinese, two Belgians, one American, one Israeli and one Senegalese.[30][31][32] Among the victims were:

Responsibility

While the attack was under way, Al-Mourabitoun claimed responsibility for it via Twitter, although its claim has not been verified.[7][39] In an audio recording provided to Al Jazeera, the group also claimed responsibility and said that it had undertaken the attack jointly with al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).[40] Al-Mourabitoun is made up of Tuaregs and Arabs from northern Mali and is affiliated with AQIM.[39][40] The group, led by Mokhtar Belmokhtar, formed in 2013 and is based in the Sahara Desert.[41]

The Macina Liberation Front also claimed responsibility for the attack.[19]

Reactions

Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta cut short his visit to Chad in order to return to Bamako and coordinate the response.[12] Mali also declared a 10-day state of emergency.[42]

In a press conference, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius stated that France will take "all steps necessary" to fight the attackers in Bamako. A crisis unit was set up in the embassy.[12] Forty officers from the National Gendarmerie's GIGN special forces unit, along with ten forensic and criminal officers, were sent to "advise and support" Malian security forces.[25][43] Air France flights to and from Bamako were suspended for the day.[25]

The United Nations Security Council[44] condemned the attack.[45] Australia advised its citizens not to travel to Mali and advised those in country to leave.[46] Similar warnings were made by the Foreign Office in the United Kingdom advised British nationals to remain indoors and follow the instructions of the local government authorities.[47] The United States condemned the attack[48] and confirmed continuing coordination of its officials in the country to verify the location of all citizens in Mali and that it was "prepared to assist the Malian government in the coming days as it investigates this tragic terrorist attack."[49] The embassy urged its citizens to shelter in place, follow government instructions and contact their family.[50]

The Russian city of Ulyanovsk Oblast, home of five of the victims, declared 23 November a mourning day.[51]

Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita later declared three days of national mourning in Mali. Ahead of the three days of national mourning, the chairman of the West African regional bloc Ecowas, Senegal's President Macky Sall, visited Bamako to show support. He said on Sunday: "Mali will never be alone in this fight, we are all committed because we are all involved." Senegal, Mauritania and Guinea are also observing the mourning.[13]

Investigation

Three days after the attack, the Malian government released photographs of the corpses of the two attackers.[16] The men were clean-shaven and appeared to be in their 20s.[16] One "had visible bullet wounds to his upper body."[16] The authorities have not been able to identify the men and urged members of the public with information to come forward.[16] Al Mourabitoun, which claimed responsibility for the attack, said that the men were Abdul Hakim al-Ansari and Mu'adh al-Ansari, but this claim has not been verified.[16]

On November 22, 2015, two separate police sources speaking to Agence-France Presse on condition of anonymity said that "two foreigners" along with "three or four accomplice" were responsible for the attack.[52]

On November 27, 2015, Malian special forces arrested two Malian men in their early 30s on the outskirts of Bamako in connection with the attack.[31][53] The men were linked to the attack by a mobile phone found at the scene of the attack.[53]

See also

References

  1. ^ Число жертв атаки террористов на отель в Мали достигло 20. Tass.ru (24 November 2015)
  2. ^ "Mali Hotel Attack: At Least 21 Dead, More Than 150 Freed after Gunmen Take Hostages at Radisson Blu in Bamako". Australian Broadcasting Corporation News. 21 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  3. ^ "Mali-Bamako Hotel Attack". News Ghana. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  4. ^ "Mali Hotel Attack Leaves 22 Dead". News Ghana. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  5. ^ Hanna, Jason; Payne, Ed; Almasy, Steve (20 November 2015). "Deadly Mali Hotel Attack: 'They Were Shooting at Anything That Moved'". CNN. Retrieved 21 November 2015. Includes video.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Searcey, Dionne; Nossiternov, Adam (20 November 2015). "Deadly Siege Ends After Assault on Hotel in Mali". International New York Times. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  7. ^ a b Diallo, Tiemoko; Diarra, Adama (21 November 2015). "Putin says seeks global anti-terrorism fight after 19 killed in Mali attack". Reuters (U.S. ed.). Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  8. ^ "Mali Hotel Attack: 'No More Hostages' after Special Forces Raid". BBC News. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  9. ^ "Mali Attack: Special Forces Storm Hotel to Free Hostages". BBC News. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  10. ^ Callimachi, Rukmini; Bulos, Naih (21 November 2015). "Mali Hotel Attackers Are Tied to an Algerian Qaeda Leader". International New York Times. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  11. ^ "Behind the scenes: US involved in Mali since 9/11". RT.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Africa Live: Shooting at hotel in Mali's capital". BBC News. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  13. ^ a b "Mali hotel attack: Police seek info on hotel attack gunmen". BBC News. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  14. ^ Blair, David (20 November 2015). "Why the Radisson Hotel in Mali was a prime target". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  15. ^ Dubuis, Anna (20 November 2015). "Where is Bamako and why has the Radisson hotel been targeted by terrorists?". Daily Mirror. Trinity Mirror plc. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Carlotta Gall, Mali Says 2 Gunmen Carried Out Hotel Attack in Bamako, New York Times (November 23, 2015).
  17. ^ Kaplan, Sarah; Murphy, Brian (20 November 2015). "Gunmen attack luxury hotel in Mali capital, take 170 hostages". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  18. ^ "At Least 27 Dead in Mali Hotel Attack Claimed by Al-Qaeda Affiliate". The New Indian Express.
  19. ^ a b "The Radisson Blu siege". The Economist. 28 November 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  20. ^ "Mali attack: Special forces storm hotel to free hostages". BBC News. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  21. ^ "The Latest: UN officials say 2 attackers dead in Mali attack". Associated Press. BAMAKO, Mali. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  22. ^ "'No more hostages' as Mali hotel stormed". Al Jazeera. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  23. ^ "Live Blog: Islamist gunmen attack luxury hotel in Mali capital". The Times of India. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  24. ^ 2015 Bamako hotel attack, retrieved 20 November 2015
  25. ^ a b c d "World News liveblog". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  26. ^ "Gunmen take hostages at Radisson Blu hotel in Bamako". CNN. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  27. ^ "Mali hotel attack leaves at least 27 dead after 170 taken hostage". ABC News. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  28. ^ "A dozen US citizens rescued after Mali hotel attack". dailymail.co.uk. 21 November 2015.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h lefigaro.fr. "EN DIRECT - Attentat à Bamako : l'état d'urgence décrété pour 10 jours". Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  30. ^ Tajha Chappellet-Lanier, The Latest in the Mali Hotel Attack: The country begins a period of national mourning as police search for suspects in the deadly shooting, The Atlantic (November 22, 2015).
  31. ^ a b Associated Press, Mali special forces arrest 2 over attack on luxury hotel in Mali claimed by Islamic extremists (November 27, 2015).
  32. ^ Mali hotel attack: Gunmen barged in, shot at 'anything that moved', Faith Karimi and Erin Burnett, CNN, 21 November 2015
  33. ^ a b c d e Associated Press, A Partial List of Victims in the Mali Hotel Attack (November 23, 2015).
  34. ^ Philip Blenkinsop, Belgian man dies in Bamako hotel siege - regional assembly, Reuters (November 20, 2015).
  35. ^ "Belgian diplomat among Mali victims". ITV. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  36. ^ Liam Stack, U.S. Victim of Mali Attack Worked on Women's Health, New York Times (November 20, 2015).
  37. ^ Phil Helsel & Christopher Nelson, American Killed in Mali Hotel Attack Dedicated Self to Others: Family, NBC News (November 21, 2015).
  38. ^ Lis, Jonathan (21 November 2015). "Israeli Among 19 Killed During Islamist Hotel Siege in Mali". HaAretz. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  39. ^ a b Natalie Ilsley (20 November 2015). "Al-Mourabitoun Group Claims Responsibility for Mali Attack". Newsweek.
  40. ^ a b Mona Boshnaq (20 November 2015). "Al Mourabitoun Claims Responsibility for Mali Siege, Al Jazeera". The New York Times.
  41. ^ "Al Qaeda-affiliated group claims Mali hotel attack". Reuters. 20 November 2015.
  42. ^ "Mali declares 10-day state of emergency following hotel attack". jagran.com. 21 November 2015.
  43. ^ "Mali hotel attack: gunmen take hostages in Bamako – live updates". The Guardian. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  44. ^ "The Latest: Security Council Strongly Condemns Mali Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  45. ^ "China strongly condemns Mali hotel attack, confirms 3 nationals killed". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  46. ^ "Travel Advice for Mali". smartraveller.gov.au. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  47. ^ "Mali travel advice". gov.uk. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  48. ^ "Statement from NSC Spokesman Ned Price on the Terrorist Attack in Mali". The White House. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  49. ^ "US ready to help Mali govt.: White House". presstv.com.
  50. ^ "Messages for U.S. Citizens | Bamako, Mali – Embassy of the United States". mali.usembassy.gov. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
  51. ^ Russia Beyond the Headlines: Bodies of Russian hostages killed in Mali to be transported home in a week
  52. ^ Investigation into Mali attack points to 'two foreigners', Deutsche Welle (November 22, 2015).
  53. ^ a b Faith Karimi & Brent Swails, Mali arrests 2 suspects in hotel terror attack, CNN (November 27, 2015).
2010s

The 2010s (pronounced "twenty-tens" or "two thousand (and) tens") is the current decade in the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2010, and will end on December 31, 2019.

2015 Bamako shooting

2015 Bamako shooting could mean:

the March 2015 Bamako shooting

the November 2015 Bamako hotel attack

2016 Grand-Bassam shootings

On 13 March 2016, three gunmen opened fire at a beach resort in Grand-Bassam, Ivory Coast, killing at least 19 people and injuring 33 others.

2016 Nampala attack

The 2016 Nampala attack was an armed assault against a Malian Army base in the Niono Cercle subdivision of the Ségou Region of Mali on July 19, 2016, that left at least 17 government soldiers dead and 35 others injured. The Macina Liberation Front, al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and the ethnic Fula (or Fulani) militant group 'National Alliance for the Protection of Fulani Identity and the Restoration of Justice' (ANSIPRJ) claimed joint responsibility.

2016 Ouagadougou attacks

On 15 January 2016, gunmen armed with heavy weapons attacked the Cappuccino restaurant and the Splendid Hotel in the heart of Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. The number of fatalities reached 30, while at least 56 were wounded; a total of 176 hostages were released after a government counter-attack into the next morning as the siege ended. Three perpetrators were also killed. The nearby YIBI hotel was then under siege, where another attacker was killed. Notably, former Swiss MPs Jean-Noël Rey and Georgie Lamon were killed. Responsibility for the attack was claimed by Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Al-Mourabitoun.

Al-Mourabitoun (militant group)

Al-Mourabitoun (Arabic: المرابطون‎, translit. al-Murābiṭūn, lit. 'The Sentinels') was an African militant jihadist organisation formed by a merger between Ahmed Ould Amer, a.k.a. Ahmed al-Tilemsi's Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa and Mokhtar Belmokhtar's Al-Mulathameen. In 4 December 2015, it joined Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). The group seeks to implement Sharia Law in Mali, Algeria, southwestern Libya, and Niger.On 2 March 2017, the group's cells in Mali, along with Ansar Dine, Macina Liberation Front and the Saharan branch of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb merged into the group Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin.

Budapest-Bamako

The Budapest-Bamako or Great African Run is a charity car race in Africa, and the largest amateur rally in the world. It is a low-budget version of the Dakar Rally, and goes from Budapest, Hungary to Bamako, Mali through the Sahara. It passes through Hungary, Austria or Slovenia, Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania and Mali. The Budapest-Bamako was inspired by the Paris-Dakar Rally. There are few entry restrictions: as long as a vehicle is street legal, it can join the event. The event also raises money and supplies for local communities and charities in Mali.

Distinguished Service Cross (United States)

The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military award that can be given to a member of the United States Army (and previously the United States Air Force), for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree that they are above those required for all other U.S. combat decorations but do not meet the criteria for the Medal of Honor. The Distinguished Service Cross is equivalent to the Navy Cross (Navy and Marine Corps), the Air Force Cross (Air Force), and the Coast Guard Cross (Coast Guard).

The Distinguished Service Cross was first awarded during World War I. In addition, a number of awards were made for actions before World War I. In many cases, these were to soldiers who had received a Certificate of Merit for gallantry which, at the time, was the only other honor for gallantry the Army could award, or recommend a Medal of Honor. Others were belated recognition of actions in the Philippines, during the Boxer Rebellion and on the Mexican Border.

The Distinguished Service Cross is distinct from the Distinguished Service Medal, which is awarded to persons in recognition of exceptionally meritorious service to the government of the United States in a duty of great responsibility. The Distinguished Service Cross is only awarded for actions in combat, while the Distinguished Service Medal has no such restriction.

Islamic extremism

Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any form of Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs." Related terms include "Islamist extremism" and Islamism.On the other hand, many oppose the use of the term, fearing it could "de-legitimize" the Islamic faith in general. Some have criticized political rhetoric that associates non-violent Islamism (political Islam) with terrorism under the rubric of "extremism".

June 2017 Bamako attack

On 18 June 2017, gunmen attacked Le Campement Kangaba in Dougourakoro, east of Bamako, Mali, a luxury resort frequented by tourists. Hostages were reported to have been taken and at least 5 people are reported to have been killed, including a Franco-Gabonese civilian, a Chinese citizen and a Portuguese soldier. According to an eyewitness, the attack began when a man on a motorcycle arrived at the compound and fired at the crowd. He was followed by two other assailants. Security forces supported by United Nations troops managed to rescue around 60 people staying at the resort. Some residents hid in a cave near the resort and managed to avoid the attackers.

Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb claimed responsibility for the attack, and Mali security minister Salif Traore confirmed it was a jihadist attack. Malian troops and France's Operation Barkhane counter-terrorist force came to the site. Four assailants were killed in the aftermath and four arrested.

List of hostage crises

This is a list of notable hostage crises by date.

List of terrorist incidents in November 2015

This is a timeline of terrorist incidents which took place in November 2015, including attacks by violent non-state actors for political motives.

Mass shooting

A mass shooting is an incident involving multiple victims of firearms-related violence. There is no widely accepted definition of the term. The United States' Congressional Research Service acknowledges that there is not a broadly accepted definition, and defines a "public mass shooting" as an event where someone selects four or more people indiscriminately, and kills them, echoing the FBI definition of the term "mass murder". As noted above, there is no widely accepted definition of mass shootings.

A mass shooting may be committed by individuals or organizations in public or non-public places. Terrorist groups in recent times have used the tactic of mass shootings to fulfill their political aims. Individuals who commit mass shootings may fall into any of a number of categories, including killers of family, of coworkers, of students, and of random strangers. Individuals' motives for shooting vary.

Responses to mass shootings take a variety of forms, depending on the context: number of casualties, the country, political climate, and other factors. The media cover mass shootings extensively and often sensationally, and the effect of that coverage has been examined. Countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia have changed their gun laws in the wake of mass shootings. In contrast, the United States' constitution prohibits laws which disallow firearm ownership outright and owns about half of the world's guns.

Mokhtar Belmokhtar

Mokhtar Belmokhtar (; Arabic: مختار بلمختار‎; born 1 June 1972), also known as The One-Eyed, Nelson, The Uncatchable, is an Algerian leader of the group Al-Murabitoun, former military commander of Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb, smuggler and weapons dealer. He was twice convicted and sentenced to death in absentia under separate charges in Algerian courts: in 2007 for terrorism and in 2008 for murder. In 2004, he was sentenced to life imprisonment in Algeria for terrorist activities.Born in northern Algeria, Belmokhtar traveled to Afghanistan in 1991 to fight with the mujahadeen against the pro-Soviet government following the withdrawal of Soviet Union troops. There, he lost his left eye while mishandling explosives. He later joined the Islamist GIA fighting in the Algerian Civil War and following that became a commander in the Mali-based Islamist Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).

In December 2012, Belmokhtar announced he was leaving AQIM and headed his own organisation, dubbed the Al-Mulathameen ("Masked") Brigade (also known as the al-Mua'qi'oon Biddam ("Those who Sign with Blood" Brigade). In January 2013, the Brigade took more than 800 people hostage at the Tigantourine gas facility in Algeria. 39 hostages were executed and one Algerian killed before the facility was recaptured by Algerian forces, who killed 29 members of the Brigade. The Brigade was listed by the US State Department as a Foreign Terrorist Organization in December 2013.On 2 March 2013, the Chadian state television and the Chadian Army reported that Belmokhtar had been killed in a raid by Chadian troops against a terrorist base in Mali. However, two months later, Belmokhtar claimed responsibility for two suicide truck bomb attacks — on a French-owned uranium mine in Arlit, Niger, and a military base 150 miles away in Agadez.On 14 June 2015, Libya's government announced that Belmokhtar was killed in a U.S. airstrike inside Libya. U.S. officials confirmed the airstrike and that Belmokhtar was a target, but were unable to confirm that Belmokhtar was killed. In November 2016, Belmokhtar was targeted again in a French airstrike, conducted by French aircraft in southern Libya, based on intelligence from the United States. U.S. officials have been unable to confirm Belmokhtar's death.

Palladium International

The Palladium Group (also known as "Palladiums Holdings" or "Palladium International") is an international advisory and management business representing the combination of seven prior companies: GRM International, Futures Group, Palladium, the IDL Group, Development & Training Services, HK Logistics and CARANA Corporation. As of October 2016, Palladium Group employs over 2,500 persons operating in 90 countries. At the end of 2015, Palladium International was the fourth-largest private sector partner for the UK Government's Department for International Development (DFID). During 2011, Palladium International members Futures Group and Carana were USAID's fourteenth and sixteenth largest private sector partners, respectively. At the end of 2012, GRM International was the third largest private sector partner for AusAID.

Radisson Blu

Radisson Blu (formerly Radisson SAS) is an upscale international chain of full service hotels and resorts brand for Radisson Hospitality, Inc. (formerly Carlson Hotels) and Radisson Hospitality AB (formerly Rezidor Hotel Group) mostly outside the United States, including those in Europe, Africa, and Asia. Radisson Hospitality AB was a listed subsidiary of Radisson Hotel Group since 2010, but it was established as a division of SAS Group. As of December 2014, Radisson Blu has 287 hotels operating throughout the world with 68,270 rooms, and 102 hotels under development with an additional 23,489 rooms.SAS Group used to be a major shareholder in Rezidor Hotel Group (until 2006) and licensed its brand for Radisson SAS hotels. Following the withdrawal of SAS from the partnership in 2009, the name changed from Radisson SAS to Radisson Blu. The new brand is being introduced gradually across the portfolio. In 2012, Carlson Hotels and Rezidor Hotel Group combined to form Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group. On March 5, 2018 Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group announced a rebrand to Radisson Hotel Group. The new corporate identity is supposed to align the global brand portfolio around its leading hotel brand, Radisson.

Timeline of Bamako

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bamako, Mali.

Toumani Diabaté

Toumani Diabaté (born August 10, 1965) is a Malian kora player. In addition to performing the traditional music of Mali, he has also been involved in cross-cultural collaborations with flamenco, blues, jazz, and other international styles.

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