2015 Ankara bombings

On 10 October 2015 at 10:04 local time (EEST) in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, two bombs were detonated outside Ankara Central railway station. With a death toll of 109 civilians,[1] the attack surpassed the 2013 Reyhanlı bombings as the deadliest terror attack in modern Turkish history.[7] Another 500 people were injured.[8][4][9] Censorship monitoring group Turkey Blocks identified nationwide slowing of social media services in the aftermath of the blasts, described by rights group Human Rights Watch as an "extrajudicial" measure to restrict independent media coverage of the incident.[10][11]

The bombs appeared to target a "Labour, Peace and Democracy" rally organised by the Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DİSK), the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (TMMOB), the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), the Turkish Medical Association (TTB) and the Confederation of Public Workers' Unions (KESK). The peace march was held to protest against the growing conflict between the Turkish Armed Forces and the separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). The incident occurred 21 days before the scheduled 1 November general election.[12][13][14][15][16][17]

The governing Justice and Development Party (AKP), the main opposition Republican People's Party (CHP) and the opposition Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) condemned the attack and called it an attempt to cause division within Turkey.[18][19][20] CHP and MHP leaders heavily criticized the government for the security failure, whereas HDP directly blamed the AKP government for the bombings.[21][22][23] Various political parties ended up cancelling their election campaigns while three days of national mourning were declared by the Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu.[24][25][26]

No organisation has yet claimed responsibility for the attack. The Ankara Attorney General stated that they were investigating the possibility of two cases of suicide bombings.[27] On 19 October, one of the two suicide bombers was officially identified as the younger brother of the perpetrator of the Suruç bombing; both brothers have suspected links to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and the ISIL affiliated Dokumacılar group.[5][28]

2015 Ankara bombings
Part of Turkey-ISIL conflict
Ankara Train Station
LocationIn front of Ankara Central railway station
Coordinates39°56′11″N 32°50′38″E / 39.9364°N 32.8438°ECoordinates: 39°56′11″N 32°50′38″E / 39.9364°N 32.8438°E
Date10 October 2015
10:04 (EEST)
TargetProtesters
Attack type
Suicide bombing, mass murder
Deaths109[1][2][3]
Non-fatal injuries
500+[4]
AssailantsYunus Emre Alagöz (identified)[5]
Ömer Deniz Dündar (alleged)[6]
Suspected perpetrator
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (blame of Turkish government)[2]

Background

Following a suicide bombing in Suruç that killed 33 people on 20 July 2015, the Turkish Armed Forces have been fighting both the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and a renewed PKK rebellion of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). The resumption of the conflict with the PKK resulted in an end to the Solution process, a series of peace negotiations between the government and the PKK alongside a ceasefire in place since 2012. With airstrikes initially targeting both the PKK and ISIL, later military operations began focusing explicitly on PKK positions in Northern Iraq, prompting a surge of counter PKK-related violence in the mainly Kurdish south-east of Turkey. By 7 October, the surge in violence since July had led to the deaths of 141 soldiers and 1,740 militants, leading to several pro-government commentators to claim that the PKK was close to defeat.[29] However, the large number of soldiers killed also contributed to civil unrest in other parts of the country, with attacks by Turkish nationalists taking place against the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) headquarters. Many politicians and commentators alleged that the country was close to civil war.[30][31]

Political situation

The increase in violence came shortly after the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) lost its majority in Parliament after 13 years of government alone in the June 2015 election. When the attacks took place, the preceding AKP government led by Ahmet Davutoğlu remained in power until a new coalition government could be formed, with an interim election government also headed by Davutoğlu taking office on 28 August 2015 after President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called for a new election. Critics have accused the AKP of trying to regain nationalist voters back from the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) by purposely ending the solution process and also trying to reduce turnout in the HDP electoral strongholds in the south-east by creating unrest there. Concern had been raised about whether an election could be securely conducted amid the violence in the region.

Events

Perceived targets

The explosions occurred shortly before a 'Labour, Peace and Democracy' rally supported by the Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DİSK), the Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (TMMOB), the Turkish Medical Association (TTB) and the Confederation of Public Workers' Unions (KESK) was due to take place.[32] The rally was scheduled in Sıhhiye Square, the railways overpass bridge was the gathering area. It was reported that many attendants that were present in preparation for the rally were supporters of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), with the rally area containing numerous HDP, Labour Party (EMEP) and Socialist Youth Associations Federation (SGDF) flags.[33]

Bombings

The first bomb exploded at around On 10 October 2015 at 10:04 local time (EEST) while rally participants were singing an anthem commemorating the Bloody Sunday incident of 1969.[34] The second bomb exploded a few seconds later. It was also observed that the bombings were in close proximity of the National Intelligence Organisation (MİT) headquarters.[35] Shortly after the bombing, security forces cleared the area in case of a third and fourth bomb.[36]

Casualties

On the day of the blasts, the initial death toll was reported as 86, along with 186 wounded.[32][37][38] Next day, the total number of deaths was announced as 97.[39][40][41] According to the prime minister's statement on 14 October, 99 people were killed in total.[42] The number increased in the following days, as people in the hospitals succumbed to their wounds, to 100[43] and to 102.[44]

The Turkish Medical Association (TTB) made independent claims, reporting that 97 died and over 400 people had been injured,[45] which they later updated to 105,[46] and 106.[47] International media speak of 109 deaths and 508 injured.[8]

The pro-Kurdish HDP party claimed the first day that the number of deaths was 128,[48] but after a few days retracted the statement and apologised for the misleading claim.[49][50]

Media and internet blackouts

The Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) announced a temporary ban on all press coverage of the bombings following a request by the Prime Ministry.[51] Monitoring group Turkey Blocks identified intentional slowing, or throttling, of the Twitter and Facebook social networks beginning some hours after the attack.[11][52][53] An official claimed at the time that internet problems were "due to heavy use," although the practice of internet throttling for "peace and order" became commonplace in the following months and was ultimately recognized by the government and brought into law.[10][54][55]

Immediate response

Witnesses at the scene told the media that the police began using tear gas shortly after the bombs went off while stopping ambulances from getting through. Angry people tried to attack police cars after the blast, with the HDP claiming that the police attacked people carrying the injured to safety.[56]

Shortly after the bombings, the Minister of Health Mehmet Müezzinoğlu, the Minister of the Interior Selami Altınok, and the Minister of Justice Kenan İpek visited the scene to carry out investigations. However, they were met by protestors who chanted anti-AKP slogans and were forced to leave the scene less than one minute after arriving.[57] The Ankara Attorney General announced that they were investigating the possibility of two suicide bombers, while the Turkish State Railways (TCDD) stated that there would be delays to train services passing through the Ankara Central railway station.[58]

Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu cancelled all of his prior engagements and stated that he would halt his election campaign for three days. He met with President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who also cancelled his engagements in Istanbul following the incident. The Prime Minister later held a security summit, which was attended by Deputy Prime Ministers Yalçın Akdoğan, Numan Kurtulmuş, and Tuğrul Türkeş, along with National Intelligence Organisation (MİT) undersecretary Hakan Fidan, Interior Minister Selami Altınok, Justice Minister Kenan İpek, the Governor of Ankara Mehmet Kılıçlar, the General Director of Security Celalettin Lekesiz, and several other senior civil servants working for the Prime Ministry and the Ministry of Health.[59]

Perpetrators

Initial speculation

The Ankara Attorney General stated that they were investigating the possibility of twin suicide bombings.[60] It was observed that an anonymous Twitter account had claimed that an explosion could take place in Ankara just one day before the attack actually happened.[61]

The lack of any immediate statement from any known non-state perpetrator taking responsibility for the attack resulted in speculation over the possible perpetrators. Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) leader Devlet Bahçeli stated that the attacks bore a resemblance to the explosion in Suruç in July, raising debate on whether the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) could have been responsible.[62] It was reported that the type of bomb used bore strong resemblance to the materials used in the Suruç bombing, signalling a potential connection between the two incidents.[63]

The Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) openly blamed the Turkish state and the government for conducting the attack, accusing the government of collaborating with non-state actors and taking insufficient action to tackle their presence.[64] The HDP has claimed that the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) was guilty of being "murderers with blood on their hands" and also of being the number one threat to Turkey's peace and security. The HDP's accusation was met with strong criticism by the AKP government.

Veysel Eroğlu, the Minister of Forest and Water Management, made a heavily criticised statement in Afyonkarahisar implying that the HDP had purposely organised the attack against their own supporters to raise public sympathy for their party.[65] Although Eroğlu did not name the HDP or the PKK specifically, he referred to the Diyarbakır HDP rally bombing in June as being an attempt to raise support for the HDP "just so that they can pass the 10% election threshold".[66][67]

Investigations

Initially the government suggested the perpetrators could be any of the following anti-government groups:[68] Islamic State/Daesh (IS), Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), Revolutionary People's Liberation Party–Front (DHKP-C), Marxist–Leninist Communist Party (MLKP)

A day after the bombing, Davutoğlu suggested that early investigations pointed to the involvement of IS.[69] However, opposition political parties did not accept this attribution.[70]

Yunus Emre Alagöz, an ethnic Kurd from Adıyaman and the younger brother of Abdurrahman Alagöz, the perpetrator of the Suruç bombing, was suspected by the government to be one of the suicide bombers.[28] On 14 October media reports alleged that Yunus, and a second suspect, Ömer Deniz Dündar, both of whom are believed to have links to ISIL, were identified using DNA from the scene of the blast.[6][71] On 19 October, one of the two suicide bombers was officially identified as Yunus Emre Alagöz.[5]

Responsibility

By June 2016, responsibility for the attack had not been claimed; the Turkish government blamed ISIL.[2]

Reactions

Domestic reactions

Political

Mourning after the 2015 Ankara bombings (1)
The site of the attack
Mourning after the 2015 Ankara bombings (2)
Flowers at the site
Mourning after the 2015 Ankara bombings (3)
The victims' names

President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan condemned the bombings and vowed that the Turkish people will stand in "unity and solidarity" following the "heinous attack". He also stated that Turkey would not give in to efforts to sow division in society.[72][73] He encouraged everyone to take responsibility and act with good intentions, claiming that the government was working to uncover the full details of the incident as quickly as possible.[74]

Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu, the leader of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), issued a statement condemning the attack and claiming that it was an attack against democracy and against all segments of society. He said Turkey was an example of a country that had kept united despite several threats against national unity, announcing plans to meet with opposition party leaders in regards to the attack. Declaring three days of national mourning, Davutoğlu vowed to bring the perpetrators to justice regardless of who they were.[75]

Main opposition leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu, the leader of the Republican People's Party (CHP), claimed that they were ready to fulfill any task to end such attacks in Turkey[76] and agreed to meet with Davutoğlu to discuss the bombing.[77] He stated that all political parties had a duty to stand together against such attacks and called on the perpetrators to identify themselves, further claiming that violence was never an answer to a difference in viewpoints.[76]

Opposition leader Devlet Bahçeli, the leader of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), cancelled a planned electoral rally in İzmir following the attack and issued a statement in which he claimed that Turkey was paying the price for the AKP's close relations with violent groups, refusing to meet with Davutoğlu.[77] Condemning the bombings as an attack on the country's unity, he also stated that the fact that such perpetrators could evade security and intelligence organisations to conduct a bombing in the country's capital city was another serious issue of concern.[78]

Opposition leader Selahattin Demirtaş, the co-leader of the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), drew parallels with the bombings in Suruç and Diyarbakır earlier in the year, claiming that his party was specifically targeted. Accusing the state of conducting a "massacre" in the centre of the capital Ankara, he further claimed that they were facing a "mad, undignified attitude that has lost its mind". He accused the AKP government and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of forcing violence onto the people of Turkey, denouncing them as "murderers with blood on their hands". Referring to Erdoğan as a "gang leader", he claimed that Erdoğan had been able to conduct rallies under complete security but members of the public wishing to hold a rally for peace had been "massacred". He further claimed that the AKP was the biggest threat to the country's peace and security, drawing criticism from AKP leader and Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu.[79]

Shortly after the bombing, PKK/KCK declared a ceasefire in order to ensure that a peaceful election would be held on 1 November,[80] which was reportedly already being planned before the bombing took place.[81][82] Nevertheless, the ceasefire did not materialize, as policemen and soldiers continued to be killed in PKK attacks everyday since the bombing.[83][84][85][86]

Other

Ankara people reaction
Attack shared by social media users post pictures

Before closing his morning television chat show on 13 October, TRT anchor Selver Gözüaçık read a tweet by one of his viewers that read it was not right to "lump all the victims together [because] some may be innocent." He agreed with the sentiment, saying that there may have been "police officers, cleaning staff, passersby or people trying to get to work" who were also killed in the bombings.[87]

Former Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Orhan Pamuk criticized Erdogan for what he said was a climate of insecurity as a result of the latter's persistence on trying to achieve a parliamentary majority that has brought the country to the brink of sectarian conflict. "The electoral defeat enraged Erdogan...he didn't succeed in convincing the Kurds to give him their votes for his plan to create a presidential republic. That is why he decided to go to the polls again on November 1. But neither the government nor the army were satisfied with how things were going and they agreed to resume the war against the Kurdish movement."[88]

During a one minute silence for the victims at the UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying match between Turkey and Iceland, the crowd instead booed, whistled, shouted Turkish ultranationalist slogans and chanted Allahu akbar.[89][90]

International reactions

Paris protest 2015 Ankara bombings (4)
Protesters in Paris
Paris protest 2015 Ankara bombings (1)
Banner at protest in Paris. Note that the word "Ankara" has been written over previous text, indicating the sign has been reused from a protest against a prior terrorist incident.
London protest 2015 Ankara bombings (2)
Supporters of the Turkish Labour Party (EMEP) protesting in London.

Supranational bodies

States

  •  Armenia: President Serzh Sargsyan expressed his condolences and condemned the bombings.[94]
  •  Australia: Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull expressed his condolences in a telephone call to his counterpart. Leader of the Opposition Bill Shorten conveyed his condolences to the Turkish Ambassador-designate.[95]
  •  Azerbaijan: President Ilham Aliyev telephoned his counterpart, Erdogan, expressing his condolences to the family members and relatives of the victims and the Turkish people.[96]
  •  China: Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying "strongly condemned the bombings" and reaffirmed China's stance on the issue of terrorism, stating on behalf of the Chinese people that "we are against terrorist attacks in any form".[97]
  •  Colombia: President Juan Manuel Santos condemned the acts.[98] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, on behalf of the Government, issued a statement condemning the attacks expressing that "Colombia condemns terrorist violence, deeply laments the occurrence of this acts against the individuals that manifest for peace".[99]
  •  Cyprus: President Nicos Anastasiades expressed his shock and offered condolences over the attack. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs also issued a statement that condemned the attack and expressed concern over the spread of such incidents in the region and the need for a determination to combat such threats.[100]
  •  Czech Republic: Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka condemned the attack and expressed his condolences to the Turkish government and people affected. He noted that the perpetrators must be brought to justice.[102] Foreign Minister Lubomír Zaorálek also expressed condolences and said that these attacks must not disturb the upcoming election and put the democratic base of Turkey into jeopardy.[103][104][105]
  •  Egypt: The Foreign Ministry issued a statement reading that it condemned the bombings and called for the international community to stand against such incidents.[106]
  •  France: President François Hollande condemned the attack and expressed condolences.[107]
  •  Germany: Minister of Foreign Affairs Frank-Walter Steinmeier condemned the "brutal terror attack on peaceful demonstrators...[as an] attack on the democratic process in Turkey."[108]
  •  Greece: Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras condemned the attack and called on Erdoğan to explain the numerous attacks on democratic rallies held in Turkey.
  •  Guatemala: President Alejandro Maldonado condemned the attack and expressed solidarity with the victims.[110]
  •  Hungary: Prime Minister Viktor Orbán expressed his condolences in a letter to his counterpart that read "this terrible tragedy can not break our commitment to the [sic] international anti-terrorist cooperation."[111]
  •  India: Prime Minister Narendra Modi wrote on Twitter of his sadness "by the loss of lives due to the bomb explosion" and also sent his condolences "to [the] families of [the] deceased & prayers with [the] injured."[112]
  •  Iran: First Vice President Eshaq Jahangiri said both countries should closely cooperate and that there was a necessity to counter such perpetrators. "Given the critical and sensitive situation in the region and efforts by foreign powers to take advantage of the conditions, a rise in the exchange of views as well as extensive consultations between the two countries are of special significance." He further noted that Iran was interested in the highest possible level of cooperation with Turkey in different fields. In regards to the incident more specifically he expressed regret over the bombings and said that Iran was ready to render medical assistance to the victims.[113]
Foreign Ministry Spokeswoman Marzieh Afkham expressed sorrow over the attack and offered sympathy to the families of the victims.[114]
  •  Israel: President Reuven Rivlin sent a letter to his counterpart expressing condolences in which he wrote that he was "saddened to learn of the vicious attacks" and expressed "hopes for a better and more secure future for all the peoples of our region."[115]
  •  Italy: President Sergio Mattarella condemned the attack and expressed the solidarity of the Italian people with the Turkish people.
Prime Minister Matteo Renzi expressed his dismay and grief "for the brutal terrorist attack against democracy and peace."[116]
  •  Latvia: Minister of Foreign Affairs Edgars Rinkēvičs condemned the attacks and expressed his condolences to families of victims on Twitter.[117]
  •  Lithuania: Both President Dalia Grybauskaitė and Prime Minister Algirdas Butkevičius expressed condolences, noting that the "entire international community unanimously condemn these terror attacks carried out against [the] Turkish people."[118]
  •  Malaysia: Prime Minister Najib Razak said he was saddened by the loss of lives and strongly condemned the attacks.[119]
  •    Nepal: A press release from Nepal's Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that the Nepalese government "strongly condemns the suicide bombings in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, on October 10, 2015 that caused the loss of so many precious lives and the huge damage of property".[120]
  •  Pakistan: The Foreign Ministry issued a statement condemning the bombing and sent their condolences to the people and government of Turkey.[121]
  •  Romania: President Klaus Iohannis condemned the attack and sent condolences to the Turkish people. He also reiterated Romania's "full commitment to fighting terrorism and extremism of any kind."[122]
  •  Russia: President Vladimir Putin said: "It is necessary to unite efforts in the fight against this evil. What happened in Turkey… it certainly is an impudent terrorist attack, a terrorist crime with scores of victims. And of course it is an attempt to destabilize the situation in Turkey, a neighboring and friendly country for us."[123]
Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev expressed his "sympathy to all those who lost their loved ones" in the wake of the "outrageous act of terror." His office also condemned the attack and reported that he had "conveyed his condolences for the victims of the explosions in Ankara and wished [for a] rapid recovery to the injured."[124][125]
  •  Ukraine: The Foreign Minister Pavlo Klimkin condemned the attack and wished for a speedy recovery to the wounded.[126]
  •  United Kingdom: Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Philip Hammond condemned the "barbaric" attack and offered condolences to the family of those killed. He also stated that the British government was with the Turkish people.[127]
    • Director of the counter-terrorism police unit, Assistant Commissioner Mark Rowley, said that the country's police are providing "ongoing support" to investigators in Turkey. He also called on anyone in Britain's "affected" communities with information to contact the police anti-terrorist hotline. He finally added that "we are deeply saddened to hear" of the bombings and offered condolences to Turkey and the Turkish community in the country.[128]
  •  United States: President Barack Obama expressed his condolences to his counterpart Erdogan in a telephone call and "affirmed that the American people stand in solidarity with the people of Turkey in the fight against terrorism and shared security challenges in the region."[129]
The embassy condemned the attack and expressed its condolences.[130][131]
  •  Vietnam: The Foreign Ministry spokesperson Le Hai Binh "strongly condemns the terrorist attack" and expressed its condolences to the Turkish government and people and families of the victims.[132]

Others

  • Defend International: President Dr. Widad Akrawi deplored the bombings, extended her condolences and expressed solidarity with those who were rallying under the banners of peace and reconciliation, noting that the voices of peace cannot be silenced by explosions, brutality or barbarism.[133] She also called for "an impartial investigation by UN inspectors into the suicide bombings and their aftermath."[134]

Travel advisories

Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Iran, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States issued travel advisories recommending that all non-essential travel to Turkey should be avoided.[135]

Aftermath

Following the attack, three days of national mourning were declared by Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu.[24]

Election campaigns

With the bombing occurring during the election campaigns for the November 2015 general election, various parties abandoned their scheduled rallies. The Justice and Development Party (AKP) cancelled their planned election programme for three days after the attack.[136][137] The Republican People's Party (CHP) also cancelled their daily programme, with party leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu having been due to spend the day campaigning in Istanbul.[138] The Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) announced that their scheduled rally in İzmir would take place at a later date.[139] The Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), having claimed that they were the targets of the attack, abandoned a campaign strategy meeting due in their İstanbul headquarters.[140] President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan also cancelled his prior engagements in Istanbul,[141] including a trip to Turkmenistan.[142]

Resignation calls

After a screen grab of Justice Minister Kenan İpek showing him smiling went viral, CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu said that they should resign in a meeting with Davutoğlu. He said: "The sight of the justice minister [smiling at the reporter's question] is startling. The [sic] society is going through a severe trauma and meanwhile the justice minister is smiling. The justice minister cannot remain in his office." He added that Davutoğlu would make a decision upon receipt of a report on Ipek’s conduct. It was also criticised on social media. Further, Deputy Chairman Haluk Koç also called for the immediate resignation of Interior Minister Selami Altınok saying that he was unable to carry out his responsibilities.[143]

Industrial action

The Confederation of Public Workers' Unions (KESK), Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (TMMOB), the Turkish Medical Association (TTB) and the Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DISK), which had all been organisers of the peace rally, declared that two days of industrial action would be held on Monday 12 October and Tuesday 13 October as a show of respect to the dead, as well as a protest against the "fascist massacre." The unions also stated that they would not give up on their efforts to end the conflict.[144]

PKK ceasefire

Shortly after the bombings, the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) declared a ceasefire to allow a peaceful election to take place on 1 November. The ceasefire announcement, which was made through the executive of the Group of Communities in Kurdistan (KCK), declared that the PKK would not conduct any attacks unless provoked or in self-defence.[145] It is unclear if the ceasefire announcement, which was made approximately an hour after the Ankara bombing, was related to the incident.

Anti-government protests

In the afternoon following the attack, thousands of union members began protesting at Taksim Square in İstanbul against the bombing, with many participants chanting anti-government slogans and calling on both the governing AKP and for Erdoğan to resign.[146] Amongst the about 10,000 people, slogans were chanted that said "the state is a killer" and "we know the murderers."[123] Similar protests occurred in İzmir, with tensions between protestors and riot police briefly rising in Alsancak before deescalating shortly after. HDP Members of Parliament of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey led a protest in Batman, before being met by riot police using tear gas and water cannon. A group of 15 masked individuals in Kızılay, Ankara, began attacking police officers with fireworks before being met by water cannon and pepper spray. Over 2,000 protestors led demonstrations in Diyarbakır and 300 protestors participated in protests in Şanlıurfa, having been accompanied by HDP and Democratic Regions Party (DBP) politicians. Similar protests took place in Van, Tunceli and Kars, with participating politicians from the HDP and CHP as well as union members from KESK, TMMOB, TTB and DISK.[147]

See also

References

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External links

Media related to 2015 Ankara bombings at Wikimedia Commons

2007 Ankara bombing

The 2007 Ankara bombing was a suicide attack that occurred in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, on 22 May 2007. Six people were reported killed, including one of Pakistani origin, and 121 people were wounded. A seventh person died from his injuries on 7 June and another on 17 June raising the death toll to eight. A ninth person died on 4 July from his injuries.

2015 Sabiha Gökçen Airport bombing

The Sabiha Gökçen Airport bombing took place on 23 December 2015 in the apron area of Sabiha Gökçen International Airport in İstanbul, Turkey. The explosion, which occurred at approximately 02:05 local time, wounded two airport cleaners, one of whom later died after being taken to hospital. Flights from the terminal resumed as normal while Binali Yıldırım, the Minister of Transport, Maritime and Communication, claimed that there had been no security lapses at the airport. Witnesses initially claimed that they heard three successive blasts, though their cause was unknown and investigators refused to rule out terrorism as a motive. The Daily Telegraph claimed that the blast was most likely caused by a bomb.The explosion occurred while the Turkish military had been continuing its armed operations against Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) militants in the south-east of the country, causing unrest and tensions between Kurdish citizens and the Turkish state ever since a ceasefire and peace negotiations between the two sides broke down in July 2015.

On 27 December 2015, three days after the attack, the Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK) claimed responsibility for the explosion, announcing that it was a result of a mortar bombing in retaliation for the Turkish Army's continued military operations in Kurdish populated cities in the south-east. The TAK is an urban-based offshoot of the PKK.

The attacker was arrested on 28 October 2017 in Istanbul.

2015 in Turkey

The following lists events that happened in 2015 in Turkey.

2016 Atatürk Airport attack

The Atatürk Airport terrorist attack, consisting of shootings and suicide bombings, occurred on 28 June 2016 at Atatürk Airport in Istanbul, Turkey. Gunmen armed with automatic weapons and explosive belts staged a simultaneous attack at the international terminal of Terminal 2. Three attackers and forty-five other people were killed, with more than 230 people were injured. Monitoring group Turkey Blocks identified widespread internet restrictions on incoming and outgoing media affecting the entire country in the aftermath of the attack.Media reports indicated that the three attackers were believed by Turkish officials to have come from Russia and Central Asia.Turkish officials said the attackers were acting on behalf of the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant and had come to Turkey from ISIL-controlled Syria. Commentators suggested that the attacks may have been related to stepped-up pressure against the group by Turkish authorities. No one claimed responsibility for the attack.

Al-Hayat Media Center

The al-Hayat Media Center is the media wing of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. It was established in mid-2014 by ISIL, which targets Western audiences and produces material in English, German, Russian and French.In July 2014, al-Hayat began publishing a digital magazine called Dabiq, in a number of different languages including English. According to the magazine, its name is taken from the town of Dabiq in northern Syria, which is mentioned in a hadith about Armageddon. Al-Hayat also began publishing other digital magazines, including the Turkish language Konstantiniyye, the Ottoman word for Istanbul, and the French language Dar al-Islam. By late 2016, these magazines had apparently all been discontinued, with Al-Hayat's material being consolidated into a new magazine called Rumiyah (Arabic for Rome).It has been responsible for the release of a 52 secong trailer for The Flames of War, a video series called Mujatweets and a nashid (Islamic chant) in French named «Ma vengeance» where it is praised the Brussels bombing and both Paris attacks.

Ankara bombing

Ankara bombing may refer to:

2007 Ankara bombing, 22 May 2007

2011 Ankara bombing, 20 September 2011

2013 United States embassy bombing in Ankara, 1 February 2013

2015 Ankara bombings, 10 October 2015

February 2016 Ankara bombing, 17 February 2016

March 2016 Ankara bombing, 13 March 2016

Ankara railway station

Ankara railway station (Turkish: Ankara Garı) is the main railway station in Ankara, Turkey, and is a major transportation hub within the city. The station is the eastern terminus of the Istanbul-Ankara railway corridor, as well as the easternmost station in Turkey with high-speed rail service. Ankara station is also a hub for YHT high-speed trains, with its own exclusive platforms and concourse. TCDD Taşımacılık also operates intercity train service to Kars, Tatvan and Kurtalan as well as Başkentray commuter rail service.

Located within the historic Ulus quarter, the station is a landmark of the city. In 2016, a new building was opened above the YHT platforms known as Ankara Tren Garı (ATG). The ATG building serves as a hub for high-speed rail with its own concourse containing information and tickets booths, waiting rooms and a VIP lounge, and is connected to the rest of the station via a skybridge.

February 2016 Ankara bombing

On 17 February 2016, in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, at least 30 people died and 60 were injured in a bombing. According to Turkish authorities, the attack targeted a convoy of shuttles carrying both civilian and military personnel working at the military headquarters during the evening rush hour as the vehicles were stopped at traffic lights at an intersection with İsmet İnönü Boulevard close to Kızılay neighborhood. Several ministries, the headquarters of the army and the Turkish Parliament are located in the neighbourhood where the attack occurred. The Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK) took responsibility for the attack and said they targeted security forces. Censorship monitoring organization Turkey Blocks reported nationwide internet restrictions beginning approximately one hour after the blast pursuant to an administrative order.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL ), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS ), officially as the Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (Arabic: داعش‎, translit. dāʿish, IPA: [ˈdaːʕɪʃ]), is a Salafi jihadist militant group and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi doctrine of Sunni Islam. ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre.The group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings and other types of executions of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites. The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes. ISIL also committed ethnic cleansing on an historic scale in northern Iraq.ISIL originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda and participated in the Iraqi insurgency following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces at the behest of the United States. In June 2014 the group proclaimed itself a worldwide caliphate and began referring to itself as the Islamic State (الدولة الإسلامية ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah; IS). As a caliphate, it claimed religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide. Its adoption of the name Islamic State and its idea of a caliphate have been widely criticised, with the United Nations, various governments and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting its statehood.In Syria, the group conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions and by December 2015 it held a large area in western Iraq and eastern Syria, containing an estimated 2.8 to 8 million people, where it enforced its interpretation of sharia law. ISIL is believed to be operational in 18 countries across the world, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, with "aspiring branches" in Mali, Egypt, Somalia, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines. In 2015, ISIL was estimated to have an annual budget of more than US$1 billion and a force of more than 30,000 fighters.In July 2017, the group lost control of its largest city, Mosul, to the Iraqi army. Following this major defeat, ISIL continued to lose territory to the various states and other military forces allied against it, until it controlled no meaningful territory by November 2017. U.S. military officials and simultaneous military analyses reported in December 2017 that the group retained a mere 2 percent of the territory they had previously held. On 10 December 2017, Iraq's Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi said that Iraqi forces had driven the last remnants of Islamic State from the country, three years after the militant group captured about a third of Iraq's territory. By 23 March 2019, ISIL lost their final pieces of controlled territory, surrendering their "tent city" and pockets in Al-Baghuz Fawqani near the end of the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani.

List of Islamist terrorist attacks

Terrorist attacks by Islamist extremists to further a perceived Islamist religious or political cause have occurred globally. The attackers have used such tactics as arson, vehicle rampage attacks, bomb threats, suicide attacks, bombings, spree shootings, stabbings, hijackings, kidnappings and beheadings. The following is a list of Islamist terrorist attacks that have received significant press coverage since the Iranian revolution in 1979.

List of battles and other violent events by death toll

This page lists mortalities from battles and individual military operations or acts of violence, sorted by death toll. For wars and events more extensive in scope, see List of wars and disasters by death toll. For natural disasters, see List of natural disasters by death toll.

List of terrorist incidents in 2015

The timeline list of terrorist incidents which took place in 2015, including attacks by violent non-state actors for political motives, is split by month:

List of terrorist incidents in January 2015

List of terrorist incidents in February 2015

List of terrorist incidents in March 2015

List of terrorist incidents in April 2015

List of terrorist incidents in May 2015

List of terrorist incidents in June 2015

List of terrorist incidents in July 2015

List of terrorist incidents in August 2015

List of terrorist incidents in September 2015

List of terrorist incidents in October 2015

List of terrorist incidents in November 2015

List of terrorist incidents in December 2015

List of terrorist incidents in October 2015

This is a timeline of terrorist incidents which took place in October 2015, including attacks by violent non-state actors for political motives.

List of terrorist incidents linked to ISIL

The following is a list of terrorist incidents and arrests that have been connected to or have been said by reliable sources to be inspired by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) or Daesh.

Since June 2014, when ISIL proclaimed itself to be the Islamic State, according to a running count kept by CNN, it has "conducted or inspired" over 70 terrorist attacks in 20 countries, not including Syria and Iraq.

March 2016 Istanbul bombing

On 19 March 2016, a suicide bombing took place in Istanbul's Beyoğlu district in front of the district governor's office. The attack occurred at 10:55 (EET) at the intersection of Balo Street with İstiklal Avenue, a central shopping street. The attack caused at least five deaths, including that of the perpetrator. Thirty-six people were injured, including seven whose injuries were severe. Among those injured were twelve foreign tourists. Among those killed, two were of dual Israel-US nationality. On 22 March, the Turkish interior minister said that the bomber had links with ISIL.

Reyhanlı

Reyhanlı (pronounced [ɾejˈhanɫɯ]; Arabic: الريحانية‎, ar-Rayḥānīyah) is a town and district of Hatay Province, on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, near the country's border with Syria.

Turkey Blocks

Turkey Blocks (also known as TurkeyBlocks.org) is an independent digital research organization that monitors internet access restrictions and their relation to political incidents in Turkey. Using its network of monitoring probes, the project has uncovered and documented systematic mass-censorship of communications infrastructure, primarily social media services, during national emergencies and incidents of political significance relating to human rights, freedom of expression and public policy in the region.

Describing its activities as non-partisan and impartial, the group does not conduct advocacy directly, instead coordinating with non-profits including international advocacy group Access Now and Turkey's Alternative Informatics Association to help raise public awareness surrounding the human, economic and political cost of internet shutdowns in Turkey.

Turkey–ISIL conflict

The Turkey–ISIL conflict is an ongoing series of attacks and clashes between Turkey and the self-proclaimed Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) as part of the spillover of the Syrian Civil War.

Turkey claims to have been the first country which designated ISIL as a terrorist organization. ISIL is suspected of involvement in or responsibility for the terrorist attacks on Turkish soil in May 2013 in Reyhanlı and March 2014 on Turkish police, the 5 June 2015 Diyarbakır rally bombing and most notably the 20 July 2015 Suruç bombing killing 33 young Kurdish activists which ignited the Third Phase of the Kurdish–Turkish conflict ongoing since 1978 and reignited fighting amongst Turkish security forces and the PKK.

The Turkish government until July 2015 had attacked ISIL once militarily, in January 2014. In September 2014, Turkey joined a US-led coalition 'to fight ISIL'.

On 23 July 2015, Turkey allowed the United States Air Force to use İncirlik and Diyarbakır air bases in southern Turkey for their airstrikes on ISIL. Also on 23 July, after an alleged ISIL attack on a Turkish border outpost in Kilis Province killing one Turkish soldier, the Turkish army with tanks shelled ISIL militants in Syria killing one militant and destroying several ISIL vehicles.

On 24 July 2015, an anonymous report appeared on a Turkish newspaper/website stating that the United States had agreed with Turkey on a 'partial no-fly zone' in northern Syria. While no official statement about the zone has been released, commentators still speculate about the real motives and objectives of Turkey and the US with the supposed 'buffer zone' or 'ISIL-free zone'. On 24 and 25 July, Turkey carried out three waves of airstrikes on ISIL in Syria hitting a number of ISIL targets and killing 35 ISIL militants.

After these events, ISIL publications had upped the rhetoric against the Turkish government, condemning it as one of many "apostate regimes" allying with the "crusaders". In the Turkish-language ISIL digital monthly Konstantiniyye, an article promised the "conquest of Istanbul".In the meantime the Turkish authorities have arrested around 1,200 people inside Turkey through the past year for suspected links with ISIL. This means that Turkey is at active war with ISIL.On January 12, 2016, an ISIL suicide bomber committed the 2016 Istanbul bombing in Istanbul's historic Sultanahmet Square, killing 12 people. In response to the bombing, the Turkish Army commenced tank and artillery strikes on ISIL positions in Syria and Iraq killing nearly 200 ISIL fighters. On March 19, a second ISIL suicide bombing took place in Istanbul's Beyoğlu district. The attack killed four and wounded 36 people.Turkey faced one of the highest number of ISIL attacks among European countries.

Terrorist incidents in Ankara, Turkey

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