2013 protests in Brazil

The 2013 protests in Brazil, or 2013 Confederations Cup riots, also known as the V for Vinegar Movement,[4] Brazilian Spring,[5] or June Journeys,[6][7][8] were public demonstrations in several Brazilian cities, initiated mainly by the Movimento Passe Livre (Free Fare Movement), a local entity that advocates for free public transportation.

The demonstrations were initially organized to protest against increases in bus, train, and metro ticket prices in some Brazilian cities,[9][10][11][12] but grew to include other issues such as the high corruption in the government and police brutality used against some demonstrators.[13][14] By mid-June, the movement had grown to become Brazil's largest since the 1992 protests against former President Fernando Collor de Mello.[15]

As with the 2013 Gezi Park protests in Turkey, social media has played an important role in the organization of public outcries and in keeping protesters in touch with one another.[16]

June Jorneys
Protesto no Congresso Nacional do Brasil, 17 de junho de 2013
Protesters at the National Congress of Brazil, in Brasília, June 17
DateApril – July 2013
Location
• Over 100 Brazilian cities and cities with Brazilian diasporas around the globe
Caused by• Increases in bus, train and metro fare in some major cities
• Multiple issues regarding infrastructure, education and health care among other public services
• High cost of living
• Increasing government funding of major sports events
• Feeling of alienation from government decisions
• Multiple scandals of corruption, embezzlement and overbilling in the government
• Multiple reports of abuse of special benefits conceded to Brazilian politicians
• Controversial law in discussion by National Chamber's plans limiting the powers of the Public Ministry to investigate criminal activities, among other reasons
Goals• Improvements in public transport with less cost to the population (subdued June 24)
• Increase of government effort and funds to improve other key services including public education, national health care and transport infrastructure altogether (subdued June 24)
• Less priority to fund major sports events (subdued June 24)
• Revocation of controversial law in discussion by National Chamber's plans limiting the powers of the Public Ministry to investigate criminal activities in the government (subdued June 25)
MethodsDemonstrations, protest marches, online activism, strike action
StatusMajor protests subsided
Number
Over 2 million[1]
300,000 in Rio de Janeiro
100,000 in São Paulo
100,000 in Manaus
100,000 in Belo Horizonte
60,000 in Natal
50,000 in Recife
45,000 in Florianópolis
40,000 in Cuiabá
30,000 in Brasília
30,000 in Campo Grande
25,000 in Ribeirão Preto
20,000 in Salvador
20,000 in Porto Alegre
20,000 in Belém
20,000 in São Luís
20,000 in Maceió
15.000 in Fortaleza
Casualties
Death(s)4+[3]
Injuries100[2]
Arrested250[2]

Name

Manifestante-18-junho
A demonstrator protests in Sé Square, São Paulo. The message says "Let's change Brazil".

Urban riots in Brazil have been traditionally been referred to as the 'Revolt of [Something]'. An example of this was Rio de Janeiro's Revolta da Vacina in the early 20th century. These particular protests have been referred to as the Revolta da Salada ([ʁɛˈvɔwtɐ da saˈladɐ]), Revolta do Vinagre ([ʁɛˈvɔwtɐ du viˈnagɾi]) or Movimento V de Vinagre ([moviˈmẽtu ˈve dʒi viˈnagɾi]) after more than 60 protesters were arrested in June 2013 for carrying vinegar as a home remedy against the tear gas and pepper spray used by police.[17][18][19]

Piero Locatelli, a journalist for the CartaCapital magazine, was arrested and taken to the Civil Police after being found with a bottle of vinegar.[20] The sarcastic tone dubbing the protests Marcha do Vinagre i.e. "the vinegar march",[21] was a reference to the popularity of an earlier grassroots march for legalizing marijuana named Marcha da Maconha (the Brazilian version of the Global Marijuana March).

Another popular name for the protests is Outono Brasileiro ("Brazilian Autumn", in a playful reference to the events of the Arab Spring).[22][23] Primavera (meaning "Spring") is also being used by media.[24]

The alternative name "June Journeys" (Jornadas de Junho), used by some sources and adapted from the France use of journées (days) in the sense of an important event, traces a revolutionary pedigree going back to the June Days Uprising, the June 1848 French workers' uprising in the wake of the 1848 Revolution in France.

Background

Protesto 20 de junho de 2013 em Natal
Protesters in Natal

The first demonstrations took place in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, during August–September 2012 and were informally called Revolta do Busão or Bus Rebellion. Over the course of these protests, demonstrators convinced their municipal authority to reduce the fare price.[25] Similar protests were carried out in Porto Alegre in March 2013, where protesters tried to convince the local city hall to further reduce the fare price, after it had been reduced by a judicial decision.[26]

In Goiânia, demonstrations started on May 16, before the prices were officially raised on May 22 from R$2.70 to R$3.00.[27] The peak of those demonstrations was on May 28, at Bíblia Square, when four buses were destroyed; two were incinerated and two were stoned.[27] 24 students were arrested for vandalism and disobedience.[27] Another demonstration took place on June 6, when students closed streets in downtown Goiânia, set fire to car tires, threw homemade bombs, and broke windows of police cars.[27] On June 13, the fares were brought back to their previous price when judge Fernando de Mello Xavier issued a preliminary injunction arguing that local bus companies were exempted from paying some taxes as of June 1, but the passengers were not benefiting from this exemption.[27]

Protestos no Rio em 2013
People protesting in the streets of Rio de Janeiro. The sign reads "Se a passagem não baixar, o Rio vai parar!", which translates to "If the fare doesn't drop, Rio is going to stop!" [28]

In São Paulo, demonstrations started when the municipal government and the government of the State of São Paulo, which runs the train and metro system of São Paulo, announced the rise of ticket prices from R$3.00 to R$3.20.[29] The previous hike of bus fares occurred in January 2011,[30] and was also subject of demonstrations.[31] Train and metro fares had been raised to the same price in February 2012.[32] In early 2013, immediately after his election, Mayor Fernando Haddad announced that fares would increase in early 2013.[33] In May, the federal government announced that public transportation would be exempted from paying PIS and COFINS, two taxes of Brazil, so that the increase of public transportation costs would not contribute to ongoing inflation.[34] Even so, the fares were raised from R$3.00 to R$3.20, starting on June 2, sparking demonstrations.[29]

Demands of protesters

Although the bus fare increase was the tipping point for demonstrators, the basis for public disenchantment with the policies of the ruling class went far deeper. There was frustration among the general population's disappointment with the inadequate provision of social services in Brazil.[35] Despite Brazil's international recognition in lifting 40 million out of poverty, and into the nova Classe C with comfortable access to a middle class consumer market,[36] the policies have been the subject of intense political debate. Groups among the protestors argues that "Bolsa Familia" and other social policies were simply an electoral strategy from the Worker's Party aimed at "alming the poor".[37] Political opponents took issue with neoliberal or post-neoliberal traitor of its original Marxist precepts that benefits mostly the old, corrupt and stereotypical elites with black money and shady methods,[38][39] and only making the life of the traditional, more conservative, middle middle and upper middle classes (that are rejected as a sign of reactionary decadence by left-wing elements, and dominant among the mostly urban, young, white,[4] and educated protesters) even harder while political scandals involving the public money most expensive to this conservative middle class run rampant.[40]

Protesto contra o aumento de passagens em Recife-PE
Protesters in Recife.

Meanwhile, mega sports projects such as the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2014 FIFA World Cup (to which at that time Brazil had already spent over 7 billion reais and with total expected cost of over 32 billion reais, equivalent to three times South Africa's total in 2010, despite only half the stadiums being finished),[4] as well as the 2016 Summer Olympics, have turned out to be over-budget, and have resulted in a series of revelations about gross overbillings and multibillion-dollar financial scandals.[41] The occurrence of these protests simultaneously with Confederations Cup matches, with sounds of police weapons being audible during the Uruguay vs. Nigeria match on Thursday June 20, have raised serious questions amongst other sporting nations about the capability of Brazil to host the main event in a year's time, based upon its ostensibly severe social problems.[42] Other points of discontent are the high inflation rates and increases in the prices of basic consumer goods, including food,[43][44][45][46][47] that, as many other things in Brazil, are heavily taxed (at 27%).[48]

Other commonly stated reasons for the malaise include high taxes (tax revenues total 36% of GDP, the highest in the developing world) that do not benefit the poor.[4] The average Brazilian citizen is estimated to pay 40.5% of their income in taxes,[49] yet the country still suffers from various social and infrastructural problems such as poorly functioning health services, a low education rate,[50][51] inadequate welfare benefits, and a growing but still low rate of employment.[52]

Câmara Deputados Brasil - maio 2013
Situation of party seats in the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies in May 2013. The PT-PMDB coalition government enjoyed a large majority of support (81.6% of the seats), paralleled with high positive popularity ratings (around 80%). After the protests, the margins of support for the government both in the Congress and with the population dropped sharply, and did not rise again

There is also a feeling of powerlessness due to widespread cases of corruption and embezzlement as well as a lack of transparency and financial accountability. Indicted leaders and politicians often stay in power despite being cited for corruption and collusion in the growing overbilling scandals. The protesters particularly object to a constitutional amendment currently being drafted known as PEC 37 that is seen as a cover-up for corrupt politicians and an attempt to reduce the power of the judiciary in pursuing cases.[43] Though not a main cause for the demonstrations, some protestors also object to socially conservative legislation by the religious benches that is seen as a retrocess to Brazil's LGBT and women's rights, a threat to the state of Brazilian secularism,[53][54][55][56][57] and even freedom of expression.[58]

Timeline

June 1 to 14

In June 2013, a series of protests in the Brazilian city of São Paulo were organized against bus and metro fare hikes announced by the city mayor Fernando Haddad in January 2013, who stated that the fares would rise from R$ 3.00 to R$3.20, coming into effect on June 1.[59]

The first large protest was held on June 6 on Paulista Avenue.[60] In ensuing protests, news reports changed the discurse, mentioning that police had "lost control" on June 13, because they began using rubber bullets not only against protesters but also journalists that were covering the events. Numerous civil rights groups have criticized the harsh police response, including Amnesty International[13] and the Associação Nacional de Jornais.[14]

June 17 to 18

An estimated 250,000 protesters took to the streets of various cities on June 17. The largest protests were organized in Rio de Janeiro, where 100,000 attended from mid-afternoon of June 17 to late dawn of June 18.[15][28]

Although mostly peaceful, the protests escalated with the invasion of the State's Legislative Chamber, causing riot police to be called in. Three protesters were injured by gunfire, reportedly by police forces, while ten others were hospitalized.[61]

State government authorities did not intervene, saying this was an issue for the Military Police.[62] Other protests erupted in support of those being detained by police. Demonstrations were held in a number of cities.[15] The ones held in Curitiba were reported attended by over 10,000 people.[63]

Minor protests staged by Brazilians living abroad were held in several countries including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States.[64]

June 19

Tropa de choque (PMERJ, 2013)
Riot police control PMERJ in Niterói.

Protests continued on a smaller scale. Mayors of several Brazilian cities announced reduction of bus fares or cancellation of previously announced increases, including Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, where the largest protests had occurred.[28][65]

June 20

Protests in over 100 cities around the country rallied over 2 million people.[66] Special measures were taken to protect main government buildings on major cities like the federal capital Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Manaus, Belém, Recife, Florianópolis, Belo Horizonte, Goiânia, Curitiba and Porto Alegre, among others.[28][67] Rafael Braga was arrested, who later received the only conviction of charges related to the 2013 protests in Brazil.[68][69][70][71]

June 21 to 23

President Dilma Rousseff during the national pronouncement to the Brazilian people on TV.

Protests across Brazil have drawn millions to the streets in a wave of rolling fury that became the biggest demonstrations in decades. A young man was killed in Ribeirão Preto during the protest when a driver ploughed through a peaceful demonstration, also injuring 11 other people.[72] President Dilma Rousseff addressed the nation, recognizing the demands of the protesters and calling a meeting of state governors and mayors of key cities to discuss the requests of the population and propose solutions to solve the issues.

June 24

As protests continue on a smaller scale, President Dilma Rousseff along the 27 state governors and the mayors of the 26 state capitals, among other authorities, agree to take measures related to improve funds management, public transport, health care and education. Also announced is a proposal for congress to approve a referendum on widespread political reform.

June 25

Almost all members of National Chamber reject controversial law limiting the powers of the Public Ministry to investigate criminal activities in the government, thus accomplishing one of the demands of the protests.[73] President Dilma Rousseff announces that plans for a special constituent assembly on political reform were abandoned, but there are still plans to submit the constitutional amendments in discussion to popular vote.

June 26

ManifestaCGRJ
Protester pleads for understanding of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State

Almost all members of National Chamber approved the destination of petroleum royalties to education (75%) and health (25%).[74] The congress also approved the end of secret vote for forfeiture of office and the recognition of all forms of corruption and embezzlement as heinous crimes;[75] and the end of all Taxes regarding Public transport, including metro, train, bus and ship.[76] A large protest of 120.000 people is held in Belo Horizonte where the 2013 Confederations Cup semifinal match between Brazil and Uruguay was occurring, and ran with no incidents until small riots began. A young man died after falling from a viaduct.

June 30

Protesters in Brazil clashed with police during the Confederations Cup final match between the host nation and Spain in Rio de Janeiro. Earlier that day, a group of demonstrators tried to storm a Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF) building in Rio. Police kept them back and the group settled outside the building. In a separate protest, several thousand people marched on the Maracanã stadium banging drums.

The protesters demanded free public transport, carrying placards reading "FIFA - you pay the bill". The demonstrators also called for an end to corruption and the resignation of the Rio State governor.[77]

July 2

The "Gay cure" Bill, PDL 234, which would have authorized psychologists to treat LGBT people was voted down by the National Congress.[78] In 1830, eight years after the end of Portuguese colonial rule, sodomy laws were eliminated from the new Penal Code of Brazil.[79] Since 1985 the Federal Council of Medicine of Brazil has not considered homosexuality as deviant.[80] In 1999, the Federal Council of Psychology published a resolution that has standardized the conduct of psychologists to face this norm: "...[regulated] psychologists should not collaborate with events or services proposing treatment and cure of homosexuality." In 1990, five years after Brazil removed homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses, the General Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO), with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, removed homosexuality from the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).[81]

PDL 234 dealt only with lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, as Brazil still pathologizes transgender people. Doctors do not allow hormone therapy for transgender people before age 16, allow gender reassignment surgery for those who have "normal or healthy" genital conditions other than third party-confirmed trans people above the age of 18, and does not ban sexual assignment surgery for intersex newborns and young children. Doctors with parental consent may alter a child's ambiguous genitals without his/her consent and much before gender behavioral characteristics and/or identification would naturally appear.[82]

July 5

In Seattle Justin Jasper, an armed local was arrested[83] for planning action in support of Brazil protesters.[84][85][86]

Later demonstrations

Although smaller than the June demonstrations, another wave of protests occurred in many cities around Brazil on September 7. Protesters organized to challenge military parades that were celebrating Brazil's 1822 independence from Portugal. There were also demonstrations to question government spending on World Cup stadiums and government corruption.[87][88]

Responses

Following a pledge by President Dilma Rousseff to spend 50 billion Brazilian reais on improving urban public transportation after a meeting with protest leaders June 24, the Brazilian real fell on concern of a widening deficit. This followed a nearly 10 percent fall in the currency in the second quarter of 2013, the worst amongst 16 major currencies.[89]

The characteristics of the June 2013 protest in Brazil

In June 2013, a massive outbreak of protest emerged from the biggest cities in Brazil. Among the most noticeable cities were São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The protest were a mixture of both individuals and different groups, which from all over the political spectrum in Brazil. All these protest were different though. In cities like Rio de Janeiro, the protest had more high intensity, unlike in other cities, where it was more of a collective representation. The June 2013 protest had a significant importance towards a social opening in Brazil. Although, across the big cities in Brazil, there were different reasons for this social opening, like O Movimento Passe Livre, which rallied for cheaper bus tickets and several other movements that had their own grievances. These protest had a presence of “Social Overflow”, which meant there were many mobilized segments in the protest and contained different perspectives, which took place in the same physical space. These protests had, according to Bringel, an impact on the Brazilian election in 2014, where Dilma and PT won, but they only did it with a small margin and considered a smaller evil then the alternative. The protests did left a social and cultural impact on Brazil. It managed to reconfigure on social groups and a new social – political farming. These social changes managed to influence the positions, visions and correlation of forces in several parties, unions, social movements and NGOS. Other than that, the June protests managed to politicizing everyday life to eliminate all the things that the government had installed such as institutional racism. On the other hand, the cultural impact were also able to challenge the political cultural apathy, but also initiated a spark, that some called “before and after moment” or “a new beginning.” The cultural impact of these protest have similarities to the mass protest in the 1970s and 1980s, but instead of reinforce democracy, the people wanted to have more structural development in Brazil, which in return have created two camps of political movements: the progressive camp, which leans towards the left and the reactionary camp, which are leaning to the right.

Demands and result (National Congress and Governments actions)
Demand Result
Reduction in the prices of public transport (Metro, Train and Bus) (Governments approved) Yes (June 2013)
Revocation of (Bill - PEC 37) that hindered the Public Ministry to investigate (Congress approved) Yes (June 2013)
Destination of petroleum royalties to education (75%) and Health (25%) (Congress approved) Yes (June 2013)
Criminalization of all forms of corruption and embezzlement as heinous crimes (Congress approved) Pending
The end of Secret vote in Congress for forfeiture of office (Congress approved) Pending
The end of all taxes on public transport (metro, train, bus and ship) (Congress approved) Yes (June 2013)
National Pact to improve education, health, public transport (Government established) Yes (June 2013)
National Pact for fiscal responsibility and control of inflation (Government established) Yes (June 2013)
Implementation of federal plebiscite to politic reform in the country (Government established) Pending
Revocation of (Bill - PDL 234) "Gay cure" authorizing sexual orientation conversion therapy by psychologists (Congress approved) Yes (July 2013)
Destination of 10% of the Brazilian GDP to education (Congress announced) Pending
Implementation of Free pass to the students enrolled regularly (Congress announced) Pending
Revocation of (Bill - PEC 33) undergoing decisions of Supreme Court to Congress (No discussion) Pending
The end of privileged forum (No discussion) Pending
*Note: Yes is the victory of the protesters.

International reactions

State

  • Turkey Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan linked the protests with similar protests in Turkey, claiming that they were part of a conspiracy by unspecified foreign forces, bankers, and international and local media outlets. He said that "the same game is now being played over Brazil. The symbols are the same, the posters are the same, Twitter, Facebook are the same, the international media is the same. They are being led from the same center. They are doing their best to achieve in Brazil what they could not achieve in Turkey." He further stated that the two protests were "the same game, the same trap, the same aim."[90] Just to recapitulate, Turkish protests were taking place due to authoritarianism of Erdoğan, violation of democratic rights, media censorship and disinformation, corruption of government officials, among others, prime minister going as far as blocking Twitter and YouTube in the country due to statuses and videos giving evidence of his corruption.[91][92] Police attacked protesters and journalists alike, shooting tear gas and rubber bullets, beating them brutally and using water cannon against them, even hitting a man in wheelchair and water-cannoning a hospital.[93][94][95][96]

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Further reading

External links

2013 in Brazil

Events from the year 2013 in Brazil.

2014 Rio de Janeiro gubernatorial election

The Rio de Janeiro gubernatorial election was held on 5 October 2014 to elect the next Governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Since no candidate received more than 50% of the vote, a second-round runoff election was held on the 26th of October. Incumbent Governor Luiz Fernando Pezão, who was running for his first full term, was forced into the runoff against Marcelo Crivella but ultimately won.

21st century

The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century of the Anno Domini era or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 2100. It is the first century of the 3rd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 2000s which began on January 1, 2000 and will end on December 31, 2099.The first years of the 21st century have thus far been marked by the rise of a global economy and Third World consumerism, mistrust in government, deepening global concern over terrorism and an increase in the power of private enterprise. The Arab Spring of the early 2010s led to mixed outcomes in the Arab world. The Digital Revolution which began around the 1980s also continues into the present. Millennials and Generation Z come of age and rise to prominence in this century.

Alemão (film)

Alemão is a 2014 Brazilian action-drama film directed by José Eduardo Belmonte starring Antônio Fagundes, Cauã Reymond, Caio Blat, Gabriel Braga Nunes, Marcello Melo Jr. and Milhem Cortaz.The story presented in the film takes place a few days before the invasion of the Complexo do Alemão by the military police, which occurred on

November 26, 2010.

Crime in Brazil

Crime in Brazil involves an elevated incidence of violent and non-violent crimes. According to most sources, Brazil possesses high rates of violent crimes, such as murders and robberies; depending on the source (UNDP or World Health Organization), Brazil's homicide rate is 30–35 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants according to the UNODC, placing Brazil in the top 20 countries by intentional homicide rate. In recent times, the homicide rate in Brazil has been stabilizing at a very high level.Brazil is a heavy importer of cocaine, as well as part of the international drug routes. Arms and marijuana employed by criminals are mostly locally produced.

Dida (footballer, born 1973)

Nélson de Jesus Silva (born 7 October 1973), better known simply as Dida (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈdʒidɐ]), is a Brazilian former football goalkeeper. After starting his senior club career in Brazil in the early 1990s with Vitória, Dida became a penalty kick-saving specialist with Cruzeiro and Corinthians. He is perhaps best remembered for his successful and often tumultuous ten-year stint with Milan from 2000 to 2010, where he established himself as one of the world's best goalkeepers due to his shot-stopping ability and command of the area; he won multiple trophies and individual awards with the club, but became equally known for his propensity for errors as well as his excellent gameplay, while he gained media attention in 2005 for being hit by a lit flare during a match against crosstown rivals Internazionale.Dida won one Serie A title (Scudetto) and twice the UEFA Champions League with Milan, with the first of those victories coming after he saved three penalties in the 2003 final against Serie A rivals Juventus. One of four Rossoneri goalies with over 300 total career appearances, Dida was inducted into Milan's Hall of Fame in 2014, and has joined other former club players for various off-pitch events and exhibition matches following his 2010 departure. After a two-year absence from playing, he returned to Brazil in 2012, suiting up for three teams—Portuguesa, Grêmio and Internacional—in as many seasons.

At international level, Dida earned 91 caps in 11 years with the Brazil national team, winning the FIFA World Cup and an Olympic medal, and is the most successful player in the history of the FIFA Confederations Cup. He notably broke a color barrier during the 1999 Copa América by being the Seleção's first Afro-Brazilian starting goalkeeper since Moacyr Barbosa half a century earlier, and, in 2006, became the first black goalkeeper to start in a FIFA World Cup final for Brazil since 1950. He retired from international play after Brazil were eliminated in the quarterfinals.

Considered to be one of the best goalkeepers of his generation, Dida is the first goalkeeper in history to become the goalkeeper of the year in 2005 by FIFPro and the first Brazilian goalkeeper to be nominated for the FIFA Ballon d'Or, is the first two-time winner of the FIFA Club World Cup, a seven-time nominee of the IFFHS World's Best Goalkeeper award, and is one of only nine players to win both the Champions League and the Copa Libertadores. He was named the best Latin American keeper, and the sixth-best keeper overall, of the 21st century by IFFHS, and is widely rated among the all-time greats in the position for Brazil alongside Marcos, Rogério Ceni, Cláudio Taffarel and Gilmar. He has been credited with helping end the prejudice against black goalkeepers in Brazilian club football due to his success in Europe, and upon joining Internacional in 2014, became the first Afro-Brazilian keeper to play for the club in 43 years.

Fardado

"Fardado" (Uniformed) is a single by Brazilian rock band Titãs, released in 2014. It is the first single of their fourteenth album Nheengatu as well as the album's opening track. A short preview of the track was released in April 2014, when the album became available for pre-order.The track criticizes the police and is viewed by some as an update to their 1986 hit "Polícia", off their Cabeça Dinossauro album.

List of strikes

The following is a list of specific strikes (workers refusing to work in an attempt to change their conditions in a particular industry or an individual workplace, or in solidarity with those in another particular workplace) and general strikes (widespread refusal of workers to work in an organized political campaign on a broader national or international level).

List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll

This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll.

It covers the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events may belong in more than one category. In addition, some of the listed events overlap each other, and in some cases the death toll from a smaller event is included in the one for the larger event or time period of which it was part.

Occupy Wall Street

Occupy Wall Street (OWS) was a left-wing protest movement that began on September 17, 2011, in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, against economic inequality.The Canadian anti-consumerist and pro-environment group/magazine Adbusters initiated the call for a protest. The main issues raised by Occupy Wall Street were social and economic inequality, greed, corruption and the undue influence of corporations on government—particularly from the financial services sector. The OWS slogan, "We are the 99%", refers to income inequality and wealth distribution in the U.S. between the wealthiest 1% and the rest of the population. To achieve their goals, protesters acted on consensus-based decisions made in general assemblies which emphasized redress through direct action over the petitioning to authorities.The protesters were forced out of Zuccotti Park on November 15, 2011. Protesters turned their focus to occupying banks, corporate headquarters, board meetings, foreclosed homes, and college and university campuses.

Occupy movement

The Occupy movement, an international progressive, socio-political movement, expressed opposition to social and economic inequality and to the lack of "real democracy" around the world. It aimed primarily to advance social and economic justice and new forms of democracy. The movement had many different scopes; local groups often had different focuses, but the movement's prime concerns included how large corporations (and the global financial system) control the world in a way that disproportionately benefited a minority, undermined democracy, and were unstable. "Occupy" formed part of what Manfred Steger called the "global justice movement".The first Occupy protest to receive widespread attention, Occupy Wall Street in New York City's Zuccotti Park, began on 17 September 2011. By 9 October, Occupy protests had taken place or were ongoing in over 951 cities across 82 countries, and in over 600 communities in the United States. Although the movement became most active in the United States, by October 2012 Occupy protests and occupations had started in dozens of other countries across every inhabited continent. For the first month, overt police repression remained minimal, but this began to change by 25 October 2011, when police first attempted to forcibly remove Occupy Oakland. By the end of 2011 authorities had cleared most of the major camps, with the last remaining high-profile sites – in Washington, D.C. and in London – evicted by February 2012.The Occupy movement took inspiration in part from the Arab Spring, from the 2009 Iranian Green Movement, and from the Spanish Indignados Movement, as well as from the overall global wave of anti-austerity protests of 2010 and following. The movement commonly uses the slogan "We are the 99%" and the #Occupy hashtag format; it organizes through websites such as Occupy Together.

According to The Washington Post, the movement, which Cornel West described as a "democratic awakening", is difficult to distill to a few demands. On 12 October 2011 Los Angeles City Council became one of the first governmental bodies in the United States to adopt a resolution stating its informal support of the Occupy movement. In October 2012 the Executive Director of Financial Stability at the Bank of England stated that the protesters were right to criticise and had persuaded bankers and politicians "to behave in a more moral way".

Pelé

Edson Arantes do Nascimento (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈɛtsõ (w)ɐˈɾɐ̃tʃiz du nɐsiˈmẽtu]; born 23 October 1940), known as Pelé ([peˈlɛ]), is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as a forward. He is regarded by many in the sport, including football writers, players, and fans, as the greatest player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS), and was one of the two joint winners of the FIFA Player of the Century award. That same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful domestic league goal-scorer in football history scoring 650 goals in 694 League matches, and in total 1281 goals in 1363 games, which included unofficial friendlies and is a Guinness World Record. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best-paid athlete in the world.

Pelé began playing for Santos at age 15 and the Brazil national team at 16. During his international career, he won three FIFA World Cups: 1958, 1962 and 1970, being the only player ever to do so. Pelé is the all-time leading goalscorer for Brazil with 77 goals in 92 games. At club level he is the record goalscorer for Santos, and led them to the 1962 and 1963 Copa Libertadores. Known for connecting the phrase "The Beautiful Game" with football, Pelé's "electrifying play and penchant for spectacular goals" made him a star around the world, and his teams toured internationally in order to take full advantage of his popularity. Since retiring in 1977, Pelé has been a worldwide ambassador for football and has made many acting and commercial ventures. In 2010, he was named the Honorary President of the New York Cosmos.

Averaging almost a goal per game throughout his career, Pelé was adept at striking the ball with either foot in addition to anticipating his opponents' movements on the field. While predominantly a striker, he could also drop deep and take on a playmaking role, providing assists with his vision and passing ability, and he would also use his dribbling skills to go past opponents. In Brazil, he is hailed as a national hero for his accomplishments in football and for his outspoken support of policies that improve the social conditions of the poor. Throughout his career and in his retirement, Pelé received several individual and team awards for his performance in the field, his record-breaking achievements, and legacy in the sport.

Selvagem?

Selvagem? (Portuguese for "Savage?") is the third studio album by Brazilian rock band Os Paralamas do Sucesso. It was released in 1986. "Você" is a cover of Tim Maia. Commenting on the track "Selvagem" in 2013, amidst the 2013 protests in Brazil, bassist Bi Ribeiro said he was impressed that the song was still in harmony with Brazilian conjuncture.

Sexual orientation change efforts

Sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) are methods used in attempts to change the sexual orientation of homosexual and bisexual people to heterosexuality. They may include behavioral techniques, cognitive behavioral techniques, psychoanalytic techniques, medical approaches, religious and spiritual approaches, and, in some parts of the world, acts of sexual violence ("corrective rape"). According to the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation, "there are no studies of adequate scientific rigor to conclude whether or not such methods work to change sexual orientation. The longstanding consensus of the behavioral and social sciences, and the health and mental health professions is that homosexuality and bisexuality are per se normal and positive variations of human sexual orientation." Research consistently failed to provide any empirical or scientific basis for regarding them as disorders or abnormalities.There is a large body of research evidence that indicates that being gay, lesbian or bisexual is compatible with normal mental health and social adjustment. Because of this, the major mental health professional organizations do not encourage individuals to try to change their sexual orientation. Indeed, such interventions are ethically suspect because they can be harmful to the psychological well-being of those who attempt them; clinical observations and self-reports indicate that many individuals who unsuccessfully attempt to change their sexual orientation experience considerable psychological distress. For these reasons, no major mental health professional organization has sanctioned efforts to change sexual orientation and virtually all of them have adopted policy statements cautioning the profession and the public about treatments that purport to change sexual orientation. The Royal College of Psychiatrists shares the concern of both the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association that positions espoused by bodies like the National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) in the United States are not supported by science and that so-called treatments of homosexuality as recommended by NARTH create a setting in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish.SOCE have been controversial due to tensions between the values held by some right-wing faith-based organizations, on the one hand, and those held by LGBT rights organizations, human rights and civil rights organizations, and other faith-based organizations, as well as professional and scientific organizations, on the other. Some individuals and groups have, contrary to global scientific research and consensus, promoted the idea of homosexuality as symptomatic of developmental defects or spiritual and moral failings and have argued that SOCE, including psychotherapy and religious efforts, could alter homosexual feelings and behaviors. Such efforts are potentially harmful because they present the view that the sexual orientation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth is a mental illness or disorder, and they often frame the inability to change one's sexual orientation as a personal and moral failure. Many of these individuals and groups appeared to be embedded within the larger context of conservative religious political movements that have supported the stigmatization of homosexuality on political or religious grounds.

Stéphane Hessel

Stéphane Frédéric Hessel (20 October 1917 – 26 February 2013) was a diplomat, ambassador, writer, concentration camp survivor, French Resistance member and BCRA agent. Born German, he became a naturalised French citizen in 1939. He became an observer of the editing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. In 2011 he was named by Foreign Policy magazine in its list of top global thinkers. In later years his activism focused on economic inequalities, the Israeli/Palestinian conflict and protection for the post-World War II social vision. His short book Time for Outrage! sold 4.5 million copies worldwide. Hessel and his book were linked and cited as an inspiration for the Spanish Indignados, the American Occupy Wall Street movement and other political movements.

Tear gas

Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace, is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness. In the eye, it stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland to produce tears. Common lachrymators include pepper spray (OC gas), PAVA spray (nonivamide), CS gas, CR gas, CN gas (phenacyl chloride), bromoacetone, xylyl bromide, syn-propanethial-S-oxide (from onions), and Mace (a branded mixture).

Lachrymatory agents are commonly used for riot control. Their use in warfare is prohibited by various international treaties. During World War I, increasingly toxic and deadly lachrymatory agents were used.

Timeline of Brazilian history

This is a timeline of Brazilian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Brazil and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Brazil.

Timeline of Manaus

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Manaus, in Amazonas state, Brazil.

Twitter

Twitter () is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or its mobile-device application software ("app"). Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world.Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams and launched in July of that year. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet". As of 2016, Twitter had more than 319 million monthly active users. Since 2015, and continuing into 2016 and future years, Twitter has also been the home of debates, and news covering Politics of the United States, especially during the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court Nomination, and 2018 United States Midterms, with Twitter proved to be the largest source of breaking news on the day of the 2016 election, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. (Eastern Time) that day.

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