2013

2013 (MMXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2013th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 13th year of the 3rd millennium, the 13th year of the 21st century, and the 4th year of the 2010s decade.

2013 was designated as:

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2013 by topic:
Arts
ArchitectureComicsFilmHome videoLiterature (Poetry) – Music (Country, Metal, UK) – Radio – Photo – TelevisionVideo gaming
Politics
ElectionsInternational leadersSovereign states
Sovereign state leadersTerritorial governors
Science and technology
ArchaeologyAviationBirding/Ornithology – Meteorology – PalaeontologyRail transportSpaceflight
Sports
Association football (soccer) – Athletics (track and field) – Badminton – BaseballBasketball – Boxing – Cricket – Golf – Horse racing – Ice hockey – Motorsport – Road cycling – Rugby league – Rugby union – Table tennis – Tennis – Volleyball
By place
AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAngolaAntarcticaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBangladesh – The Bahamas – Barbados – Belgium – Benin – Bhutan – Bosnia and HerzegovinaBrazil – Burkina Faso – Burundi – CanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChileChinaColombiaCosta RicaCroatiaCubaCzechiaDenmarkEl SalvadorEgyptEstoniaEthiopiaEuropean UnionFinlandFrance – Gabon – GeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreece – Guatemala – HungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIraqIranIrelandIsraelItalyJapanKazakhstanKenyaKuwaitLaosLatviaLibyaLithuaniaLuxembourgMacauMalaysiaMexicoMoldova – Montenegro – MyanmarNepalNetherlandsNew ZealandNigeriaNorth KoreaNorwayOmanPakistanPalestine – Peru – PhilippinesPolandRomaniaRussiaRwandaSerbiaSingaporeSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSpainSri LankaSwedenTaiwan – Tanzania – ThailandTurkeyUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited States – Uruguay – Vanuatu – VenezuelaVietnamYemen – Zambia – Zimbabwe
Other topics
Awards – Law – Religious leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments
Works and introductions categories
Works – Introductions
Works entering the public domain
2013 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2013
MMXIII
Ab urbe condita2766
Armenian calendar1462
ԹՎ ՌՆԿԲ
Assyrian calendar6763
Bahá'í calendar169–170
Balinese saka calendar1934–1935
Bengali calendar1420
Berber calendar2963
British Regnal year61 Eliz. 2 – 62 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2557
Burmese calendar1375
Byzantine calendar7521–7522
Chinese calendar壬辰(Water Dragon)
4709 or 4649
    — to —
癸巳年 (Water Snake)
4710 or 4650
Coptic calendar1729–1730
Discordian calendar3179
Ethiopian calendar2005–2006
Hebrew calendar5773–5774
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2069–2070
 - Shaka Samvat1934–1935
 - Kali Yuga5113–5114
Holocene calendar12013
Igbo calendar1013–1014
Iranian calendar1391–1392
Islamic calendar1434–1435
Japanese calendarHeisei 25
(平成25年)
Javanese calendar1946–1947
Juche calendar102
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4346
Minguo calendarROC 102
民國102年
Nanakshahi calendar545
Thai solar calendar2556
Tibetan calendar阳水龙年
(male Water-Dragon)
2139 or 1758 or 986
    — to —
阴水蛇年
(female Water-Snake)
2140 or 1759 or 987
Unix time1356998400 – 1388534399

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Births

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

See also

References

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  3. ^ "France army in key Mali withdrawal". BBC. May 25, 2013. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
  4. ^ Chikhi, Lamine (January 17, 2013). "Thirty hostages reported killed in Algeria assault". Reuters. Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  5. ^ "Foreigners held hostage by terrorists in Algeria". BBC. January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
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  7. ^ Watkins, Tom; Smith-Spark, Laura; Yousuf, Basil (January 16, 2013). "Islamists take foreign hostages in attack on Algerian oil field". CNN. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
  8. ^ Bilby, Ethan (February 18, 2013). "EU approves tighter sanctions on North Korea". Reuters. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  9. ^ "UN adopts tough new North Korea sanctions after nuclear test". BBC. March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 16, 2013.
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  13. ^ "Scientists create artificial ear using 3D printing and living-cell gels". Daily Telegraph. London. February 21, 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
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  15. ^ "Argentina's Jorge Mario Bergoglio elected Pope Francis". BBC. March 13, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
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  21. ^ "Eurozone and IMF agree 10bn-euro Cyprus bailout deal". BBC News. BBC. March 17, 2013.
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  27. ^ http://www.industriall-union.org/action-on-bangladesh
  28. ^ "After Rana Plaza horror, what changed for Bangladesh garment workers?".
  29. ^ "Royal House of the Netherlands". royal-house.nl. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  30. ^ Cyranoski, David (May 15, 2013). "Human stem cells created by cloning". Nature. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
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  33. ^ Gidda, Mirren (June 23, 2013). "Edward Snowden and the NSA files – timeline". The Guardian. London. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2013-07-27.
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  35. ^ Myers, Steven; Kramer, Andrew (August 1, 2013). "Russia Grants Snowden 1-Year Asylum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  36. ^ "Labor leadership live: Kevin Rudd returns, Julia Gillard loses support of partyroom". News.com.au. 26 June 2013.
  37. ^ "Julia Gillard ousted as Australia prime minister". 26 June 2013.
  38. ^ "Croatia joins EU amid celebrations and uncertainty about future". The Guardian. London. July 1, 2013. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  39. ^ Wedemen, Ben; Sayah, Reza; Smith, Matt (July 3, 2013). "Coup topples Egypt's Morsy; deposed president under 'house arrest'". CNN. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  40. ^ "Egypt declares national emergency". BBC. August 14, 2013.
  41. ^ Bartunek, Robert-Jan; Blenkinsop, Philip (July 21, 2013). "Belgium subdues divisions for a day to swear in king". Reuters. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  42. ^ "Egypt's Brotherhood to hold 'march of anger'". Al Jazeera. 2013-08-16. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  43. ^ "Egypt: Rab'a Killings Likely Crimes against Humanity". Human Rights Watch. 2014-08-12. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  44. ^ "Government Assessment of the Syrian Government's Use of Chemical Weapons on August 21, 2013". The White House. August 30, 2013. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
  45. ^ Nicholas Watt; Rowena Mason; Nick Hopkins (30 August 2013). "Blow to Cameron's authority as MPs rule out British assault on Syria". theguardian.com.
  46. ^ Eastley, Tony (8 September 2013). "Kevin Rudd concedes defeat" (transcript). AM. Australia: ABC Radio. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
  47. ^ "2013 Federal Election".
  48. ^ "Japan celebrates as Tokyo wins right to host 2020 Olympic Games ahead of Madrid and Istanbul". The Daily Telegraph. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  49. ^ "Nairobi siege: What we know". BBC News. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  50. ^ "Minamata mercury treaty signed at UN conference". The Times of India. 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
  51. ^ "Saudi Arabia declines UN Security Council seat". Asharq Al-Awsat. 2013-10-18. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2013-10-22.
  52. ^ "Mars mission starts, Mangalyaan launched successfully". Times of India. 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
  53. ^ "Typhoon Haiyan: Thousands feared dead in Philippines". BBC News. 2013-11-10. Retrieved 2013-11-10.
  54. ^ "Bacon painting fetches record price". BBC News. BBC. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  55. ^ Vogel, Carol (12 November 2013). "At $142.4 Million, Triptych Is the Most Expensive Artwork Ever Sold at an Auction". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
  56. ^ Welt, Cory (2013-12-23). "Ukraine's Euromaidan: Now Comes the Hard Part". Center for American Progress. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  57. ^ Sciutto, Jim; Carter, Chelsea (24 November 2013). "Obama: Iran nuclear deal limits ability to create nuclear weapons". CNN.
  58. ^ "Iran agrees to curb nuclear activity at Geneva talks". BBC. 24 November 2013.
  59. ^ Walker, Andrew (7 December 2013). "WTO agrees global trade deal worth $1tn". BBC News. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  60. ^ Rincon, Paul (14 December 2013). "China lands Jade Rabbit robot rover on Moon". BBC. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  61. ^ Howden, Daniel (2013-12-23). "South Sudan: the state that fell apart in a week". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  62. ^ https://edition.cnn.com/2013/12/25/world/christmas-day-attacks/
2013 NBA draft

The 2013 NBA draft was held on June 27, 2013, at Barclays Center in Brooklyn, New York. National Basketball Association (NBA) teams took turns selecting amateur U.S. college basketball players and other eligible players, including international players. The lottery took place on May 21, 2013. This was the first draft for New Orleans under their new Pelicans name after playing as the New Orleans Hornets previously. It would also be the last draft for the Charlotte Bobcats under their old name, as they went back to playing under their old Hornets moniker that they last used in 2002 once the 2013–14 NBA season was over. This draft class, thought to be considered one of the worst since 2000, has made recent strides, with three consecutive players awarded the NBA Most Improved Player Award since 2016. Anthony Bennett, the first pick, bounced around the league, and then was finally released by the Brooklyn Nets after averaging just 5.2 PPG.

Highlights of the draft included the first Canadian number one selection (Anthony Bennett). The draft also included the first Canadian pair of lottery picks (Bennett and Kelly Olynyk), the first Iranian draft choice (Arsalan Kazemi), the first New Zealander first round pick (Steven Adams) and the last first round draft selections announced by then-NBA commissioner David Stern, the very last of which included a visit by Hakeem Olajuwon, Stern's first pick he ever announced back in 1984. He was replaced by current commissioner Adam Silver beginning with the 2014 NBA draft.

Boston Marathon bombing

During the annual Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, two homemade pressure cooker bombs detonated 12 seconds and 210 yards (190 m) apart at 2:49 p.m., near the finish line of the race, killing three people and injuring several hundred others, including 16 who lost limbs.Three days later, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) released images of two suspects, who were later identified as Kyrgyz-American brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. They killed an MIT policeman, kidnapped a man in his car, and had a shootout with the police in nearby Watertown, during which two officers were severely injured, one of whom died a year later. Tamerlan was shot several times, and his brother ran him over while escaping in the stolen car; Tamerlan died soon after.

An unprecedented manhunt for Dzhokhar ensued on April 19, with thousands of law enforcement officers searching a 20-block area of Watertown; residents of Watertown and surrounding communities were asked to stay indoors, and the transportation system and most businesses and public places closed. Around 6:00 p.m., a Watertown resident discovered Dzhokhar hiding in a boat in his backyard. He was shot and wounded by police before being taken into custody.During questioning, Dzhokhar said that he and his brother were motivated by extremist Islamist beliefs and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, that they were self-radicalized and unconnected to any outside terrorist groups, and that he was following his brother's lead. He said they learned to build explosive devices from an online magazine of the al-Qaeda affiliate in Yemen. He also said they had intended to travel to New York City to bomb Times Square. On April 8, 2015, he was convicted of 30 charges, including use of a weapon of mass destruction and malicious destruction of property resulting in death. Two months later, he was sentenced to death.

Deepika Padukone

Deepika Padukone (pronounced [d̪iːpɪkaː pəɖʊkoːɳ]; born 5 January 1986) is an Indian film actress. The highest-paid actress in India, Padukone is the recipient of several awards, including three Filmfare Awards. She features in listings of the nation's most popular personalities, and Time named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world in 2018.

Padukone, the daughter of the badminton player Prakash Padukone, was born in Copenhagen and raised in Bangalore. As a teenager, she played badminton in national level championships but left her career in the sport to become a fashion model. She soon received offers for film roles and made her acting debut in 2006 as the title character of the Kannada film Aishwarya. Padukone then played a dual role in her first Bollywood release, the romance Om Shanti Om (2007), which won her the Filmfare Award for Best Female Debut. Padukone received praise for portraying the lead roles in the romance Love Aaj Kal (2009) and the drama Lafangey Parindey (2010), but her performances in the romance Bachna Ae Haseeno (2008) and the comedy Housefull (2010) were met with negative reviews.

The romantic comedy Cocktail (2012) marked a turning point in Padukone's career, earning her praise and Best Actress nominations at several award ceremonies. She established herself with starring roles in the romantic comedies Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani and Chennai Express (both 2013), the heist comedy Happy New Year (2014), and Sanjay Leela Bhansali's period dramas Bajirao Mastani (2015) and Padmaavat (2018), all of which rank among the highest-grossing Indian films. Padukone's acclaimed portrayal of a character based on Juliet in Bhansali's tragic romance Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela (2013) and a headstrong architect in the comedy-drama Piku (2015) earned her two Filmfare Awards for Best Actress. Her first project in Hollywood came with the action film XXX: Return of Xander Cage (2017).

Alongside her acting career, Padukone participates in stage shows, has written columns for an Indian newspaper, is a prominent celebrity endorser for brands and products, and is vocal about issues such as feminism and depression. She has designed her own line of clothing for women, is the chairperson of the Mumbai Academy of the Moving Image, and is the founder of the Live Love Laugh Foundation, which creates awareness on mental health in India. Padukone is married to her frequent co-star Ranveer Singh.

Edward Snowden

Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is a former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked highly classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013. His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments.

In 2013, Snowden was hired by an NSA contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton, after previous employment with Dell and the CIA. On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong after leaving his job at an NSA facility in Hawaii, and in early June he revealed thousands of classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, and Ewen MacAskill. Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post. Further disclosures were made by other publications including Der Spiegel and The New York Times.

On June 21, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice unsealed charges against Snowden of two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and theft of government property, following which the Department of State revoked his passport. Two days later, he flew into Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport, but Russian authorities noted that his U.S. passport had been cancelled, and he was restricted to the airport terminal for over one month. Russia ultimately recognized his right of asylum, with a visa for residence for one year. Repeated extensions have permitted him to stay at least until 2020. In early 2016, he became the president of the Freedom of the Press Foundation, an organization that aims to protect journalists from hacking and government surveillance. As of 2017, he was living in an undisclosed location in Moscow.

Frozen (2013 film)

Frozen is a 2013 American 3D computer-animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The 53rd Disney animated feature film, it is inspired by Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale "The Snow Queen". It tells the story of a fearless princess who sets off on a journey alongside a rugged iceman, his loyal reindeer, and a naive snowman to find her estranged sister, whose icy powers have inadvertently trapped their kingdom in eternal winter.

Frozen underwent several story treatments before being commissioned in 2011, with a screenplay written by Jennifer Lee, who also co-directed with Chris Buck. The film features the voices of Kristen Bell, Idina Menzel, Jonathan Groff, Josh Gad, and Santino Fontana. Christophe Beck was hired to compose the film's orchestral score, while Robert Lopez and Kristen Anderson-Lopez wrote the songs.

Frozen premiered at the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood, California, on November 19, 2013, had a limited release on November 22 and went into general theatrical release on November 27. It was met with positive reviews and praise for its visuals, screenplay, themes, music, and voice acting; some film critics consider Frozen to be the best Disney animated feature film since the studio's renaissance era. The film also achieved significant commercial success, earning $1.276 billion in worldwide box office revenue, including $400 million in the United States and Canada and $247 million in Japan. It ranks as the highest-grossing animated film of all time, the 13th highest-grossing film of all time, the highest-grossing film of 2013, and the third highest-grossing film in Japan. It was also the highest-earning film with a female director in terms of US earnings, until surpassed by Warner Bros. Pictures' Wonder Woman. With over 18 million home media sales in 2014, it became the best-selling film of the year in the United States. By January 2015, Frozen had become the all-time best-selling Blu-ray Disc in the United States.Frozen won two Academy Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Let It Go"), the Golden Globe Award for Best Animated Feature Film, the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film, five Annie Awards (including Best Animated Feature), two Grammy Awards for Best Compilation Soundtrack for Visual Media and Best Song Written for Visual Media ("Let It Go"), and two Critics' Choice Movie Awards for Best Animated Feature and Best Original Song ("Let It Go"). An animated short sequel, Frozen Fever, premiered on March 13, 2015, an animated featurette titled Olaf's Frozen Adventure, premiered on November 22, 2017, and a feature-length sequel, Frozen 2, is set for release on November 22, 2019.

Grand Theft Auto V

Grand Theft Auto V is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It was released in September 2013 for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, in November 2014 for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, and in April 2015 for Microsoft Windows. It is the first main entry in the Grand Theft Auto series since 2008's Grand Theft Auto IV. Set within the fictional state of San Andreas, based on Southern California, the single-player story follows three criminals and their efforts to commit heists while under pressure from a government agency. The open-world design lets players freely roam San Andreas' open countryside and the fictional city of Los Santos, based on Los Angeles.

The game is played from either a third-person or first-person perspective and its world is navigated on foot or by vehicle. Players control the three lead protagonists throughout single-player and switch between them both during and outside missions. The story is centred on the heist sequences, and many missions involve shooting and driving gameplay. A "wanted" system governs the aggression of law enforcement response to players who commit crimes. Grand Theft Auto Online, the game's online multiplayer mode, lets up to 30 players engage in a variety of different cooperative and competitive game modes.

The development of Grand Theft Auto V began soon after Grand Theft Auto IV's release and was shared between many of Rockstar's studios worldwide. The development team drew influence from many of their previous projects such as Red Dead Redemption and Max Payne 3 and designed the game around three lead protagonists to innovate on the core structure of its predecessors. Much of the development work constituted the open world's creation, and several team members conducted field research around California to capture footage for the design team. The game's soundtrack features an original score composed by a team of producers who collaborated over several years.

Extensively marketed and widely anticipated, the game broke industry sales records and became the fastest-selling entertainment product in history, earning $800 million in its first day and $1 billion in its first three days. It received widespread critical acclaim, with praise directed at its multiple protagonist design, open world, presentation and gameplay. However, it caused controversies related to its depiction of women and a mission featuring torture during a hostage interrogation. Considered one of the seventh generation console gaming's most significant titles and among the best games ever made, it won year-end accolades including Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications. It is the third-best-selling video game of all time with over 100 million copies shipped, and is one of the most financially successful entertainment products of all time, with about $6 billion in worldwide revenue.

Julianne Moore

Julianne Moore (born Julie Anne Smith; December 3, 1960) is an American actress and children's author. Prolific in film since the early 1990s, she is particularly known for her portrayals of emotionally troubled women in both independent and Hollywood films, and has received many accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Actress.

After studying theatre at Boston University, Moore began her career with a series of television roles. From 1985 to 1988, she was a regular in the soap opera As the World Turns, earning a Daytime Emmy for her performance. Her film debut was in Tales from the Darkside: The Movie (1990), and she continued to play small roles for the next four years – including in the thriller The Hand That Rocks the Cradle (1992). Moore first received critical attention with Robert Altman's Short Cuts (1993), and successive performances in Vanya on 42nd Street (1994) and Safe (1995) continued this acclaim. Starring roles in the blockbusters Nine Months (1995) and The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) established her as a leading lady in Hollywood.

Moore received considerable recognition in the late 1990s and early 2000s, earning Oscar nominations for Boogie Nights (1997), The End of the Affair (1999), Far from Heaven (2002) and The Hours (2002). In the first of these, she played a 1970s pornographic actress, while the other three featured her as an unhappy, mid-20th century housewife. She also had success with the films The Big Lebowski (1998), Magnolia (1999), Hannibal (2001), Children of Men (2006), A Single Man (2009), The Kids Are All Right (2010), and Crazy, Stupid, Love (2011), and won several awards for her portrayal of Sarah Palin in the television film Game Change (2012). Moore went on to give an Academy Award-winning performance as an Alzheimer's patient in Still Alice (2014) and was named Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival for Maps to the Stars (2014). She also appeared in the final two films of The Hunger Games series and starred in the spy film Kingsman: The Golden Circle (2017).

In addition to acting, Moore has written a series of children's books about a character named "Freckleface Strawberry". She is married to director Bart Freundlich, with whom she has two children.

Katrina Kaif

Katrina Kaif (pronounced [kəˈʈriːnaː ˈkɛːf], born Katrina Turquotte, 16 July 1983) is an English actress who works in Hindi films. Despite receiving mixed reviews from critics for her acting prowess, she has established herself in Bollywood and is one of India's highest-paid actresses.

Born in Hong Kong, Kaif and her family lived in several countries before she moved to London. She received her first modelling assignment as a teenager and later pursued a career as a fashion model. At a fashion show in London, filmmaker Kaizad Gustad spotted Kaif and decided to cast her in Boom (2003), a critical and commercial failure. While filming in India, Kaif received modelling assignments and established a successful modelling career. However, filmmakers were hesitant to cast her due to her poor command of Hindi. After appearing in the Telugu film, Malliswari (2004), Kaif earned commercial success in Bollywood with the romantic comedies Maine Pyaar Kyun Kiya? (2005) and Namastey London (2007). She followed with a series of box-office hits, but was criticised for her acting, repetitive roles and inclination to male-dominated films.

Kaif's performance in the terrorism drama New York (2009) was better received, earning her a Filmfare Award for Best Actress nomination. After roles in Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani (2009), Raajneeti (2010) and Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara (2011), she received her second Filmfare nomination for her performance in Mere Brother Ki Dulhan (2011). Kaif's highest-grossing films came with the spy thriller Ek Tha Tiger (2012) and its 2017 sequel, and the action thriller Dhoom 3 (2013), all of which rank among the highest-grossing Indian films of all time. She followed this with roles in a series of films that did not perform well commercially, but received praise for playing an alcoholic actress in the romantic drama Zero (2018).

In addition to acting, Kaif is involved with her mother's charity and participates in stage shows. She is guarded about her personal life, which is a subject of media scrutiny, as is her background.

Megadeth

Megadeth is an American thrash metal band from Los Angeles, California. Guitarist Dave Mustaine and bassist David Ellefson formed the band in 1983 shortly after Mustaine's dismissal from Metallica. Along with Metallica, Anthrax, and Slayer, Megadeth is one of the "Big Four" of American thrash metal, responsible for its development and popularization. Their music features complex arrangements and fast rhythm sections, and lyrical themes of death, war, politics, and religion.

In 1985, Megadeth released its debut album, Killing Is My Business... and Business Is Good!, on the independent record label Combat Records, to moderate success. It caught the attention of bigger labels, which led to Megadeth signing with Capitol Records. Their first major-label album, Peace Sells... but Who's Buying?, was released in 1986 and influenced the underground metal scene. Substance abuse and personal disputes brought Megadeth negative publicity during this period.

After the lineup stabilized, Megadeth released a number of platinum-selling albums, including Rust in Peace (1990) and Countdown to Extinction (1992). These albums, along with worldwide tours, brought them public recognition. The band temporarily disbanded in 2002 when Mustaine suffered an arm injury and re-established in 2004 without bassist Ellefson, who had taken legal action against Mustaine. Ellefson settled out of court and rejoined in 2010. Megadeth has hosted its own music festival, Gigantour, several times since July 2005.

Megadeth has sold over 38 million records worldwide, earned platinum certification in the United States for six of its fifteen studio albums, and received twelve Grammy nominations. Megadeth won its first Grammy Award in 2017 for the song "Dystopia" in the Best Metal Performance category. The band's mascot, Vic Rattlehead, regularly appears on album artwork and live shows. The group has drawn controversy for its music and lyrics, including album bans and canceled concerts; MTV refused to play two of the band's music videos that the network considered to condone suicide.

Montana

Montana ( (listen)) is a landlocked state in the Northwestern United States. Montana has several nicknames, although none are official, including "Big Sky Country" and "The Treasure State", and slogans that include "Land of the Shining Mountains" and more recently "The Last Best Place".Montana is the 4th largest in area, the 8th least populous, and the 3rd least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges. Smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total, 77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. Montana is bordered by Idaho to the west, Wyoming to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan to the north.

The economy is primarily based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic resources include oil, gas, coal, hard rock mining, and lumber. The health care, service, and government sectors also are significant to the state's economy.

The state's fastest-growing sector is tourism. Nearly 13 million tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, Yellowstone National Park, the Beartooth Highway, Flathead Lake, Big Sky Resort, and other attractions.

National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign and domestic intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT). The NSA is also tasked with the protection of U.S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine.Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II, it was officially formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since then, it has become the largest of the U.S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. The NSA currently conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end. The NSA has also been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet, which severely damaged Iran's nuclear program. The NSA, alongside the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe; the CIA/NSA joint Special Collection Service (a highly classified intelligence team) inserts eavesdropping devices in high value targets (such as Presidential palaces or embassies). SCS collection tactics allegedly encompass "close surveillance, burglary, wiretapping, [and] breaking and entering".Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), both of which specialize primarily in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source intelligence gathering. The NSA is entrusted with providing assistance to, and the coordination of, SIGINT elements for other government organizations – which are prevented by law from engaging in such activities on their own. As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service (CSS), which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and other U.S. defense cryptanalysis components. To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director simultaneously serves as the Commander of the United States Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service.

The NSA's actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti-Vietnam-war leaders and the agency's participation in economic espionage. In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor. According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens. The documents also revealed the NSA tracks hundreds of millions of people's movements using cellphones metadata. Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing".

Paul Walker

Paul William Walker IV (September 12, 1973 – November 30, 2013) was an American actor best known for his role as Brian O'Conner in The Fast and the Furious franchise. Walker first gained prominence in 1999 with roles in the teen films She's All That and Varsity Blues. In 2001, he gained international fame for his role in the street racing action film The Fast and the Furious (2001), a role he reprised in five of the next six installments, but died in 2013 in the middle of filming Furious 7 (2015).

Walker began his career guest-starring on TV shows such as The Young and the Restless and Touched by an Angel. He later starred in films such as Joy Ride (2001), Timeline (2003), Into the Blue (2005), Eight Below (2006), and Running Scared (2006). He also appeared in the National Geographic series Expedition Great White (2010) and in ads for Davidoff Cool Water cologne. He founded the disaster-relief charity Reach Out Worldwide (ROWW) in response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.Walker died on November 30, 2013, at the age of 40 as a passenger in a single-car crash alongside friend and driver Roger Rodas. Walker was working on three films at the time of his death which were released posthumously: Hours (2013), Brick Mansions (2014), and Furious 7 (2015). The Wiz Khalifa song "See You Again", featuring Charlie Puth, was commissioned for the Furious 7 soundtrack as a tribute to Walker. It was nominated for the Golden Globe for Best Original Song in 2015 and was the number-one song in the United States for 12 weeks.

Penis

A penis (plural penises or penes ) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation. Such organs occur in many animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, but males do not bear a penis in every animal species, and in those species in which the male does bear a so-called penis, the penes in the various species are not necessarily homologous. For example, the penis of a mammal is at most analogous to the penis of a male insect or barnacle.The term penis applies to many intromittent organs, but not to all; for example the intromittent organ of most cephalopoda is the hectocotylus, a specialised arm, and male spiders use their pedipalps. Even within the Vertebrata there are morphological variants with specific terminology, such as hemipenes.

In most species of animals in which there is an organ that might reasonably be described as a penis, it has no major function other than intromission, or at least conveying the sperm to the female, but in the placental mammals the penis bears the distal part of the urethra, which discharges both urine during urination and semen during copulation.

PlayStation 4

The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, and on February 22, 2014, in Japan. It competes with Microsoft's Xbox One and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch.

Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops; AMD stated that it was the "most powerful" APU it had developed to date. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices ("Remote Play"), the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely ("Share Play"). The console's controller was also redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, and an integrated touchpad among other changes. The console also supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia.

The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, and for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes similarly to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios also praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors; developers described the performance difference between the console and Xbox One as "significant" and "obvious". Heightened demand also helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3. As of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide.

On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games. The company also released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, and the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.

Ranbir Kapoor

Ranbir Kapoor (pronounced [rəˈɳbiːr kəˈpuːr]; born 28 September 1982) is an Indian actor and film producer. He is one of the highest-paid actors of Hindi cinema and has featured in Forbes India's Celebrity 100 list since 2012. Kapoor is the recipient of several awards, including five Filmfare Awards.

The son of actors Rishi Kapoor and Neetu Singh, and the grandson of actor-director Raj Kapoor, Kapoor pursued filmmaking and method acting at the School of Visual Arts and the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute, respectively. He subsequently assisted Sanjay Leela Bhansali on the film Black (2005), and made his acting debut with Bhansali's tragic romance Saawariya (2007), a critical and commercial failure. Kapoor rose to prominence with his performances in the coming-of-age film Wake Up Sid (2009), the romantic comedy Ajab Prem Ki Ghazab Kahani (2009), and the drama Rocket Singh: Salesman of the Year (2009). His most widely seen film in this period came with the political drama Raajneeti (2010).

The romantic drama Rockstar (2011), in which he played a troubled musician, and the comedy drama Barfi! (2012), in which he played a cheerful deaf-and-mute man, earned Kapoor two consecutive Best Actor awards at Filmfare. A starring role opposite Deepika Padukone in the romantic comedy Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani (2013)—one of the highest-grossing Indian films—established him as a leading Bollywood actor. He followed this with roles in a series of films that did not perform well commercially, with the exception of the romance Ae Dil Hai Mushkil (2016). This changed in 2018 when Kapoor portrayed Sanjay Dutt in Rajkumar Hirani's biopic Sanju, which ranks as his highest-grossing release.

In addition to acting in films, Kapoor supports charities and causes. He is also a co-owner of the Indian Super League football team Mumbai City FC.

Sachin Tendulkar

Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar ( (listen); born 24 April 1973) is a former Indian international cricketer and a former captain of the Indian national team, regarded as one of the greatest batsman of all time. He is the highest run scorer of all time in International cricket. Tendulkar took up cricket at the age of eleven, made his Test debut on 15 November 1989 against Pakistan in Karachi at the age of sixteen, and went on to represent Mumbai domestically and India internationally for close to twenty-four years. He is the only player to have scored one hundred international centuries, the first batsman to score a double century in a ODI, the holder of the record for the most number of runs in both Test and ODI, and the only player to complete more than 30,000 runs in international cricket. He is colloquially known as Little Master or Master Blaster, and often referred to as the God of Cricket by Indian cricket followers.

In 2001, Sachin Tendulkar became the first batsman to complete 10,000 ODI runs in his 259 innings. In 2002, halfway through his career, Wisden Cricketers' Almanack ranked him the second greatest Test batsman of all time, behind Don Bradman, and the second greatest ODI batsman of all time, behind Viv Richards. Later in his career, Tendulkar was a part of the Indian team that won the 2011 World Cup, his first win in six World Cup appearances for India. He had previously been named "Player of the Tournament" at the 2003 edition of the tournament, held in South Africa. In 2013, he was the only Indian cricketer included in an all-time Test World XI named to mark the 150th anniversary of Wisden Cricketers' Almanack.Tendulkar received the Arjuna Award in 1994 for his outstanding sporting achievement, the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award in 1997, India's highest sporting honour, and the Padma Shri and Padma Vibhushan awards in 1999 and 2008, respectively, India's fourth and second highest civilian awards. After a few hours of his final match on 16 November 2013, the Prime Minister's Office announced the decision to award him the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award. He is the youngest recipient to date and the first ever sportsperson to receive the award. He also won the 2010 Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy for cricketer of the year at the ICC awards. In 2012, Tendulkar was nominated to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India. He was also the first sportsperson and the first person without an aviation background to be awarded the honorary rank of group captain by the Indian Air Force. In 2012, he was named an Honorary Member of the Order of Australia.In 2010, Time magazine included Sachin in its annual Time 100 list as one of the "Most Influential People in the World".

In December 2012, Tendulkar announced his retirement from ODIs. He retired from Twenty20 cricket in October 2013 and subsequently retired from all forms of cricket on 16 November 2013 after playing his 200th Test match, against the West Indies in Mumbai's Wankhede Stadium. Tendulkar played 664 international cricket matches in total, scoring 34,357 runs.

SpongeBob SquarePants

SpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated television series created by marine science educator and animator Stephen Hillenburg for Nickelodeon. The series chronicles the adventures and endeavors of the title character and his various friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The series' popularity has made it a media franchise, as well as the highest rated series to ever air on Nickelodeon, and the most distributed property of MTV Networks. As of late 2017, the media franchise has generated $13 billion in merchandising revenue for Nickelodeon.Many of the ideas for the series originated in an unpublished educational comic book titled The Intertidal Zone, which Hillenburg created in 1989. He began developing SpongeBob SquarePants into a television series in 1996 upon the cancellation of Rocko's Modern Life, and turned to Tom Kenny, who had worked with him on that series, to voice the title character. SpongeBob was originally going to be named SpongeBoy, and the series was to be called SpongeBoy Ahoy!, but both of these were changed, as the name was already trademarked.

Nickelodeon held a preview for the series in the United States on May 1, 1999, following the television airing of the 1999 Kids' Choice Awards. The series officially premiered on July 17, 1999. It has received worldwide critical acclaim since its premiere and gained enormous popularity by its second season. A feature film, The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, was released in theaters on November 19, 2004, and a sequel was released on February 6, 2015. In 2018, the series began airing its twelfth season.The series has won a variety of awards, including six Annie Awards, eight Golden Reel Awards, four Emmy Awards, 15 Kids' Choice Awards, and two BAFTA Children's Awards. Despite its widespread popularity, the series has been involved in several public controversies, including one centered on speculation over SpongeBob's intended sexual orientation. In 2011, a newly described species of fungus, Spongiforma squarepantsii, was named after the cartoon's title character. A Broadway musical based on the series opened in 2017 to critical acclaim.On February 14 2019, it was announced that a SpongeBob SquarePants spin-off is in development.

Super Bowl XLVII

Super Bowl XLVII was an American football game between the American Football Conference (AFC) champion Baltimore Ravens and the National Football Conference (NFC) champion San Francisco 49ers to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 2012 season. The Ravens defeated the 49ers by the score of 34-31, handing the 49ers their first Super Bowl loss in franchise history. The game was played on Sunday, February 3, 2013 at Mercedes-Benz Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana. This was the tenth Super Bowl to be played in New Orleans, equaling Miami's record of ten in an individual city. This was the first Super Bowl to be held in New Orleans since Super Bowl XXXVI and it was the first to be played in that city since Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

For the first time in Super Bowl history, the game featured two brothers coaching against each other—Jim and John Harbaugh, head coaches of the San Francisco 49ers and Baltimore Ravens, respectively—earning it the nickname Har-bowl. In addition, Super Bowl XLVII was the first to feature two teams that had undefeated records in previous Super Bowl games (Baltimore, 1–0; San Francisco, 5–0). The 49ers, who posted a regular-season record of 11–4–1, entered the game seeking their sixth Super Bowl win in team history (and first since Super Bowl XXIX at the end of the 1994 season), which would have tied the Pittsburgh Steelers for the most by a franchise. The Ravens, who posted a 10–6 regular-season record, made their second Super Bowl appearance in 12 years, having previously won Super Bowl XXXV. Ray Lewis, the Most Valuable Player (MVP) from that game, as well as the last remaining member of the inaugural Ravens roster from 1996, also played in this game, his last before his retirement from professional football.Baltimore built a 28–6 lead early in the third quarter before a partial power outage in the Superdome suspended play for 34 minutes (earning the game the added nickname of the Blackout Bowl). After play resumed, San Francisco scored 17 unanswered third-quarter points to cut the Ravens' lead to 28–23, and continued to chip away in the fourth quarter. With the Ravens leading late in the game, 34–29, the 49ers advanced to the Baltimore 7-yard line just before the two-minute warning but turned the ball over on downs. The Ravens then took an intentional safety in the waning moments of the game to preserve the victory. Baltimore quarterback Joe Flacco, who completed 22 of 33 passes for 287 yards and three touchdowns, became the fourth quarterback in a row to be named Super Bowl MVP, after Drew Brees at Super Bowl XLIV, Aaron Rodgers at Super Bowl XLV, and Eli Manning at Super Bowl XLVI. As of 2019, this marks both the last time a Super Bowl didn't feature Tom Brady or Peyton Manning and the last time the AFC was represented by a team other than the Patriots or Broncos in a Super Bowl.

CBS broadcast the game in the U.S., and charged an average of $4 million for a 30-second commercial during the game, the highest rate for any Super Bowl. According to Nielsen, Super Bowl XLVII was viewed by an estimated average of 108.69 million people in the United States, with a record 164.1 million tuning into at least six minutes of the game. Beyoncé performed in the Super Bowl XLVII halftime show, which featured a reunion with fellow Destiny's Child alumnae Kelly Rowland and Michelle Williams.

The Last of Us

The Last of Us is an action-adventure survival horror video game developed by Naughty Dog and published by Sony Computer Entertainment. It was released for the PlayStation 3 worldwide on June 14, 2013. Players control Joel, a smuggler tasked with escorting a teenage girl, Ellie, across a post-apocalyptic United States. The Last of Us is played from a third-person perspective. Players use firearms and improvised weapons, and can use stealth to defend against hostile humans and cannibalistic creatures infected by a mutated strain of the Cordyceps fungus. In the online multiplayer mode, up to eight players engage in cooperative and competitive gameplay.

Development of The Last of Us began in 2009, soon after the release of Naughty Dog's previous game, Uncharted 2: Among Thieves. The relationship between Joel and Ellie became the central focus of the game, with all other elements developed around it. Actors Troy Baker and Ashley Johnson portrayed Joel and Ellie respectively through voice and motion capture, and assisted creative director Neil Druckmann with the development of the characters and story. The original score was composed and performed by Gustavo Santaolalla.

Following its announcement in December 2011, The Last of Us was widely anticipated. Upon release, it received critical acclaim, with praise directed at its narrative, gameplay, visual and sound design, characterization, and depiction of female characters. The Last of Us became one of the best-selling games on the PlayStation 3, as well as one of the best-selling video games of all time. Selling over 1.3 million units in its first week and 17 million by April 2018, it won year-end accolades, including multiple Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications, critics, and game award ceremonies, making it one of the most awarded games in history, and is considered one of the greatest video games ever made.

After the game's release, Naughty Dog released several downloadable content additions. The Last of Us: Left Behind adds a single-player campaign following Ellie and her best friend Riley. An enhanced edition of the original game, The Last of Us Remastered, was released for the PlayStation 4 in July 2014. A sequel, The Last of Us Part II, was announced in December 2016.

Xbox One

Xbox One is a line of eighth generation home video game consoles developed by Microsoft. Announced in May 2013, it is the successor to Xbox 360 and the third console in the Xbox family. It was first released in North America, parts of Europe, Australia, and South America in November 2013, and in Japan, China, and other European countries in September 2014. It is the first Xbox game console to be released in China, specifically in the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone. Microsoft marketed the device as an "all-in-one entertainment system", hence the name 'Xbox One'. The Xbox One line mainly competes against consoles such as Sony's PlayStation 4 and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch.

Moving away from its predecessor's PowerPC-based architecture, Xbox One marks a shift back to the x86 architecture used in the original Xbox; it features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built around the x86-64 instruction set. Xbox One's controller was redesigned over the Xbox 360's, with a redesigned body, D-pad and triggers capable of delivering directional haptic feedback. The console places an increased emphasis on cloud computing, as well as social networking features, and the ability to record and share video clips or screenshots from gameplay, or live-stream directly to streaming services such as Mixer and Twitch. Games can also be played off-console via a local area network on supported Windows 10 devices. The console can play Blu-ray Disc, and overlay live television programming from an existing set-top box or a digital tuner for digital terrestrial television with an enhanced program guide. The console optionally included a redesigned Kinect sensor, marketed as the "Kinect 2.0", providing improved motion tracking and voice recognition.

Xbox One received mostly positive reviews for its refined controller design, multimedia features, and voice navigation. Its quieter and cooler design was praised for making the console more reliable than its predecessor on-launch, but the console was generally criticized for running games at a technically lower graphical level than the PlayStation 4. Its original user interface was panned for being nonintuitive, although changes made to it and other aspects of the console's software post-launch received positive reception. Its Kinect received praise for its improved motion-tracking accuracy, its face recognition logins, and its voice commands.

The original Xbox One model was succeeded by Xbox One S in 2016, which has a smaller form factor and support for HDR10 high-dynamic-range video, as well as support for 4K video playback and upscaling of games from 1080p to 4K. It was praised for its smaller size, its on-screen visual improvements, and its lack of an external power supply, but its regressions such as the lack of a native Kinect port were noted. A high-end model, Xbox One X, was unveiled in June 2017 and released in November; it features upgraded hardware specifications, and support for rendering games at 4K resolution.

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