2011 United States listeriosis outbreak

The 2011 United States listeriosis outbreak was a widespread outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes food poisoning across 28 US states that resulted from contaminated cantaloupes linked to Jensen Farms of Holly, Colorado. As of the final report on August 27, 2012, there were 33 deaths and 147 total confirmed cases since the beginning of the first recorded case on July 31, 2011.[2] It was the worst foodborne illness outbreak in the United States, measured by the number of deaths, since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began tracking outbreaks in the 1970s, or tied with the worst, an outbreak of listeria from cheese in 1985, depending on which CDC report is used.[3]

2011 United States listeriosis outbreak
The outbreak was from cantaloupes from Colorado
LocationUnited States
DateJuly 31, 2011 – August 27, 2012
Deaths33 confirmed[1]
Non-fatal injuries
147 cases confirmed[1]

Origin and spread

Listeria monocytogenes PHIL 2287 lores
Listeria monocytogenes, the bacterium responsible for listeriosis

Listeriosis is an infection caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. The outbreak was determined to originate from Jensen Farms in Holly, Colorado after Listeria monocytogenes was found in cantaloupe samples at a Jensen Farms store in Denver, Colorado and at the farm's packaging plant. The batch of cantaloupes had been shipped out over a period from July 29 through September 10 to twenty-five states, including Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Wyoming.[4]

The outbreak was first reported by the Centers for Disease Control on September 12, where they stated that "fifteen people in four states had been infected".[5] On September 21, a new report was released by the CDC, bringing the number of deaths to 13 and the number of confirmed cases to 72. The report also stated that further deaths were being investigated to determine if they had also been caused by Listeria infection. The CDC report also stated that, as Listeria "only sickens the elderly, pregnant women and others with compromised immune systems", the median age of all the people that had been infected was 78.[6] On September 30, an update was released by the CDC, reporting that as of 11 am (EDT) Sep 29, 2011 the number of confirmed cases was 84, number of deaths was 15 and the number of states involved was 19.[7] On October 4, the CDC updated their report to 100 infected individuals in 20 states and a total of 18 deaths from the outbreak.[8] The outbreak was shown to have continued to spread to new states, with the CDC update on October 7 stating that the number of cases had risen to 109 in 23 states and that three more people had died to bring the death toll to 21.[9] The CDC update on October 12 put the number of cases at 116 with 23 deaths.[10][11] An update on October 18 increased the number of cases to 123 and the number of deaths to 25.[12] The October 25 update raised the number of cases to 133, with three more people dying to raise the total to 28.[13] A final update on August 27 confirmed 147 cases and 33 deaths. Fatalities occurred in Colorado (9), Indiana (1), Kansas (3), Louisiana (2), Maryland (1), Missouri (3), Montana (1) Nebraska (1), New Mexico (5), New York (2), Oklahoma (1), Texas (2), and Wyoming (2). Among persons who died, ages ranged from <1 to 96 years, with a median age of 78 years.[2] In addition, one woman pregnant at the time of illness had a miscarriage.[1]

Listeria infections can cause pregnant women to miscarry; the first miscarriage attributed to the 2011 outbreak was reported in early October, in a woman living in Iowa. Pregnant women often are advised to avoid foods, such as unpasteurized cheese and hot dogs, that are known to have the potential to carry Listeria, but fruits such as cantaloupe had not previously been identified as sources of concern.[14]

No list of retailers selling the infected cantaloupes was released by either the government or Jensen Farms. Although the last shipment was September 10 and the fruit had a two-week shelf life, as of September 29, the number of illnesses and deaths were expected to continue rising, because the incubation period could exceed one month.[15]

Recalls by retailers which had sold the Jensen Farms cantaloupes included Kroger (September 15),[16] Safeway (September 15),[17] Aldi (September 16),[18] and US Foods (September 16).[19]

FDA investigation

An investigation by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found that the contaminated cantaloupe harvest contained four separate Listeria monocytogenes strains, which the governmental agency found to be "unusual", but was still trying to determine the reason.[20] On October 20, it was reported that the FDA officials had found listeria on dirty, corroded equipment used by Jensen Farms, which had been bought used and was previously utilized for potato farming. It was stated by the government that the "equipment's past use may have played a role in the contamination".[21] Water contaminated with listeria was also found on the floor of the packing plant and it was determined that the workers moving around the plant had spread it, as the contaminated water was also found on the cantaloupe conveyor belt. It was noted by officials that Jensen Farms had "passed a food safety audit by an outside contractor" six days before the outbreak.[22]

The method of how the listeria bacteria first came to be in the plant remains unknown, as the soil on the farm was determined to be clear of the bacteria. It is suspected, however, that a "dump truck used to take culled melons to a cattle farm...could have brought bacteria to the facility".[22][23] Furthermore, Bacteria growth may have been caused by condensation stemming from the lack of a pre-cooling step to remove field heat from the cantaloupe before cold storage.[24]

House Energy and Commerce Committee investigation

On October 21, the House Energy and Commerce Committee, a committee panel of the United States House of Representatives, began its own investigation into the outbreak. The Committee "requested a staff briefing from Jensen Farms" and all of the documents they had on the incident. They also requested information from the FDA, CDC, and other governmental groups.[25]

Jensen Farms response

In response to the initial reports by the CDC on the contaminated cantaloupe, Jensen Farms issued a voluntary recall on September 15 of the entire harvest crop of 300,000 cantaloupe that it had distributed to its chain stores. The FDA made the public announcement for the recall after Listeria infection was confirmed by Jensen Farms at its main Colorado branch.[26] Jensen Farms was also forced to temporarily shut down its processing plant while the recall is ongoing.[27] Government officials have been investigating the company's main facility in Colorado to determine if there was "animal or water contamination", but there have been no results from the investigation thus far.[20] Holly, Colorado residents were described as being left "reeling and in fear" because of the disaster for its local producer.[28]

Political responses

The FDA has stated in response to the extensive bacterial outbreak that it is "yet another reason to fully implement the Food Safety Modernization Act." Sherri McGarry, a senior adviser for the FDA, stated that, "We're going to take these lessons learned, share that with our partners and industries, CDC and the states, and what we want to do is we want to really prevent this from happening in the future."[20]

Also, in response to an auditor passing Jensen Farms food safety methods and failing to notice the listeria bacteria in the plant, the deputy commissioner of foods, Michael R. Taylor, had stated that he intended to "establish standards for how auditors should be trained and how audits should be conducted."[22]


On September 15, a lawsuit was filed against Jensen Farms by the first victim of the contaminated cantaloupe crop, who had fallen ill and been kept in the hospital for several weeks. He and his wife were involved in the legal proceedings.[27] In addition to Jensen Farms, the couple also sued a Walmart branch in Colorado Springs, Colorado, where they had bought the cantaloupe, for selling unsafe food.[29]


  1. ^ a b c "Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado (Final update)". Listeriosis (Listeria infection). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved December 9, 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado | Listeria | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  3. ^ JANE E. ALLEN (Nov 3, 2011). "Tainted Cantaloupes Behind Deadliest Food-Borne Outbreak". ABC News Medical Unit. Retrieved Nov 4, 2011.
  4. ^ Staff writer (September 27, 2011). "Listeria-cantaloupe-linked deaths rise to 16". CBS News. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
  5. ^ Staff writer (September 28, 2011). "Cantaloupe-related outbreak of illness linked to 13 deaths". CNN. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
  6. ^ Staff writer (September 28, 2011). "Cantaloupe outbreak is deadliest in a decade". USA Today. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
  7. ^ Elizabeth Weise (September 30, 2011). "Listeriosis toll rises to 15 dead, 84 sickened". USA Today. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  8. ^ Staff writer (October 4, 2011). "Health officials say listeria in cantaloupe is linked to 18 deaths in 8 states". Washington Post. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  9. ^ Elizabeth Weise (October 7, 2011). "Death toll in listeriosis outbreak now at 21". USA Today. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  10. ^ "Listeria Deaths Confirmed In Louisiana Too". RTT News. October 10, 2011. Retrieved October 11, 2011. Including the Louisiana cases, the listeria outbreak in the United States that started in late July has claimed 23 lives. In addition, a pregnant woman infected with listeria in Iowa suffered a miscarriage. The other states that have reported deaths related to the listeria outbreak include, Colorado (5), Indiana (1), Kansas (2), Maryland (1), Missouri (1), Nebraska (1), New Mexico (5), New York (1), Oklahoma (1), and Texas (2) and Wyoming (1).
  11. ^ JoNel Aleccia (October 13, 2011). "Cantaloupe listeria toll continues to rise: 116 sick, 23 dead". MSNBC. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  12. ^ Roseanne Harper (October 19, 2011). "FDA, CDC Give Listeria Outbreak Update". Supermarket News. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  13. ^ Staff writer (October 25, 2011). "28 now dead in listeria outbreak in cantaloupe". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  14. ^ JoNel Aleccia (October 5, 2011). "Woman's miscarriage blamed on listeria-tainted cantaloupe". MSNBC. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  15. ^ Mary Clare Jalonick (September 29, 2011). "Cantaloupe deaths and illnesses: CDC on ways to combat". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  16. ^ "Recall Information – Sweet Rocky Ford Cantaloupe". Kroger. September 15, 2011. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  17. ^ PR Newswire (September 15, 2011). "Safeway Recalls Jumbo Rocky Ford Cantaloupe from Jensen Farms Sold in Five States". Safeway. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  18. ^ "In Association with Jensen Farms Recall ALDI Voluntarily Recalls Rocky Ford Cantaloupes" (PDF). Aldi. September 16, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  19. ^ "Recall Notice – Rocky Ford Melons Recalled". US Foods. September 16, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  20. ^ a b c Christina Caron (September 28, 2011). "CDC: Cantaloupe Listeria Outbreak Deadliest in a Decade". ABC News. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
  21. ^ https://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2011/10/19/fda-contaminated-equipment-to-blame-for-listeria-outbreak
  22. ^ a b c William Neuman (October 19, 2011). "Listeria Outbreak Traced to Cantaloupe Packing Shed". New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
  23. ^ Lactaoen, Derek. "FDA Announces Investigation Results from Listeria-Contaminated Cantaloupe". ConsumerBell. Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  24. ^ US FDA Information on the Recalled Jensen Farms Whole Cantaloupes
  25. ^ Michael Muskal (October 21, 2011). "House panel probes listeria-tainted cantaloupes". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
  26. ^ Enjoli Francis (September 15, 2011). "Listeria Recall: Cantaloupes From Colorado Farm Pulled From Shelves". ABC News. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
  27. ^ a b Deb Stanley; Kim Nguyen (September 15, 2011). "Exclusive: Jensen Farms React To Lawsuit, Recall". 7NEWS. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
  28. ^ P. Solomon Banda (September 30, 2011). "Fear in Colo. town at heart of Listeria outbreak". Boston.com. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
  29. ^ Jon Bowman (September 15, 2011). "Man sues Colo. farm, Walmart over cantaloupe Listeria". KDVR. Archived from the original on November 14, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.

External links

Food Safety News

Food Safety News is a news and campaigning website focusing on food safety. It was founded in 2009 by Bill Marler, a lawyer and food safety advocate. Marler is the Managing Partner of Marler Clark, a Seattle, Washington, law firm that specializes in foodborne illness cases. He said that Food Safety News was created to "fill a void" left by print and broadcast media as budgetary constraints led to "dedicated reporters on the food, health and safety beats... being reassigned or seeing their positions disappear altogether." The site provides daily news coverage of "foodborne illness outbreaks and investigations, food recalls, and how food safety fits into the local food movement."

Food safety in Australia

Food safety in Australia concerns the production, distribution, preparation, and storage of food in Australia to prevent foodborne illness. Food standards organisations such as Food Standards Australia New Zealand aims to specify food standards as well as a testing regime seek to ensure that the food Australians eat is safe for them.In recent years the quality and integrity of the food supply in Australia has been under observation. Incidents such as the contaminated frozen berries during the second half of 2014 and the rockmelon listeriosis outbreak in early 2018 saw a concern in particular for the health of mothers and the elderly due to the contaminants reportedly capable of causing listeria and cholera. Australia is following the international trend away from government oversight towards a focus on preventative measures taken by the food industry.

In comparison with other developed countries Australia has higher rates for many illnesses due to foodborne pathogens. This may be caused by greater ascertainment of cases, higher rates of detection and increased risk factors.

Food safety in New Zealand

Food safety in New Zealand is a concern by the general public and the Government takes measures to regulate it. The estimated cost to the country in 2009 of the six foodborne illnesses campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, norovirus, yersiniosis, STEC and listeriosis was NZ$161 million.The Government launched an annual Foodsafe Week in 2007 to highlight food safety issues.


JibJab is a digital entertainment studio based in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1999 by brothers Evan and Gregg Spiridellis, it first achieved widespread attention during the 2004 US presidential election when their video of George W. Bush and John Kerry singing This Land Is Your Land became a viral hit. Initially known for political and social satire, JibJab produced commercials and shorts for clients such as Sony, Noggin, and Disney before focusing on its now-flagship personalized eCard and messaging services. In 2016, its animated sticker-making program - which has been available since 2004 - became the top iMessage App Store app by download growth.In 2012, JibJab also expanded into the children's educational market with its multi-platform learning program, StoryBots, which has since spawned two Netflix TV series, Ask the StoryBots and StoryBots Super Songs.

In 2019, JibJab was acquired by the private equity firm Catapult Capital.

List of foodborne illness outbreaks by death toll

This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks by death toll, caused by infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.


Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by Listeria monocytogenes, although L. ivanovii and L. grayi have been reported in certain cases. Listeriosis can cause severe illness, including severe sepsis, meningitis, or encephalitis, sometimes resulting in lifelong harm and even death. Those at risk of severe illness are the elderly, unborn babies, newborns and those who are immunocompromised. In pregnant women it may cause stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth is common. Listeriosis may cause mild, self-limiting gastroenteritis and fever in anyone.Listeria is ubiquitous and is primarily transmitted via the oral route after ingestion of contaminated food products, after which the organism penetrates the intestinal tract to cause systemic infections. The diagnosis of listeriosis requires the isolation of the organism from the blood and/or the cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment includes prolonged administration of antibiotics, primarily ampicillin and gentamicin, to which the organism is usually susceptible.

Pure Food and Drug Act

The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was the first of a series of significant consumer protection laws which was enacted by Congress in the 20th century and led to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration. Its main purpose was to ban foreign and interstate traffic in adulterated or mislabeled food and drug products, and it directed the U.S. Bureau of Chemistry to inspect products and refer offenders to prosecutors. It required that active ingredients be placed on the label of a drug’s packaging and that drugs could not fall below purity levels established by the United States Pharmacopeia or the National Formulary. The Jungle by Upton Sinclair with its graphic and revolting descriptions of unsanitary conditions and unscrupulous practices rampant in the meatpacking industry, was an inspirational piece that kept the public's attention on the important issue of unhygienic meat processing plants that later led to food inspection legislation. Sinclair quipped, "I aimed at the public's heart and by accident I hit it in the stomach," as outraged readers demanded and got the pure food law.

Adulterants, food contaminants
Parasitic infections through food
Sugar substitutes
Toxins, poisons, environment pollution
Food contamination incidents
Regulation, standards, watchdogs

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