On January 8, 2011, U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords and eighteen others were shot during a constituent meeting held in a supermarket parking lot in Casas Adobes, Arizona, in the Tucson metropolitan area. Six people died, including federal District Court Chief Judge John Roll; Gabe Zimmerman, one of Giffords' staffers; and a nine-year-old girl, Christina-Taylor Green. Giffords was holding the meeting, called "Congress on Your Corner", in the parking lot of a Safeway store when Jared Lee Loughner drew a pistol and shot her in the head before proceeding to fire on other people. One additional person was injured in the immediate aftermath of the shooting. News reports identified the target of the attack to be Giffords, a Democrat representing Arizona's 8th congressional district. She was shot through the head at point-blank range, and her medical condition was initially described as "critical".
Loughner, a 22-year-old Tucson man who was fixated on Giffords, was arrested at the scene. Federal prosecutors filed five charges against him, including the attempted assassination of a member of Congress and the assassination of a federal judge. Loughner previously had been arrested (but not convicted) once on a minor drug charge and had been suspended by his college for disruptive behavior. Court filings include notes handwritten by Loughner indicating he planned to assassinate Giffords. Loughner did not cooperate with authorities, invoking his right to remain silent. He was held without bail and indicted on 49 counts. In January 2012, Loughner was found by a federal judge to be incompetent to stand trial based on two medical evaluations, which diagnosed him with paranoid schizophrenia. Judged still incompetent to stand trial on May 25, finally on August 7, Loughner had a hearing at which he was judged competent. He pleaded guilty to 19 counts, and in November 2012 was sentenced to life in prison.
Following the shooting, American and international politicians expressed grief and condemnations. Gun control advocates pushed for increased restrictions on the sale of firearms and ammunition, specifically high-capacity magazines. Some commentators criticized the use of harsh political rhetoric in the United States, with a number blaming the political right wing for the shooting; in particular, Sarah Palin was criticized for a poster by her political action committee that featured stylized crosshairs on an electoral map. Palin rejected claims that she bore responsibility for the shooting, and others defended her by noting that Loughner hated all politicians regardless of their affiliation. President Barack Obama led a nationally televised memorial service on January 12, and other memorials took place.
|2011 Tucson shooting|
|Location||Tucson, Arizona, U.S.|
|Date||January 8, 2011 |
10:10 a.m. MST (UTC−07:00)
|Target||U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords|
|Weapons||Glock 19 semi-automatic pistol with a 33-round magazine|
|Deaths||6 (including federal judge John Roll)|
|15 (including the perpetrator, 13 by gunfire including Giffords)|
|Perpetrator||Jared Lee Loughner|
The shooting took place on January 8, 2011, at 10:10 a.m. MST (17:10 UTC). A United States Representative from Arizona, Gabrielle Giffords, was holding a constituent meeting called "Congress on Your Corner" at the Safeway supermarket in La Toscana Village mall, which is in Casas Adobes, an unincorporated area north of Tucson, Arizona. Giffords had set up a table outside the store and about 20 to 30 people were gathered around her when 22-year-old Jared Lee Loughner suddenly drew a pistol and shot Giffords in the head. The shooting was caught on video by a store security camera, but has not yet been released to the public.
Loughner proceeded to fire apparently randomly at other members of the crowd. He was armed with a Glock 19 semi-automatic pistol with four magazines, two of which were capable of holding 33 rounds. A nearby store employee said he heard "15 to 20 gunshots". Loughner stopped to reload, but dropped the loaded magazine from his pocket to the sidewalk, from where bystander Patricia Maisch grabbed it. Another bystander clubbed the back of the assailant's head with a folding chair, injuring his elbow in the process, representing the fourteenth injury. Loughner was tackled to the ground by Bill Badger, a 74-year-old retired United States Army Colonel  who had also been shot himself. Loughner was further subdued by Maisch and bystanders Roger Sulzgeber and Joseph Zamudio. Zamudio, a concealed weapon (CCW) permit holder, had a weapon on his person, but arrived after the shooting had stopped and did not draw his firearm. Thirty-one shell casings were found at the scene by investigators.
The first call from the scene to emergency services was received at 10:11 a.m. While waiting for help to arrive, Giffords' intern Daniel Hernández Jr. applied pressure to the gunshot wound on her forehead, and made sure she did not choke on her blood. Hernández was credited with saving Giffords' life. David and Nancy Bowman, a married doctor and nurse who were shopping in the store, immediately set up triage and attended to nine-year-old Christina-Taylor Green. Police arrived on the scene at 10:15 a.m., with paramedics arriving at 10:16 a.m. Badger observed the assailant attempting to discard a small bag containing money and identification, which was recovered by the officers. Following the shooting, the police shut down roads surrounding the shopping center until late in the day. The intersection was cordoned off and most of the businesses in the shopping center were closed throughout the weekend during the initial investigation. The Safeway store reopened a week later, with a makeshift memorial erected near the front of the store.
Five people died at the scene, including Chief Judge John Roll and Giffords' community outreach director Gabe Zimmerman. Most of the injured were taken to University Medical Center in Tucson. Christina-Taylor Green was later pronounced dead on arrival at the hospital.
When Loughner's parents arrived at their home, unaware of the shootings, they found police tape and police cars around their house. Their neighbor Wayne Smith said Loughner's mother "almost passed out right there", while his father sat in the road and cried. Smith described the family as "devastated", feeling guilty, and wondering "where did they fail?" Loughner's parents released a statement three days later expressing remorse for the victims and saying, "We don't understand why this happened."
Jared Lee Loughner, the suspect, was described as a white male in his mid-20s with short hair and "dressed in a shabby manner". He was arrested after being detained by bystanders, and police later released his name and details. The FBI attempted to question Loughner, but he reportedly refused to cooperate with authorities and invoked his Fifth Amendment rights. Authorities said that Loughner's motive was unknown. They said that evidence seized from a safe in Loughner's home included an envelope marked with notes reading "I planned ahead", "My assassination", and "Giffords", as well as a letter from Giffords' office thanking him for attending a similar event in 2007.
Federal officials charged Loughner the next day with killing federal government employees, attempting to assassinate a member of Congress and attempting to kill federal employees. Police reports reveal he had purchased a Glock pistol at a Sportsman's Warehouse store, after passing the required FBI background check, less than six weeks before and attempted to buy additional ammunition for the pistol at a Walmart on the morning of the shooting, but the clerk refused to sell it to him based on his appearance and demeanor.
As the shooting occurred outside the Tucson city limits in unincorporated Casas Adobes, the Pima County Sheriff's Department started the initial investigation with assistance from the Tucson Police Department and the Arizona Department of Public Safety. The Federal Bureau of Investigation director Robert Mueller was ordered to the location by President Obama, and the FBI took over the investigation. The United States Capitol Police also conducted an investigation.
Jared Lee Loughner, then age 22, lived with his parents Randy and Amy Loughner in Tucson, about 5 miles (8.0 km) from the site of the shooting. His mother worked for the City Parks Department; his father's work was not known. Loughner had been attending Pima Community College. Former classmates stated Loughner (at the time) cared about his education due to his appreciation of knowledge. Because of teacher and student complaints about Loughner's increasingly disruptive behavior in classes, the college suspended him on September 29, 2010, and he dropped out of the school in October. Loughner chose not to return, as the college required him to have a mental health evaluation and clearance to be readmitted.
Before the shooting, Loughner had two previous offenses, one of which was for drug possession. He had become obsessed with Giffords, and had previously met her at a "Congress on your Corner" event in a Tucson mall in August 2007.
U.S. Army officials said that Loughner had attempted to enlist in 2008, but his application had been rejected as "unqualified" for service. They declined further disclosure due to confidentiality rules. An administration official indicated to the media that Loughner had failed a drug test.
Loughner had been posting material online for some time via his Myspace account and on YouTube under the name "Classitup10". He gave his views on terrorism, federal laws, and his belief that the government was brainwashing the citizenry with language. Hours before the incident, Loughner's Myspace page was updated with posts from his account stating, "Goodbye", and said to friends: "Please don't be mad at me."
Earlier on the day of the shooting, Loughner reportedly had an altercation with his father regarding a black bag the younger man took from a car trunk. A bag matching the description was later found in a nearby desert area containing 9mm ammunition, and it is believed to belong to Loughner. Later that morning, at approximately 7:30 a.m., Loughner was stopped by an Arizona Game and Fish Department officer after running a red light, but was released with a reminder when it was determined that he did not have any outstanding warrants.
Loughner was held in the Federal Correctional Institution at Phoenix without bail. All Arizona-based federal judges recused themselves from the case because of their ties to Judge Roll, who was killed in the attack. The federal case was assigned to a San Diego-based jurist, federal Judge Larry Alan Burns from the United States District Court for the Southern District of California. The public defender Judy Clarke, also based in San Diego, was appointed to represent Loughner in federal court.
On January 19, 2011, a federal grand jury handed down an indictment for three counts against Loughner for the attempt to assassinate Representative Giffords, and attempting to kill two federal employees, her aides Ron Barber and Pamela Simon. Loughner was indicted on additional charges of murder and attempted murder on March 3, for a total of 49 counts.
Prosecutors representing the state of Arizona filed murder and attempted murder charges on behalf of the victims who were not federal employees. Under Arizona's speedy trial statutes, Arizona state prosecutors normally have ten days from the time a suspect is taken into custody to file charges, but time spent in federal custody does not count toward this limitation. Conviction in either federal or state court meant that Loughner could face the death penalty.
On May 25, 2011, Judge Burns found Loughner incompetent to stand trial based on two medical evaluations. These had diagnosed him as suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. Loughner was ordered to be forcibly medicated following his diagnosis of schizophrenia. A new evaluation was ordered for January 25, 2012.
On February 6, 2012, his stay at the Springfield, Missouri facility was extended by four months. A request by Loughner's lawyers to end forced medication was denied. Another competency hearing was set for June 27, 2012 but later rescheduled.
On August 7, 2012, Loughner's competency hearing began with testimony from Dr. Christina Pietz, Loughner's forensic psychologist, who testified that she believed Loughner was competent to stand trial. After hearing the evidence, Judge Burns ruled that Loughner was competent to stand trial, whereupon Loughner pleaded guilty to 19 counts, sparing himself the death penalty.
On November 8, 2012, Loughner appeared for sentencing, with several of his victims as well as relatives of those he killed in attendance. Judge Burns sentenced Loughner to seven consecutive life terms plus 140 years in prison without parole.
After his sentencing in federal court, Pima County Attorney Barbara LaWall announced that she would not prosecute Loughner on behalf of the state of Arizona. LaWall explained that her decision would afford the victims and their families, as well as the community in Tucson and Pima County, an opportunity to move forward with their lives. She said that, after speaking and consulting personally with each of the surviving victims and with the family members of those killed, it was clear that they would not be benefitted by a state prosecution. Surviving victims and family members told LaWall that they are "completely satisfied with the federal prosecution", that "justice has been served", and that the federal sentence is "suitably severe".
In addition to the six dead, thirteen other people were wounded by gunshot in the attack, while a fourteenth person was injured subduing Loughner. Gabrielle Giffords and two other members of her staff were among the surviving gunshot victims. Staffer Ron Barber, shot in the thigh and face, would later succeed Giffords in her House seat.
Gabrielle Giffords was reported to be the target of the shootings. Some news organizations initially reported that she had been killed, but these statements were quickly revised to reflect that she had survived with a gunshot wound to the head. Daniel Hernandez Jr., one of Giffords's interns, assisted her after she was wounded and is credited with saving her life.
Giffords was taken to University Medical Center in critical condition, although she was still conscious. Within 38 minutes, Giffords underwent emergency surgery, and part of her skull was removed to prevent further brain damage caused by swelling. She was placed into a medically induced coma to allow her brain to rest. During a memorial ceremony on January 12, President Obama announced that earlier that day Giffords had opened her eyes for the first time since the attack.
As Giffords' status improved, she began simple physical therapy and music therapy. On January 21, 2011, less than two weeks after the attack, her condition was deemed sufficiently stable for her to be released to Houston's Memorial Hermann Medical Center. A few days later she was moved to the center's Institute for Rehabilitation and Research to undergo a program of physical therapy and rehabilitation. After examination, her Houston doctors were optimistic, saying she has "great rehabilitation potential". Medical experts expect Giffords's recovery to take from several months to more than one year.
On August 1, 2011, she made her first public appearance on the House floor to vote in favor of raising the debt limit ceiling. She was met with a standing ovation and accolades from her fellow members of Congress. Giffords engaged in intensive rehabilitation treatments in Asheville, North Carolina from October 25 through November 4. In 2011, Mark Kelly, Giffords' husband, published a memoir, Gabby: A Story of Courage and Hope, crediting her with joint authorship. He wrote that Giffords vows to return to Congress, although she continues to struggle with language and has lost 50 percent of her vision in both eyes.
On January 22, 2012, Giffords announced that she would resign from her congressional seat in order to concentrate on her recovery, but promised to return to public service in the future. She submitted her resignation on January 25 on the floor of the House in an emotional appearance; colleagues and the House leadership offered their tributes to her courage and strength.
In the wake of the shooting, Democrats and Republicans both called for a cooling of political rhetoric and a return to bipartisanship. On the eve of the shooting, Giffords had written to a Republican friend, Trey Grayson, Secretary of State of Kentucky, saying, "we need to figure out how to tone our rhetoric and partisanship down." In March 2010, Giffords had expressed concern about the use of crosshairs on a national midterm election map on Sarah Palin's campaign webpage denoting targeted congressional seats, including Giffords's, in Arizona's 8th district. Shortly after the map's posting and the subsequent vandalizing of her office that month, Giffords said, "We're in Sarah Palin's 'targeted' list, but the thing is that the way she has it depicted, we're in the crosshairs of a gun sight over our district. When people do that, they've got to realize that there are consequences to that action." At that point in the interview, however, the interviewer said, "campaign rhetoric and war rhetoric have been interchangeable for years." The image was removed from Palin's "takebackthe20" website following the January shootings. Palin responded to her critics in a January 12 video, rejecting the notion that anyone other than the gunman could bear any responsibility for the Tucson shooting, and accusing the press of manufacturing a "blood libel" to blame her and the right wing for the attacks.
The political climate in the United States and in Arizona in particular was pointed to by some observers as a possible contributing factor for the violent act. For example, Clarence Dupnik, Pima County Sheriff, initially expressed concern that overheated political rhetoric and violence may be related, observing, "When you look at unbalanced people, how they respond to the vitriol that comes out of certain mouths about tearing down the government. The anger, the hatred, the bigotry that goes on in this country is getting to be outrageous." He believed that Arizona had unfortunately become "the capital" of such feelings. "We have become the mecca for prejudice and bigotry," he said. But, Dupnik later said that he had no evidence that the killings were a result of anything particular which Loughner may have read or heard. International media referred to the political climate in the United States and the Palin map in particular. The French newspaper Le Monde said that the attack seemed to confirm "an alarming premonition that has been gaining momentum for a long time: that the verbal and symbolic violence that the most radical right-wing opponents have used in their clash with the Obama administration would at some point lead to tragic physical violence." President Obama called the shooting an "unspeakable tragedy", adding that "such a senseless and terrible act of violence has no place in a free society". Arizona Governor Jan Brewer called the attack "senseless and cruel violence" and House Speaker John Boehner said, "An attack on one who serves is an attack on all who serve. Acts and threats of violence against public officials have no place in our society". Chief Justice John Roberts issued a statement noting, "we in the judiciary have suffered the terrible loss of one of our own", with the death of Chief Judge John Roll.
Political figures such as Arizona's United States Senators Jon Kyl and John McCain, House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi issued statements. Numerous foreign politicians additionally commented on the shooting, including Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister Lawrence Cannon, British Prime Minister David Cameron, Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, and Cuba's Fidel Castro. The website GiffordsIsLying.com, run by Giffords' former opponent Jesse Kelly, was replaced with a single page urging support for Giffords and her family.
Senator Chuck Schumer called for a fresh look at gun control laws in the United States, including the possibility of high-capacity magazine ban, and prohibiting a person who has been rejected for military service due to drug use from owning a gun. Homeland Security Committee chairman Peter T. King announced that he would introduce a bill to ban the carrying of firearms within 1,000 feet (300 m) of certain federal officials. Representative Carolyn McCarthy announced that she would introduce legislation to ban the sale of high-capacity magazines to civilians.
Some media commentators, such as Howard Kurtz and Toby Harnden, criticized what they perceived as a rush to judgment about the shooter's motivation, disputing suggestions that the shooting was the result of the Tea Party movement or anything in connection to Palin. Paul Krugman wrote an op-ed piece arguing that political rhetoric had become toxic. With renewed calls to tone down political rhetoric after the shooting, Keith Olbermann said, "Violence, or the threat of violence, has no place in our Democracy, and I apologize for and repudiate any act or any thing in my past that may have even inadvertently encouraged violence." Jon Stewart stated that he did not know whether or not the political environment contributed to the shooting, but, "For all the hyperbole and vitriol that's become a part of our political process—when the reality of that rhetoric, when actions match the disturbing nature of words, we haven't lost our capacity to be horrified. ... Maybe it helps us to remember to match our rhetoric with reality more often."
U.S. flags flown by the federal government were displayed at half-staff from January 9, 2011 until sunset on January 15, 2011 in honor of the victims of the Tucson shooting. A national moment of silence was held at 11:00 a.m. EST on January 10, 2011 on the South Lawn of the White House as well as the steps of the United States Capitol. President Obama went to Tucson on January 12 where he met with the families of the victims and visited Giffords at her bedside in the medical center before attending the evening's televised memorial ceremony where he delivered a memorial speech.
Among other memorials: when the Safeway store reopened after the shooting, the staff erected a makeshift memorial; at the 2011 Major League Baseball All-Star Game, Giffords' intern, Daniel Hernandez Jr., was accompanied onto the field by the families of the shooting victims, and threw the ceremonial first pitch; and for the 2011 State of the Union Address, Senator Mark Udall of Colorado proposed that members of both houses sit together regardless of party, with one seat left empty in honor of Giffords.
Christina-Taylor Green, the youngest of the victims, had an interest in politics and said that she had wanted to attend college at Penn State University; she was born in Pennsylvania and had a connection to the state through her grandfather, Dallas Green. The university honored her with a brick on the Alumni Walk on campus, and with a certificate in her memory.
On the night of January 11, 2011, Governor Brewer signed emergency legislation to prohibit protests within 300 feet (91 m) of any funeral services, in response to an announcement by the Westboro Baptist Church that it planned to picket the funeral of shooting victim Christina-Taylor Green. The members of the congregation agreed to appear on talk radio in exchange for dropping their plans to picket the funeral.
On Sunday, January 16, 2011, eight days after the shooting, Vietnam War veteran James Eric Fuller, who had been shot in the knee during the attack, was arrested for disorderly conduct at a town hall meeting. After Tucson Tea Party figure Trent Humphries, who had faulted Giffords for not having enough security, stated that gun control measures should not be discussed until all those killed in the shooting were buried, Fuller allegedly took a picture of Humphries and shouted, "You're dead." In an interview during the week after the shooting, Fuller had criticized Palin and what he called the "Tea Party crime-syndicate" for promoting a divisive political climate before the attacks. The police then committed him to an undisclosed medical facility to undergo a psychiatric evaluation. A police spokesman stated that the hospital will determine when he will be released. Meanwhile, Humphries said he was worried about Fuller's threat, and the dozens of other angry e-mails he received from people blaming right-wing political rhetoric for contributing to the assassination attempt on Giffords.
The investigators believe that Loughner, 22, did not have sufficient income of his own to buy the Glock 19 semiautomatic handgun, the four magazines and the knife he allegedly carried to the event in front of a Tucson supermarket, the sources said. They estimated the cost at close to $1,000. Two of the magazines were extended ones capable of holding up to 33 rounds.
What they have spent less time discussing are the tools that allowed Loughner to allegedly carry out the attack - the high powered weapon and ammunition that helped him do so much damage so quickly. Arizona has some of the laxest gun laws in the nation, laws that allowed Loughner to purchase and carry a Glock 19 9mm semi-automatic pistol - and high-capacity clips - despite the fact that he was barred from his community college campus because administrators saw him as a mentally-unstable security threat...The clip allegedly used by Loughner, which allows for 33 shots without reloading instead of about 10 in a normal clip, would have been illegal under the assault weapons ban that Congress let expire in 2004.
She and an aide parked an SUV in the lot of La Toscana Village, a mall about 8 miles north of downtown Tucson.
Everyone says Christina had Roxanna's grace and John's spirit.
In Paris, the newspaper Le Monde said the attack seemed to confirm "an alarming premonition that has been gaining momentum for a long time: that the verbal and symbolic violence that the most radical right-wing opponents have used in their clash with the Obama administration would at some point lead to tragic physical violence."
This morning, in an unspeakable tragedy, a number of Americans were shot in Tucson, Arizona, at a constituent meeting with Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords. And while we are continuing to receive information, we know that some have passed away, and that Representative Giffords is gravely wounded.
We do not yet have all the answers. What we do know is that such a senseless and terrible act of violence has no place in a free society. I ask all Americans to join me and Michelle in keeping Representative Giffords, the victims of this tragedy, and their families in our prayers.
A 2012 special election in Arizona's 8th congressional district was held on June 12, with primary elections held on April 17, to fill a seat in the United States House of Representatives for Arizona's 8th congressional district until the 112th United States Congress ends on January 3, 2013. The election was caused by the resignation of Representative Gabrielle Giffords on January 25, 2012, to concentrate on recovering from her injuries from the 2011 Tucson shooting. The seat was won by Ron Barber, a former aide to Giffords who was wounded in the attempt on her life.American Renaissance (magazine)
American Renaissance (AR or AmRen) is a monthly white supremacist online publication founded and edited by Jared Taylor. It is published by the New Century Foundation, which describes itself as a "race-realist, white advocacy organization". It has also been described as "alt-right" by The Guardian.Americans for Responsible Solutions
Americans for Responsible Solutions (ARS) was a United States non-profit organization and super PAC that supports gun control. The group's stated goal is "to encourage elected officials to stand up for solutions to prevent gun violence and protect responsible gun ownership." It typically supports Democratic politicians in elections. In 2016, the organization joined the Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence to become Giffords.Barack Obama Tucson memorial speech
President of the United States Barack Obama delivered a speech at the Together We Thrive: Tucson and America memorial on January 12, 2011, held in the McKale Center on the University of Arizona campus.
It honored the victims of the 2011 Tucson shooting and included themes of healing and national unity. Watched by more than 30 million Americans, it drew widespread praise from politicians and commentators across the political spectrum and from abroad.Can We Get Together
Can We Get Together is a charity compilation album benefiting those affected by the assassination attempt on congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords. The project was the creative vision of University of Arizona law student Robert Current to benefit the victims that didn't have insurance, with proceeds to Homicide Survivors of Tucson. The album featured 117 Southern Arizona musicians, plus various local Tucson studios, engineers, and producers, and was released through the iTunes Store, Amazon.com and in a double CD with national distribution on March 14, 2011 through unknown indie label CoSeismic Records. Later that year the concept was taken by Luz de Vida, another album featuring some of the same artists as Can We Get Together.
The album features a wide range of music from University of Arizona music professors performing classical works, to local Tucson musicians performing styles including Rap, Hip-Hop, Punk Rock, Christian, Blues, Big Band Swing, Reggae, Folk, Adult Contemporary, and Mariachi music. Many of the artists had a close personal connection to the 2011 Tucson shooting, and several songs were written specifically about the shooting.Studios in Southern Arizona that contributed time listed in the liner notes include Audioconfusion Studios, Billy Joseph Productions, Black Scorpion and Far Out Musicians, Chukshon Recording Studio, Daveguitar Sound, Delicious Delicious, Draco Studios, Gary Ray Recordings, Jack Miller Productions, JTG Studio, Live Sound at Crowder Hall at University of Arizona, Live Sound at Pima Community College Recital Hall, Luna Studios, Next Door Studios, OG7 Studios, The Den Studios, The University of Arizona School of Music, Wavelab, and Wet Kitchen Studios.Casas Adobes, Arizona
Casas Adobes (Spanish: "Adobe Houses") is a census-designated place (CDP) located in the northern metropolitan area of Tucson, Arizona (in Pima County). The population was 66,795 at the 2010 census. Casas Adobes is situated south and southwest of the town of Oro Valley, and west of the community of Catalina Foothills.
The attempted assassination of Representative Gabrielle Giffords, and the murders of chief judge for the U.S. District Court for Arizona, John Roll, and five other people on January 8, 2011, occurred at a Safeway supermarket in Casas Adobes.Clarence Dupnik
Clarence William Dupnik (born January 11, 1936) is a retired American law enforcement official. Dupnik was appointed Sheriff of Pima County, Arizona, in February 1980 to fill a vacancy rising from the resignation of his predecessor, Richard Boykin.
He won election in his own right in September 1980, and has been re-elected every four years since. Dupnik is a member of the Democratic party. Dupnik retired from the Pima County Sheriff's Office in 2015.Emergency Bandage
The Emergency Bandage or Israeli bandage is a specially designed, first-aid device that is used to stop bleeding from hemorrhagic wounds caused by traumatic injuries in pre-hospital emergency situations. First used for saving lives during a NATO peacekeeping operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the bandage was successfully used during operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. The bandage was nicknamed "Israeli bandage" by American soldiers, and has been "the bandage of choice for the US Army and special forces." The Israeli Bandage was included in the first aid kits of emergency personnel and first responders at the 2011 Tucson shooting, and was used to treat some victims of the shooting.The bandage was invented by an Israeli military medic, Bernard Bar-Natan.Faiths United to Prevent Gun Violence
Faiths United to Prevent Gun Violence (Faiths United) is a United States faith-based, interdenominational gun control advocacy organization.Gabby Giffords
Gabrielle Dee Giffords (born June 8, 1970) is an American politician from Arizona and a gun control advocate. As a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, she represented Arizona's 8th congressional district from January 3, 2007, until her resignation on January 25, 2012, after surviving an assassination attempt that left her with a severe brain injury. She is the third woman in Arizona's history to be elected to the U.S. Congress. Considered a "Blue Dog" Democrat, her focus on health care reform and illegal immigration were sources of attention for those opposed to her candidacy and made her a recipient of criticism from various liberal groups.
Giffords is a native of Tucson, Arizona, and a graduate of Scripps College and Cornell University. Prior to her election to the United States Congress, Giffords served in the Arizona House of Representatives from 2001 until 2003 and the Arizona State Senate from 2003 until 2005, when she resigned to run for the house seat held by then-Congressman Jim Kolbe. She also worked as an associate for regional economic development for Price Waterhouse in New York City, and as CEO of El Campo Tire Warehouses, a local automotive chain owned by her grandfather. She is married to former astronaut and Space Shuttle Commander Mark E. Kelly.
On January 8, 2011, just a week into her third term, Giffords was a victim of an assassination attempt near Tucson at the hands of gunman Jared Lee Loughner, at a Safeway supermarket where she was meeting publicly with constituents. Loughner shot Giffords in the head with a 33-round-magazine Glock pistol; he shot twenty-four others, killing six and wounding eighteen, among them federal judge John Roll and a 9-year-old child, Christina-Taylor Green, before Loughner was disarmed, arrested, and charged with murder and attempted murder. Giffords was later brought to a rehabilitation facility in Houston, Texas, where she recovered some of her ability to walk, speak, read, and write.
On August 1, 2011, Giffords returned to the House floor to vote and was greeted with a standing ovation. On January 22, 2012, Giffords announced her resignation from her congressional seat in order to concentrate on recovering from her wounds, but promised to return to public service in the future. She attended President Obama's State of the Union address on January 24, and appeared on the floor of the House on January 25, 2012, where she formally submitted her resignation to a standing ovation and accolades from her colleagues and the leadership of the House.Jared Lee Loughner
Jared Lee Loughner (; born September 10, 1988) is an American mass murderer who pled guilty to 19 charges of murder and attempted murder in connection with the January 8, 2011 Tucson shooting, in which, as a 22 year old, he shot and severely injured U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords, his target, and killed six people, including Chief U.S. District Court Judge John Roll, as well as a nine-year-old bystander, Christina-Taylor Green. Loughner shot and injured a total of 13 people, while one man was injured while subduing him.Acquaintances say that Loughner's personality had changed markedly in the years prior to the shooting, a period during which he was also abusing alcohol and drugs. He had been suspended from Pima Community College in September 2010 because of his bizarre behavior and disruptions in classes and the library. After his arrest, two medical evaluations diagnosed Loughner with paranoid schizophrenia and ruled him incompetent to stand trial. He was placed on medication while in jail, as part of his treatment. He was again judged incompetent in May 2012.
In August 2012, Loughner was judged competent to stand trial, and at the hearing, he pleaded guilty to 19 counts. In November 2012, he was sentenced to life plus 140 years in federal prison.John Roll
John McCarthy Roll (February 8, 1947 – January 8, 2011) was a United States District Judge who served on the United States District Court for the District of Arizona from 1991 until his death in 2011, and as chief judge of that court from 2006 to 2011. With degrees from the University of Arizona College of Law and University of Virginia School of Law, Roll began his career as a court bailiff in Arizona and became an assistant city attorney of Tucson, Arizona in 1973. Later that year, Roll became a deputy county attorney for Pima County, Arizona until 1980, when he began serving as an Assistant United States Attorney for seven years. President George H. W. Bush appointed Roll to a federal judge seat in Arizona after Roll served four years as a state judge.
Roll was killed in the 2011 Tucson shooting while attending a constituent outreach event held by United States Representative Gabrielle Giffords in Casas Adobes, near Tucson, Arizona.McKale Center
McKale Memorial Center is an athletic arena in the southwest United States, located on the campus of the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona. As the home of the university's Wildcats basketball team of the Pac-12 Conference, it is primarily used for basketball, but also has physical training and therapy facilities. Its construction is marked with a large copper cap that has oxidized brown. The arena opened 46 years ago in February 1973 and has an official capacity of 14,644 spectators. The elevation at street level is approximately 2,450 feet (750 m) above sea level.
The McKale Center was named in honor of J.F. "Pop" McKale, a major athletic figure at U of A from 1914 to 1957. At one time, he was head coach of all of the school's athletic teams. He was head basketball coach from 1914 to 1921, where he achieved a 49–12 (.803) record. He led the football team from 1914 to 1930, with an 80–32–6 (.703) record. It was McKale's first team that resulted in Arizona's teams being nicknamed "Wildcats." In 1914, Arizona's name meant very little in the college football world. Although they lost to Occidental College in Los Angeles 14–0, a reporter for the Los Angeles Times was so impressed with Arizona's effort that he wrote, "The Arizona men showed the fight of wild cats ..." Soon afterward, Arizona's student-athletes were nicknamed the Wildcats.Following a win over rival Arizona State on February 26, 2000, the university athletic department honored longtime head coach Lute Olson with a ceremony to name the McKale Center playing surface "Lute Olson Court." Less than a year later, during a memorial service in January 2001 for Olson's late wife, Bobbi, it was renamed, "Lute and Bobbi Olson Court" in recognition of the couple's impact on the university and the city of Tucson.In 2002, the Eddie Lynch Athletics Pavilion, a state-of-the-art medical and strength/conditioning facility for Wildcat student athletes, was completed and opened. The pavilion (which cost $14 million) was a 36,000-square-foot (3,300 m2) addition to the north end of McKale Center. The upper level has a 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) museum-like display area, open to the public, showcasing the history of Arizona Wildcat athletics.In terms of capacity, McKale Center is the second-largest arena in the Pac-12 conference; Utah's Huntsman Center in Salt Lake City is first, but Arizona averages greater attendance. Arizona has the current longest streak of leading its conference in attendance in conference history, going on 34 seasons & second in the country currently behind Kentucky at 40.The University's spring and winter commencement ceremonies were held at McKale Center from 1973 until 2012; the 2013 ceremonies returned to Arizona Stadium after an absence of thirty years.Peter M. Rhee
Peter Meong Rhee (born September 18, 1961) is an American surgeon, medical professor, and military veteran. During his 24 years in the United States Navy, Rhee served as a battlefield casualty physician in Afghanistan and Iraq.Formerly a Professor of Surgery and the Chief of Trauma, Critical Care, and Burn and Emergency Surgery at the University of Arizona College of Medicine until 2016, he now serves as the Chief of Acute Care Surgery and as Medical Director of the Marcus Trauma Center at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. He rose to national prominence when he served as the attending physician to U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords of Arizona, as well as other victims, following the 2011 Tucson shooting.Pima Community College
Pima Community College (PCC) is a community college in Pima County, Arizona serving the Tucson metropolitan area. The community college district consists of six campuses, four education centers, and several adult education learning centers. It provides traditional and online instruction for over 144 programs. The college also offers workforce training, non-credit personal interest classes and post-baccalaureate certificates. PCC is one of the largest multi-campus community colleges in the United States, with relative ranking varying between fourth and tenth largest. PCC is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association.Pima County Courthouse
Pima County Courthouse is the former main county courthouse building in downtown Tucson, Arizona. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was designed by Roy Place in 1928 in Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival style architecture.The building previously housed the Pima County Superior Court (1930-1977) and later, the Pima County Consolidated Justice Court (1977-2015), which handled lower-level state criminal matters and small claims cases. As of February 2015, court proceedings for Justice Court are held in a newer building shared with other Pima County departments, which is located at 240 North Stone Avenue. Superior Court proceedings are held in the Pima County Superior Court building, located at 110 West Congress Street.
As this building will be vacant by 2017, as the various departments and court functions relocate to newer facilities, Pima County is planning to convert the historic Courthouse to museum space. The county is in discussions with the University of Arizona and the Tucson Museum of Art to house exhibits; there will be a new café, and a memorial to the victims of the 2011 Tucson shooting that seriously wounded then-U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords.Randall Friese
Randall S. Friese is an American surgeon and politician from the state of Arizona. A member of the Democratic Party, Friese serves in the Arizona House of Representatives.Ron Barber
Ronald Sylvester Barber (born August 25, 1945) is an American politician. He was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 2012 to 2015. Barber, a member of the Democratic Party from Arizona, served as district director for U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords before Giffords resigned her seat due to the severe injuries she sustained in an assassination attempt, during which Barber was also injured. He won the Democratic nomination for the special election to finish Giffords's term and was sworn into office on June 19, 2012.In the 2012 general election, he was elected to a full term. His district—numbered as the 8th district in 2012, and as the 2nd district since 2013—includes the eastern two-thirds of Tucson, as well as the southeastern corner of Arizona. Barber lost his 2014 re-election bid to Martha McSally by 167 votes.Saul Cornell
Saul Cornell, is the Paul and Diane Guenther Chair in American History at Fordham University, a former Professor of history at Ohio State University and the former Director of the Second Amendment Research Center at the John Glenn Institute.He received a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1989 and is now one of the nation’s leading authorities on early American constitutional thought.He is the author of The Other Founders: Anti-Federalism and the Dissenting Tradition in America (1999) for which he won the 2001 Cox Book Prize and A Well-Regulated Militia: the Founding Fathers and the Origins of Gun Control in America (2006). He is also the co-author of many other publications, including the textbook Visions of America: A History of the United States (2009). Recently, he authored an article on Salon regarding the 2011 Tucson shooting and Gun Control.In addition to book writing, he has contributed to numerous Amicus curiae briefs in court cases involving the 2nd Amendment. Most notably, he is the co-author of an Amicus Brief filed in District of Columbia v. Heller.