The 2011 Nobel Peace Prize was jointly awarded to three female political activists. Two African and one Asian female were awarded for their persistence in obtaining equal rights for women.
|The Nobel Peace Prize|
|Awarded for||Outstanding contributions to peace|
|Date||10 December 2011|
|Presented by||Norwegian Nobel Committee|
|Reward(s)||10 million SEK ($1.5M)|
|2011 laureates||Tawakel Karman|
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
The joint laureated were: Liberian President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Liberian activist Leymah Gbowee and Yemeni politician Tawakkul Karman "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work". In announcing the award on 7 October 2011, the chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Thorbjørn Jagland, stressed the link between women's rights, peace and democracy.
The winner is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee from nominations by others. There were 241 nominations for the 2011 award, which included the European Union, WikiLeaks and individuals connected with the Arab Spring such as Israa Abdel Fattah and Wael Ghonim.
The five members of the Nobel Committee are appointed by the Norwegian Parliament to roughly reflect the party makeup of that body. The Committee members may not be current parliament members or government officials.
The reactions from politicians and commentators to the 2011 prize were mainly positive but Winston Tubman, who stood against Ellen Johnson Sirleaf in the 2011 presidential election, criticised the award, accusing Sirleaf of being "a warmonger". 
The 2012 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the European Union (EU) "for over six decades [having] contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe" by a unanimous decision of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
The decision highlighted the reconciliation of France and Germany, stating that "over a seventy-year period, Germany and France had fought three wars. Today war between Germany and France is unthinkable. This shows how, through well-aimed efforts and by building up mutual confidence, historical enemies can become close partners." The decision also highlighted the EU's contribution to the "introduction of democracy" in Greece, Spain and Portugal, the advancing of democracy and human rights in Turkey, the strengthening of democracy in Eastern Europe following the Revolutions of 1989 and overcoming of "the division between East and West" and ethnically based national conflicts, and finally the EU's contribution to the "process of reconciliation in the Balkans."African Women's Development Fund
The African Women's Development Fund (AWDF) is the first pan-African foundation to support the work of women's rights organisations in Africa. AWDF was founded in 2001 by Bisi Adeleye-Fayemi, Joana Foster and Hilda M. Tardia. AWDF belongs to the International Network of Women’s Funds, an umbrella organisation for feminist foundations that focus on supporting women's human rights.Human rights in Liberia
Human rights in Liberia became a focus of international attention when the country's president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, was named one of the three female co-winners of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize, all of whom were cited "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work".Yet, as the Guardian noted in October 2012, "the award to President Sirleaf was not unanimously welcomed in her own country", and a year after the prize was announced, one of Sirleaf's co-winners, Liberian activist Leymah Gbowee, articulated the views of many of Sirleaf's critics, charging the president with nepotism, among other offenses, and citing the high government positions held by Sirleaf's three sons. In November 2012, a Liberian human-rights lawyer, Tiawan Saye Gongloe, also criticized Sirleaf's nepotism and called on her to resign.Both nepotism and corruption are widespread in Liberia. Among the country's other very serious human-rights problems are ritualistic killings, police abuse, incidents of so-called "trial by ordeal", arbitrary arrest, the denial of due process, violence against women, domestic violence, female genital mutilation, child abuse, human trafficking, and child labor. Since the end of the Civil War in 2003, however, there has been a great deal of activity by a number of international organizations with the objective of establishing in Liberia a solid democracy based on human rights.Liberia is a signatory of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.Israa Abdel Fattah
Esraa Abdel Fattah (Egyptian Arabic: إسراء عبد الفتاح, IPA: [ʔesˈɾˤɑːʔ ʕæbdelfætˈtæːħ, ˈʔesɾˤɑ-]; also called Facebook Girl); born 1978 is an Egyptian internet activist and blogger.
Esraa worked as a human resources administrator, when she co-founded April 6 Youth Movement Egypt in 2008, a group that was made to support the workers in El-Mahalla El-Kubra, an industrial town, who were planning to strike on April 6. This group gradually became a popular political movement.Leymah Gbowee
Leymah Roberta Gbowee (born 1 February 1972) is a Liberian peace activist responsible for leading a women's nonviolent peace movement, Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace that helped bring an end to the Second Liberian Civil War in 2003. Her efforts to end the war, along with her collaborator Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, helped usher in a period of peace and enabled a free election in 2005 that Sirleaf won. She, along with Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Tawakkul Karman, were awarded the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work."List of Muslim Nobel laureates
As of 2018, twelve Nobel Prize laureates have been Muslims, more than half in the 21st century. Seven of the twelve laureates have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, while three have been for the sciences. The recipient of the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics, Abdus Salam, was a member of the Ahmadiyya Muslim community of Pakistan. Aziz Sancar is the second Turkish Nobel laureate and was awarded the Nobel prize in Chemistry in the field of molecular biology in 2015.List of University of Tampa alumni
This list of University of Tampa alumni includes both graduates and non-graduates of the University of Tampa.List of peace activists
This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods. Peace activists usually work with others in the overall anti-war and peace movements to focus the world's attention on what they perceive to be the irrationality of violent conflicts, decisions, and actions. They thus initiate and facilitate wide public dialogues intended to nonviolently alter long-standing societal agreements directly relating to, and held in place by, the various violent, habitual, and historically fearful thought-processes residing at the core of these conflicts, with the intention of peacefully ending the conflicts themselves.List of women pacifists and peace activists
This is a list of women pacifists and peace activists by nationality – notable women who are well known for their work in promoting pacifism.Mayors for Peace
Mayors for Peace is an international organization of cities dedicated to the promotion of peace that was established in 1982 at the initiative of then Mayor of Hiroshima Takeshi Araki, in response to the deaths of around 140,000 people due to the atomic bombing of the city on August 6, 1945.
The current mayor of Hiroshima, Kazumi Matsui, is the President of the organization today.
Mayors for Peace was started in Japan, and since then Mayors throughout the World have signed on. When Mayors sign on, it means they support the commencement of negotiations towards the elimination of nuclear weapons by the year 2020.
In September 2015, Mayors for Peace counted around 6,800 member cities in 161 countries and territories around the world.Nansen Refugee Award
The UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award is awarded annually by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to an individual, group, or organization in recognition of outstanding service to the cause of refugees, displaced or stateless people. It was established in 1954.Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year. The prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law (1947–1989), the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–1946), and the Parliament (1901–1904).
Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of controversies.Pray the Devil Back to Hell
Pray the Devil Back to Hell is a documentary film directed by Gini Reticker and produced by Abigail Disney. The film premiered at the 2008 Tribeca Film Festival, where it won the award for Best Documentary. The film had its theatrical release in New York City on November 7, 2008.
The film documents a peace movement called Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace. Organized by social worker Leymah Gbowee, the movement started with praying and singing in a fish market. Leymah Gbowee organized the Christian and Muslim women of Monrovia, Liberia to pray for peace and to organize nonviolent protests. Dressed in white to symbolize peace, and numbering in the thousands, the women became a political force against violence and against their government.Their movement led to the election of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf in Liberia, the first African nation with a female president. The film has been used as an advocacy tool in post-conflict zones like Sudan, mobilizing African women to petition for peace and security.Sana'a University
Sana'a University (Arabic: جامعة صنعاء) was established in 1970 as the first and the primary university in the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen), now the Republic of Yemen (see also Aden University). It is located in Sana'a, the capital of Yemen, and is currently organized with 17 faculties. Previously the university was located at 15°20′53.16″N 44°11′26.83″E, and was built on the grounds of the old Jewish cemetery.Sex strike
A sex strike, sometimes called a sex boycott, is a strike, a method of non-violent resistance in which one or multiple persons (usually women) refrain from sex with their partners to achieve certain goals. It is a form of temporary sexual abstinence.
Sex strikes have been used to protest many issues, from war to gang violence.Tahrir Square, Sana'a
Al-Tahrir Square, also Al-Tahreer Square or Tahreer Square is a square in central Sana'a, Yemen. It is located west of the Abbas Mosque and the Sultan Palace Hotel, south of the National Museum of Yemen and north of the Yemen Military Museum. Protests took place here during the 2011 Yemeni uprising, involving clashes between supporters of President Saleh and his detractors. Tawakel Karman, awarded the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize, made her headquarters a tent pitched at the Square, where she has led weekly Tuesday protests since 2007.
The square was a focal point of the 2014 Yemen protests as part of the Houthi rebellion. On 9 October 2014, a suicide bomb tore through Tahrir Square while Houthis were preparing for a rally. The attack killed 47 people and wounded 75, and has been blamed on al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.The square has been used by Houthis for public executions.Tawakkol Karman
Tawakkol Abdel-Salam Karman (Arabic: توكل عبد السلام خالد كرمان Tawakkul 'Abd us-Salām Khalid Karmān; also Romanized Tawakul, Tawakel) (born 7 February 1979) is a Yemeni journalist, politician, and human rights activist. She leads the group "Women Journalists Without Chains," which she co-founded in 2005. She became the international public face of the 2011 Yemeni uprising that is part of the Arab Spring uprisings. In 2011, she was reportedly called the "Iron Woman" and "Mother of the Revolution" by some Yemenis. She is a co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the first Yemeni, the first Arab woman, and the second Muslim woman to win a Nobel Prize and the second youngest Nobel Peace Laureate to date.Karman gained prominence in her country after 2005 in her roles as a Yemeni journalist and an advocate for a mobile phone news service denied a license in 2007, after which she led protests for press freedom. She organized weekly protests after May 2007 expanding the issues for reform. She redirected the Yemeni protests to support the "Jasmine Revolution," as she calls the Arab Spring, after the Tunisian people overthrew the government of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011. She has been a vocal opponent who has called for the end of President Ali Abdullah Saleh's regime.A Saudi cable leak from WikiLeaks revealed that while publicly denouncing Saudi Arabia she was secretly arranging meetings with the Saudis to request their support. Karman lavished praise on the Saudis for pushing through a transition agreement that for many reformers, was seen as a deep betrayal of the revolution. She accused Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi of supporting the Houthis and Al Qaeda.University of Science and Technology, Sana'a
University of Science and Technology, Yemen USTY is a private university in Sana'a, Yemen. It was established in 1994 as the College of Science and Technology and later became a major university with branches in the main Yemeni cities like Aden, Taiz , Ibb, Hadhramaut and Hodiedah.WJWC
WJWC may refer to:
WJWC-LP, a low-power radio station (97.3 FM) licensed to serve Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States
WJWC-LP (defunct), a defunct low-power radio station (101.9 FM) formerly licensed to serve Gallion, Alabama, United States
World Junior Wushu Championships, an international wushu competition for competitors below 18 years of age
Women Journalists Without Chains, a group created by Tawakel Karman, who was awarded the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize
2011 Nobel Prize laureates
|Physiology or Medicine|