2010 Winter Olympics

The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler.

Approximately 2,600 athletes from 82 nations participated in 86 events in fifteen disciplines.[1] Both the Olympic and Paralympic Games were organized by the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC), headed by John Furlong. The 2010 Winter Olympics were the third Olympics hosted by Canada and the first by the province of British Columbia. Canada hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Quebec, and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta. Metro Vancouver is the largest metropolitan area to host the Winter Olympics, although Calgary is the largest city to host the Winter Olympics. They will both be surpassed by Beijing in 2022.

Following Olympic tradition, the incumbent mayor of Vancouver Sam Sullivan received the Olympic flag during the closing ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy. The flag was raised on February 28, 2006, in a special ceremony and was on display at Vancouver City Hall until the Olympic opening ceremony. The event was officially opened by Governor General Michaëlle Jean,[2] who was accompanied by the Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and International Olympic Committee president Jacques Rogge.[3]

For the first time, Canada won gold in an official sport at an Olympic Games hosted at home, having failed to do so at both the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary (although Canada won the woman's curling event in Calgary when it was still only a demonstration sport).[4] Canada clinched their first gold medal on the second day of the competition and first topped the gold medal tally on the second to last day of competition and went on to become the first host nation since Norway in 1952 to lead the gold medal count.[5] With 14, Canada broke the record for the most gold medals won at a single Winter Olympics, which was 13, set by the Soviet Union in 1976 and Norway in 2002.[6] The United States won the most medals in total, their second time doing so at the Winter Olympics, and broke the record for the most medals won at a single Winter Olympics with 37, a record held up to then by Germany in 2002 with 36 medals.[5] Athletes from Slovakia[7] and Belarus[8] won the first Winter Olympic gold medals for their nations.

XXI Olympic Winter Games
2010 Winter Olympics logo
The 2010 Winter Olympics logo, named Ilanaaq the Inukshuk
Host cityVancouver, British Columbia, Canada
MottoWith glowing hearts
(French: Des plus brillants exploits)
Nations82
Athletes2,566 (1044 women, 1522 men)
Events86 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)
OpeningFebruary 12
ClosingFebruary 28
Opened by
Cauldron
StadiumBC Place
Winter
Turin 2006 Sochi 2014
Summer
Beijing 2008 London 2012

Bid and preparations

2010 Winter Olympics bidding results
City Nation Round 1 Round 2
Vancouver  Canada 40 56
Pyeongchang  South Korea 51 53
Salzburg  Austria 16 -

The Canadian Olympic Association chose Vancouver as the Canadian candidate city over Calgary, which sought to re-host the Games and Quebec City, which had lost the 2002 Olympic bid in 1995. On the first round of voting on November 21, 1998, Vancouver-Whistler had 26 votes, Quebec City had 25 and Calgary had 21. On December 3, 1998, the second and final round of voting occurred between the two leading contenders, which saw Vancouver win with 40 votes compared to Quebec City's 32 votes. Vancouver had also previously bid for the 1976 games, which were first awarded to Denver, then to Innsbruck and the 1980 games, which were awarded to Lake Placid.

After the bribery scandal over the candidacy of the Salt Lake City bid for the 2002 Winter Olympics (which resulted in Quebec City asking for compensation (C$8 million) for its unsuccessful bid),[9] many of the rules of the bidding process were changed in 1999. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) created the Evaluation Commission, which was appointed on October 24, 2002. Prior to the bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympics, host cities would often fly members of the IOC to their city where they toured the city and were provided with gifts. The lack of oversight and transparency often led to allegations of money for votes. Afterward, changes brought forth by the IOC bidding rules were tightened, and more focused on technical aspects of candidate cities. The team analyzed the candidate city features and provided its input back to the IOC.

Vancouver won the bid to host the Olympics by a vote of the International Olympic Committee on July 2, 2003, at the 115th IOC Session held in Prague, Czech Republic. The result was announced by IOC President Jacques Rogge.[10] Vancouver faced two other finalists shortlisted that same February: Pyeongchang, South Korea, and Salzburg, Austria. Pyeongchang had the most votes of the three cities in the first round of voting, in which Salzburg was eliminated. In the run-off, all but two of the members who had voted for Salzburg voted for Vancouver. It was the closest vote by the IOC since Sydney, Australia beat Beijing for the 2000 Summer Olympics by two votes. Vancouver's victory came almost two years after Toronto's 2008 Summer Olympic bid was defeated by Beijing in a landslide vote.

The Vancouver Olympic Committee (VANOC) spent C$16.6 million on upgrading facilities at Cypress Mountain, which hosted the freestyle (aerials, moguls, ski cross) and snowboarding events. With the opening in February 2009 of the C$40 million Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre at Hillcrest Park, which hosted curling, every sports venue for the 2010 Games was completed on time and at least one year prior to the Games.[11][12]

Financials

Operations

In 2004, the operational cost of the 2010 Winter Olympics was estimated to be Canadian $1.354 billion (about £828,499,787, 975,033,598 or US$1,314,307,896). As of mid-2009 it was projected to be C$1.76 billion,[13] mostly raised from non-government sources,[13] primarily through sponsorships and the auction of national broadcasting rights. C$580 million was the taxpayer-supported budget to construct or renovate venues throughout Vancouver and Whistler. A final audit conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers released in December 2010 revealed total operation cost to have been $1.84 billion and came in on budget resulting in neither surplus nor deficit. Construction of venues also came on budget with a total cost of $603 million.[14]

PricewaterhouseCoopers' study estimated a total contribution to the BC economy of $2.3 billion of Gross Domestic Product, and as well creating 45,000 jobs and contributing an additional $463 million to the tourism industry while venue construction by VANOC and 3rd parties added $1.22 billion to the economy, far short of the $10 billion forecast by Premier Gordon Campbell. The study also said that hosting the Olympics was one of many reasons why the provincial debt grew by $24 billion during the decade. Non direct olympics games cost (e.g. expanded rail network, highways, security, paid time off for government employees "volunteering" etc.) cost in excess of 7 billion.[15] In 2011, the provincial auditor-general declined to conduct a post-Games audit.[16]

Security costs

C$200 million was expected to be spent for security, which was organized through a special body, the Integrated Security Unit, of which the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) was the lead agency; other government agencies such as the Vancouver Police Department, Canada Border Services Agency, Canadian Forces, and police agencies across Canada. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) also played a role. That number was later revealed to be in the region of C$1 billion, an amount in excess of five times what was originally estimated.[17]

Venues

Olympic sites map 2010
Olympic sites map
Richmond Olympic Oval front view
Richmond Olympic Oval: speed skating long track venue

Some venues, including the Richmond Olympic Oval, were at sea level, a rarity for the Winter Games.[18] The 2010 Games were also the first—Winter or Summer—to have had an Opening Ceremony held indoors.[19] Vancouver was the most populous city ever to hold the Winter Games.[20] In February, the month when the Games were held, Vancouver has an average temperature of 4.8 °C (40.6 °F).[21] The average temperature as measured at Vancouver International Airport was 7.1 °C (44.8 °F) for the month of February 2010.[22]

The opening and closing ceremonies were held at BC Place Stadium, which received over C$150 million in major renovations. Competition venues in Greater Vancouver included the Pacific Coliseum, the Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, the UBC Winter Sports Centre, the Richmond Olympic Oval and Cypress Mountain. GM Place, now known as Rogers Arena, played host to ice hockey events, being renamed Canada Hockey Place for the duration of the Games since corporate sponsorship is not allowed for an Olympic venue.[23] Renovations included the removal of advertising from the ice surface and conversion of some seating to accommodate the media.[23] The 2010 Winter Olympics marked the first time an Olympic hockey game was played on a rink sized according to NHL rules instead of international specifications. Competition venues in Whistler included Whistler Creekside at the Whistler Blackcomb ski resort, the Whistler Olympic Park, the Whistler Celebration Plaza and the Whistler Sliding Centre.

The 2010 Winter Games marked the first time that the energy consumption of the Olympic venues was tracked in real time and made available to the public. Energy data was collected from the metering and building automation systems of nine of the Olympic venues and was displayed online through the Venue Energy Tracker project.[24]

Media coverage

The Olympic Games in Vancouver were broadcast worldwide by a number of television broadcasters. As rights for the 2010 Games have been packaged with those for the 2012 Summer Olympics, broadcasters were largely identical for both events.

The host broadcaster was Olympic Broadcasting Services Vancouver, a subsidiary of the IOC's new in-house broadcasting unit Olympic Broadcasting Services (OBS). The 2010 Olympics marked the first Games where the host broadcasting facilities were provided solely by OBS.[25] The executive director of Olympic Broadcasting Services Vancouver was Nancy Lee, a former producer and executive for CBC Sports.[26]

In Canada, the Games were the first Olympic Games broadcast by a new Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium led by CTVglobemedia and Rogers Media, displacing previous broadcaster CBC Sports. Main English-language coverage was shown on the CTV Television Network, while supplementary programming was mainly shown on TSN and Rogers Sportsnet. Main French-language coverage was shown on V and RDS.[27]

In the United States, Associated Press (AP) announced that it would send 120 reporters, photographers, editors and videographers to cover the Games on behalf of the country's news media.[28] The cost of their Olympics coverage prompted AP to make a "real departure for the wire service's online coverage". Rather than simply providing content, it partnered with more than 900 newspapers and broadcasters who split the ad revenue generated from an AP-produced multi-media package of video, photos, statistics, stories and a daily Webcast.[28] AP's coverage included a microsite with web widgets facilitating integration with social networking and bookmarking services.[29] On NBC, Bob Costas hosted the primetime telecast, while Al Michaels did so during the day. Together they co-hosted NBC's coverage of the Closing Ceremony.

In France, the Games were covered by France Télévisions, which included continuous live coverage on its website.[30]

The official broadcast theme for the Olympic Broadcasting Services host broadcast was a piece called "City of Ice" composed by Rob May and Simon Hill.[31]

Torch relay

Vancouver-Olympics-clock
The clock counting down to the opening of the Olympic Games in Downtown Vancouver

The Olympic Torch Relay is the transfer of the Olympic flame from Ancient Olympia, Greece — where the first Olympic Games were held thousands of years ago — to the stadium of the city hosting the current Olympic Games. The flame arrives just in time for the Opening Ceremony.

For the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games, the flame was lit in Olympia on October 22, 2009.[32] It then traveled from Greece, over the North Pole to Canada's High Arctic and on to the West Coast and Vancouver. The relay started its long Canada journey from the British Columbia capital of Victoria. In Canada, the torch traveled approximately 45,000 kilometres (28,000 mi) over 106 days, making it the longest relay route within one country in Olympic history. The Olympic Torch was carried by approximately 12,000 Canadians and reached over 1,000 communities.[33][34]

Celebrity torchbearers included Arnold Schwarzenegger,[35] Steve Nash,[36] Matt Lauer,[37] Justin Morneau,[38] Michael Bublé,[39] Bob Costas,[40] Shania Twain,[41] and hockey greats including Sidney Crosby,[42] Wayne Gretzky,[43] and the captains of the two Vancouver Canucks teams that went to the Stanley Cup Finals: Trevor Linden (1994)[44] and Stan Smyl (1982).[45]

The Games

Participating National Olympic Committees

82 National Olympic Committees (NOC) entered teams in the 2010 Winter Olympics.[46] Cayman Islands, Colombia, Ghana, Montenegro, Pakistan, Peru and Serbia made their winter Olympic debuts. Also Jamaica, Mexico and Morocco returned to the Games after missing the Turin Games. Tonga sought to make its Winter Olympic debut by entering a single competitor in luge, attracting some media attention, but he crashed in the final round of qualifying.[47] Luxembourg qualified two athletes[48] but did not participate because one did not reach the criteria set by the NOC[49] and the other was injured[50] before the Games. Below is a map of the participating nations and a list of the nations with the number of competitors indicated in brackets.[51]

2010 Winter Olympics Participants
2010 Winter Olympics Participants

Sports

The 2010 Winter Olympics featured 86 events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports.

  1. Biathlon
  2. Bobsleigh
  3. Curling
  4. Ice hockey
  5. Luge
  6. Skating
  7. Skiing

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline.

The opening and closing ceremonies and the events categorized as ice sports (excluding bobsleigh, luge and skeleton) were held in Vancouver and Richmond. The sports categorized as "Nordic events" were held in the Callaghan Valley located just to the west of Whistler. All alpine skiing events were held on Whistler Mountain (Creekside) and sliding events (bobsleigh, luge and skeleton) were held on Blackcomb Mountain. Cypress Mountain (located in Cypress Provincial Park in West Vancouver) hosted the freestyle skiing (aerials, moguls and ski cross), and all snowboard events (half-pipe, parallel giant slalom, snowboard cross).

SidneyCrosby2010WinterOlympicsgold
Sidney Crosby celebrates moments after scoring the gold-medal-winning goal over the United States.

Vancouver 2010 was also the first winter Olympics in which both men's and women's hockey were played on a narrower, NHL-sized ice rink,[52] measuring 200 ft × 85 ft (61 m × 26 m), instead of the international size of 200 ft × 98.5 ft (61.0 m × 30.0 m). The games were played at General Motors Place (now Rogers Arena), home of the NHL's Vancouver Canucks, which was temporarily renamed Canada Hockey Place for the duration of the Olympics. Utilizing this existing venue instead of building a new international-sized ice rink facility saved $10 million in construction costs and allowed an additional 35,000 spectators to attend Olympic hockey games.[52] However, some European countries expressed concern over this decision, worried that it might give North American players an advantage since they grew up playing on the smaller NHL-sized rinks.[53] By contrast, the only other NHL venue to host Olympic hockey, the Calgary Flames' Olympic Saddledome, started construction before Calgary won the bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics and it was designed to accommodate an international ice rink.

There were a number of events that were proposed to be included in the 2010 Winter Olympics.[54] On November 28, 2006, the IOC Executive Board at their meeting in Kuwait voted to include ski cross in the official program.[55] The Vancouver Olympic Committee (VANOC) subsequently approved the event to officially be part of the Games program.[56]

Events proposed for inclusion but ultimately rejected included:[57]

The issue over women's ski jumping being excluded ended up in the Supreme Court of British Columbia in Vancouver during April 21–24, 2009, with a verdict on July 10 excluding women's ski jumping from the 2010 Games.[58] A request to appeal that verdict to the Supreme Court of Canada was subsequently denied on December 22 – a decision that marked the end of any hopes that the event would be held during Vancouver 2010.[59] To alleviate the exclusion, VANOC organizers invited women from all over Canada to participate at Whistler Olympic Park, including Continental Cup in January 2009.[58] Women's ski jumping was included in the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.

Calendar

All times are in Pacific Standard Time (UTC-8)

In the following calendar for the 2010 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box indicates that an event competition, such as a qualification round, was held on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held with the number in these boxes representing the number of finals that were contested on that day.[60]

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Event finals EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony Medal ceremony
February 12th
Fri
13th
Sat
14th
Sun
15th
Mon
16th
Tue
17th
Wed
18th
Thu
19th
Fri
20th
Sat
21st
Sun
22nd
Mon
23rd
Tue
24th
Wed
25th
Thu
26th
Fri
27th
Sat
28th
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Alpine skiing pictogram.svg Alpine skiing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
Biathlon pictogram.svg Biathlon 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 10
Bobsleigh pictogram.svg Bobsleigh 1 1 1 3
Cross country skiing pictogram.svg Cross country skiing 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 12
Curling pictogram.svg Curling 1 1 2
Figure skating pictogram.svg Figure skating 1 1 1 1 EG 4
Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg Freestyle skiing 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Ice hockey pictogram.svg Ice hockey 1 1 2
Luge pictogram.svg Luge 1 1 1 3
Nordic combined pictogram.svg Nordic combined 1 1 1 3
Short track speed skating pictogram.svg Short track speed skating 1 1 2 1 3 8
Skeleton pictogram.svg Skeleton 2 2
Ski jumping pictogram.svg Ski jumping 1 1 1 3
Snowboarding pictogram.svg Snowboarding 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Speed skating pictogram.svg Speed skating 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 12
Daily medal events 5 5 6 5 7 6 4 6 6 4 5 5 6 7 7 2 86
Cumulative total 5 10 16 21 28 34 38 44 50 54 59 64 70 77 84 86
BC Place  ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ● 
Whistler Medal Plaza  ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ●   ● 
February 12th
Fri
13th
Sat
14th
Sun
15th
Mon
16th
Tue
17th
Wed
18th
Thu
19th
Fri
20th
Sat
21st
Sun
22nd
Mon
23rd
Tue
24th
Wed
25th
Thu
26th
Fri
27th
Sat
28th
Sun
Total events

Medal table

The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below. The host nation, Canada, is highlighted.

  Host country (Canada)

To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the Sort both.gif icon next to the column title.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Canada (CAN)*147526
2 Germany (GER)1013730
3 United States (USA)9151337
4 Norway (NOR)98623
5 South Korea (KOR)66214
6 Switzerland (SUI)6039
7 China (CHN)52411
 Sweden (SWE)52411
9 Austria (AUT)46616
10 Netherlands (NED)4138
Totals (10 nations)726053185

Concerns and controversies

Some in the foreign press, including London 2012 organizers, had criticized the lack of city decorations to acknowledge that Vancouver was the host of the Games. The original plans to decorate the city in Olympic colours, a tradition followed by other recent Games host cities, were canceled for several reasons. Anti-Games activists repeatedly vandalized the existing 2010 Olympics monuments such as the countdown clock, forcing the city to install CCTV cameras, and adding more Games decorations would have inevitably required more security presence to deter protesters, so VANOC opted to minimize these symbols to avoid making the city a police state. Besides local opposition, budget cutbacks also forced the organizers to scale back on the elaborate plans.[61]

VANOC initially benefited from an economic boom and was able to secure lucrative and record domestic sponsorships, but this boom also resulted in rapidly rising construction and labour costs. Due to these factors, as well as the late 2000s financial crisis and economic recession, VANOC built minimalistic functional venues with little aesthetic appeal though they were well-designed for post-Games usage. This approach, as well as the fact that most of the infrastructure already existed, meant that the direct costs of the Vancouver Games were much lower than recent Olympic games.[61]

Before the Games began and as they commenced, a number of concerns and controversies surfaced and received media attention. Hours before the opening ceremony, Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili was killed during a training run, intensifying questions about the safety of the course and prompting[62] organizers to implement quick modifications. Officials concluded that it was an athlete error rather than a track deficiency.[63] The International Luge Federation called an emergency meeting after the accident, and all other training runs were cancelled for the day.[64] The President of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili, thanked the hosts for the way that they handled Kumaritashvili's death which included a moment of silence and a tribute to Kumaritashvili at the opening ceremony.[65]

One critic[66] questioned the choice of Cypress Mountain as a venue because of its frequent lack of snow due to warm ocean current El Niño. Because of this possibility, organizers had a contingency plan to truck in snow from Manning Park, about 250 kilometres (160 mi) to the east of the city. This allowed events to proceed as planned.[67]

Political decisions involving cancellation of promised low-income housing and the creation of a community of mixed economic backgrounds for post-Games use of the athletes' village was criticized.[68]

Opening ceremonies were stalled while organizers dealt with mechanical problems during the cauldron lighting ceremony.[69] Speed skating events were delayed due to breakdowns of the ice resurfacers supplied by Olympia, an official sponsor of the Games.[70]

Thousands of tickets were voided by organizers when weather conditions made standing-room-only areas unsafe.[71] Visitors were also upset that, as in past Olympics, medal ceremonies required separate admission[71] and blocks of VIP tickets reserved for sponsors and dignitaries were unused at events.[72] Other glitches and complaints have included confusion by officials at the start of the February 16 men's and women's biathlon pursuit races, and restricted access to the Olympic flame cauldron on the Vancouver waterfront.[73][74]

Opposition

Opposition to the Olympic Games was expressed by activists and politicians, including Lower Mainland mayors Derek Corrigan[75] and Richard Walton.[76] Many of the public pre-Olympic events held in Vancouver were attended by protesters.[77]

On Saturday, February 13, as part of a week-long Anti-Olympic Convergence, protesters smashed windows of the Downtown Vancouver location of The Hudson's Bay department store.[78][79] Protesters later argued that the Hudson's Bay Company, "has been a symbol of colonial oppression for centuries" as well as a major sponsor of the 2010 Olympics.[80]

Some of the issues reflected in the opposition continue the themes identified in opposition to all Olympic games, some of which are outlined in anti-Olympics activist and Professor of Sociology Helen Jefferson Lenskyj's books Olympic Industry Resistance (2007) and Inside the Olympic Industry (2000), which examined a number of different Olympic Games prior to the 2010 Winter Olympics.[81] These issues of concern, underlying the opposition to any and all Olympic Games, include:

First Nations opposition

Although the Aboriginal governments of the Squamish, Musqueam, Lil'wat and Tsleil-Waututh (the "Four Host First Nations"), on whose traditional territory the Games were held, signed a protocol in 2004[89] in support of the games,[90] there was opposition to the Olympics from some indigenous groups and supporters. Although the Lil'wat branch of the St'at'imc Nation is a co-host of the Games, a splinter group from the Seton band known as the St'at'imc of Sutikalh, who have also opposed the Cayoosh Ski Resort, feared the Olympics would bring unwanted tourism and real estate sales to their territory.[91][92]

Unrelated to the four host nations or other indigenous groups, members of the Native Warrior Society removed the Olympic flag from its flag-pole at Vancouver City Hall on March 6, 2007.[93]

Local aboriginal people, as well as Canadian Inuit, initially expressed concern over the choice of an inukshuk as the symbol of the Games, with some Inuit leaders such as former Nunavut Commissioner Peter Irniq stating that the inukshuk is a culturally important symbol to them. He said that the "Inuit never build inuksuit with head, legs and arms. I have seen inuksuit [built] more recently, 100 years maybe by non-Inuit in Nunavut, with head, legs and arms. These are not called inuksuit. These are called inunguat, imitation of man."[94] Local aboriginal groups also expressed annoyance that the design did not reflect the Coast Salish and Interior Salish native culture from the region the Games are being held in, but rather that of the Inuit, who are indigenous to the Arctic far from Vancouver.

Doping

On March 11, 2010, it was reported that the Polish cross country skier Kornelia Marek was tested positive for EPO by the Polish Olympic Committee. If found guilty of doping by the International Olympic Committee, Marek and the relay teams would be disqualified and stripped of their Vancouver results. She would also be banned from the next Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, in 2014.

Marek denied taking any banned substances, but the backup "B" sample from the Vancouver doping lab confirmed the "A" sample.[95]

On October 9, 2017, the IOC announced that three positive doping cases had been found from their re-analysis programme from the 2010 games. All three cases belonged to the same athlete, whose identity was not released at the time. The IOC had re-tested 1,195 urine samples from the games out of the 1,710 taken, which equates to 70%, as part of their re-analysis programme.[96] Weeks later, the athlete was confirmed to be Slovenian biathlete Teja Gregorin.[97]

Legacy

Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper & Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean @ 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games Heads of State Reception
Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper and Governor General of Canada Michaelle Jean at the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games Heads of State Reception

The massive celebratory crowds in downtown Vancouver were highly praised by the IOC. Jacques Rogge, the president of IOC, indicated that "the way Vancouver embraced these Games was extraordinary. This is really something unique and has given a great atmosphere for these Games."[98][99] The atmosphere surrounding the Olympics, and its inclusion of foreign delegates and guests, was also praised, with many seasoned Winter Olympic observers putting the games at, or near, the top of the list of best ever Winter Olympics.[100] They were also the best watched Winter Olympics since the 1994 Olympics in Lillehammer.[101] They are also mentioned alongside the Sydney 2000 Summer games in regards to the best atmosphere. A large part is credited to the citizens of Vancouver and Canada.[102]

Some members of the media (mostly, and particularly the British media) criticized the Own the Podium and criticized the celebrations as having been somewhat nationalistic,[103][104] but this was not an opinion shared by many. Some suggested that the British media were making these criticisms in order to make the upcoming 2012 Summer Olympics more appealing.[105] Lord Sebastian Coe, chairman of the 2012 London Olympic Games Organizing Committee, attended the Vancouver Olympics to see how the city coped with the challenges of hosting. Lord Coe noted the Games had "gradually recovered from its tumultuous start" and queried that he "never thought the British would find rivals in their preoccupation with the weather which is almost elevated to an Olympic event" as he credited VANOC for meeting unforeseen challenges such as the unseasonably warm weather of Cypress Mountain. Coe added "Rarely have I seen a host city so passionate and so ready to embrace the Games".[65][106]

The Vancouver Olympics also organized and hosted the first Pride House for LGBT athletes in the history of the event.[107]

Funding

Directly as a result of Canada's medal performance at the 2010 Olympics, the Government of Canada announced in the 2010 federal budget, a new commitment of $34 million over the next two years towards programs for athletes planning to compete in future Olympics.[108] This is in addition to the $11 million per year federal government commitment to the Own the Podium program.

Also, as a result of hosting the 2010 Olympics, the British Columbia government pledged to restore funding for sports programs and athlete development to 2008 levels, which amounts to $30 million over three years.[109]

Usage of venues after the Olympic Games

The arenas in which the games were held are open for the public to use. The Richmond Olympic Oval has since been turned into an athletic centre.

See also

Notes

A. Miga and Quatchi were mascots for the Olympic Games, while Sumi was the mascot for the Paralympic Games. Mukmuk is considered a sidekick, not a full mascot.

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External links

Further reading

Preceded by
Turin
Winter Olympics
Vancouver

XXI Olympic Winter Games (2010)
Succeeded by
Sochi
2010 Winter Olympics medal table

The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from February 12 to February 28. A total of 2,632 athletes (+124 from 2006 Olympics) representing 82 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) (+2 from 2006) participated in 86 events (+2 from 2006) from 15 different sports and disciplines (unchanged from 2006).Athletes from 26 NOCs won at least one medal, and athletes from 19 of these NOCs secured at least one gold. For the first time, Canada won a gold medal at an Olympic Games it hosted, having failed to do so at both the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. In contrast to the lack of gold medals at these previous Olympics, the Canadian team finished first overall in gold medal wins, and became the first host nation—since Norway in 1952—to lead the gold medal count, with 14 medals. In doing so, it also broke the record for the most gold medals won by a NOC at a single Winter Olympics (the previous was 13, set by the Soviet Union in 1976 and matched by Norway in 2002). The United States placed first in total medals—its second time doing so in a Winter Games—and set a new record for most medals won by a NOC at a single Winter Olympics, with 37 (the previous record was 36, established by Germany in 2002). Athletes from Slovakia and Belarus won the first Winter Olympic gold medals for their nations.Cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen from Norway won five medals (three gold, one silver, one bronze), more than any other athlete. Chinese short track speed skater Wang Meng tied Bjørgen for the lead in gold medals, with three.

Alpine skiing at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Alpine skiing at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held in Canada at Whistler Creekside in Whistler, British Columbia, north of Vancouver. The ten events were scheduled for February 13–27; weather delayed the first event, the men's downhill, two days until Monday, February 15.

Alpine skiing at the 2010 Winter Olympics – Men's slalom

The men's slalom competition of the Vancouver 2010 Olympics was held at Whistler Creekside in Whistler, British Columbia, on February 27, 2010.

Giuliano Razzoli of Italy won the gold and Ivica Kostelić of Croatia picked up his second silver medal of these Olympics; André Myhrer of Sweden took the bronze.The last alpine event of the 2010 Olympics was held in challenging weather conditions, which included rain. The start was lowered 66 vertical feet (20 m), the same start as the women's race. More than 40 racers failed to complete the first run, including ten of the first thirty.

Australia at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Australia participated at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. A team of forty athletes was selected to compete in eleven sports. The Chef de Mission was Ian Chesterman who has held the position since the 1998 Winter Olympics.

Australia achieved its best ever results, winning two gold medals; in the women's aerials (Lydia Lassila) and women's snowboard halfpipe (Torah Bright); and a silver in the men's moguls. To date Australia has won a total of five gold medals, one silver medal and three bronze medals in Winter Olympic competition.

Biathlon at the 2010 Winter Olympics

The biathlon competition at the 2010 Winter Olympics were held at Whistler Olympic Park in Whistler, British Columbia. The events were held between the 13th and 26 February 2010.

The men's individual biathlon was notable for the awarding of two silver medals due to two competitors finishing with a tie (48:32.0). No bronze medal was awarded in this event.

Cross-country skiing at the 2010 Winter Olympics

The cross-country skiing competition of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver were held at Whistler Olympic Park. The events were held between 15 and 28 February 2010.

Curling at the 2010 Winter Olympics

The curling competition of the 2010 Olympics was held at Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre in Vancouver. It is the fifth time that curling was on the Olympic program, after having been staged in 1924, 1998, 2002 and 2006. The competition followed the same format that was used during the 2006 Turin Winter Olympics, with 10 teams playing a round robin tournament, from which the top four teams advance to the semi-finals.

The women's competition concluded on Friday, February 26, 2010. In the bronze medal match, the Chinese team made history by becoming the first team from Asia to win an Olympic curling medal. The gold medal match was one of the closest medal games in Olympic competition. Team Canada won the silver medal, their best performance since the 1998 Nagano Olympic Games when Sandra Schmirler skipped the Canadians to gold. Team Sweden won the gold medal. Anette Norberg, Eva Lund, Cathrine Lindahl, and Anna Le Moine (née Anna Bergström [Anna Svärd in Torino]) became the first curlers to win two gold medals at the Olympic Games.

The men's competition concluded on Saturday, February 27, 2010. In the bronze medal match, Markus Eggler of Switzerland became the first male curler to win two Olympic medals. The gold medal final was a rematch between Canada and Norway of the 2002 Olympics men's final (although only one athlete from each team participated in both finals). The only disturbance was when an unsportsmanlike spectator deliberately blew a horn while the Norwegians were delivering their stones. The crowd promptly booed the man and the horn was not blown again until the medal ceremony. The Canadians controlled the game throughout and never relinquished the lead. Torger Nergård and Kevin Martin became the second and third men to win two Olympic medals.

With the conclusion of the Vancouver Olympic curling tournament, eight athletes now have two Olympic curling medals. They are in the order in which they received their medals: Mirjam Ott (SUI), Markus Eggler (SUI), Kevin Martin (CAN), Torger Nergård (NOR), Anette Norberg, Eva Lund, Cathrine Lindahl, and Anna Le Moine, all of Sweden.

Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The events took place between 14–27 February 2010.

Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics – Ladies' singles

The ladies' single skating competition of the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The short program was held on February 23, 2010 and the free skating was held on February 25, 2010. Yuna Kim from South Korea won the gold medal setting three world best scores. Mao Asada from Japan became the first lady to accomplish one triple axel during the short program and two during the free program at the Olympics.

Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics – Men's singles

The men's single skating competition of the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The short program was held on February 16, 2010 and the free skating was held on February 18, 2010.

Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics – Pair skating

The pair skating competition of the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The short program was held on February 14, 2010 and the free skating was held on February 15, 2010.

Ice hockey at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Ice hockey at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at Rogers Arena (then known as GM Place, and renamed Canada Hockey Place for the duration of the Games due to IOC sponsorship rules), home of the National Hockey League's Vancouver Canucks, and at UBC Winter Sports Centre, home of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport's UBC Thunderbirds. Twelve teams competed in the men's event and eight teams competed in the women's event. Canada won both tournaments with victories against the United States, while Finland won both bronze games, however against different opponents.

It was the fifth Olympic appearance for Finns Jere Lehtinen and Teemu Selänne, thus making them only the sixth and seventh hockey players to compete at five Olympics after Udo Kießling, Petter Thoresen, Raimo Helminen, Dieter Hegen and Denis Perez (at the time, Helminen was the only ice hockey player to compete at six Olympics, but Selänne would join the group during the 2014 Sochi Olympics).

Ice hockey at the 2010 Winter Olympics – Men's tournament

The men's tournament in ice hockey at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from February 16-28, 2010. Games were hosted at two venues – Canada Hockey Place (renamed from "General Motors Place" for the Olympics due to IOC rules disallowing host venues to be named after non-Olympic sponsors) and UBC Thunderbird Arena. It was the fourth time since the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano that the National Hockey League allowed its players to compete. These Olympics were the first to take place in a city with an NHL team since then, which meant players on the Vancouver Canucks who were competing in the Olympics were playing in their home arena: Roberto Luongo for Canada, Ryan Kesler for the United States, Pavol Demitra for Slovakia, Sami Salo for Finland, Christian Ehrhoff for Germany, and Daniel and Henrik Sedin for Sweden.

Teams from twelve national hockey associations competed, seeded into three groups for the preliminary round. The tournament consisted of 30 games: 18 in the preliminary round (teams played the other teams in their own group); 4 qualification playoff games; 4 quarterfinal games; 2 semifinal games; 1 bronze medal game; and 1 gold medal game.During the tournament, Teemu Selänne of Finland became the all-time leader for points scored in the Olympics. He notched an assist in his second game of the tournament for 37 career points, surpassing Valeri Kharlamov of the Soviet Union, Vlastimil Bubník of Czechoslovakia, and Harry Watson of Canada. Sweden's goaltender Henrik Lundqvist set a modern-day Olympic shutout streak record of 172 minutes and 34 seconds, continuous from the final of the gold medal game of the 2006 Olympics until Sweden's quarterfinal against Slovakia.The tournament was won by Canada for the record eighth time (one more than the Soviet Union), which defeated the United States in overtime in the gold medal game. Canada's loss to the U.S. in the preliminary round of the tournament remains, as of the conclusion of the 2016 World Cup of Hockey, their most recent defeat in non-exhibition best-on-best international men's play.

Ice hockey at the 2010 Winter Olympics – Women's tournament

The women's tournament in ice hockey at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, from 13 to 25 February. Eight teams competed, seeded into two groups. Canada won the final by a score of 2–0 over the United States, who were awarded silver. The bronze medal game was won by Finland with a 3–2 victory over Sweden in overtime.

The tournament consisted of 20 games: 12 in the preliminary round (teams play the other teams in their own group); 4 final classification games; 2 semifinal games; 1 bronze medal game; and 1 final.The tournament had a total attendance of 162,419, an average of 8,120 spectators per game, making it the most attended IIHF-run women's hockey tournament of all-time.

Jonathan Toews

Jonathan Bryan Toews ( TAYVZ; born April 29, 1988) is a Canadian professional ice hockey centre who currently serves as captain of the Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League (NHL).

Toews was selected by the Blackhawks with the third overall pick in the 2006 NHL Entry Draft. He joined the team in 2007–08 and was nominated for the Calder Memorial Trophy as NHL Rookie of the Year. The following season he was named team captain, becoming the second-youngest captain in NHL history (after Sidney Crosby) at the time. Toews won the Stanley Cup in 2010, along with the Conn Smythe Trophy for the playoff MVP. After winning the Cup, Toews passed Peter Forsberg as the youngest player to join the Triple Gold Club. He won the Stanley Cup again in 2013 and 2015.

Toews competes internationally for Team Canada and has won gold medals at the 2005 World U-17 Hockey Challenge, 2006 and 2007 World Junior Championships, 2007 World Championships, the 2010 Winter Olympics (a tournament in which he was named best forward) and the 2014 Winter Olympics. In 2017, he was named one of the 100 Greatest NHL Players.

Netherlands at the 2010 Winter Olympics

The Netherlands participated at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The Dutch team consisted of 34 competitors and participated in bobsleigh, short track speed skating, snowboarding, and speed skating.

The Dutch team won eight medals, of which four are gold medals. Seven medals were won in speed skating, one in snowboarding. The gold medal Nicolien Sauerbreij won on the women's parallel giant slalom was the first Dutch medal outside speed skating at the Winter Olympics since Sjoukje Dijkstra's medal for figure skating in 1964 and the 100th Dutch gold medal at the Olympics overall. This was also the first medal for the Netherlands at the Winter Olympics at a snow event.

Shaun White

Shaun Roger White (born September 3, 1986) is an American professional snowboarder, skateboarder and musician. He is a three-time Olympic gold medalist. He holds the record for the most X-Games gold medals and most Olympic gold medals by a snowboarder, and has won 10 ESPY Awards.

Turkey at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Turkey participated at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Venues of the 2010 Winter Olympics

For the 2010 Winter Olympics, a total of ten sports venues were used, seven in Vancouver (including BC Place), and three in Whistler.

The 2010 Winter Olympic Games and Paralympic Games were held in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. The Olympics ran from February 12 to February 28, 2010, and the Paralympics from March 12 to March 21, during which nine competition venues were used, spread across Vancouver, Whistler, and the neighbouring areas of West Vancouver and Richmond. The majority of ice sport events were held in Vancouver, while Whistler, which normally serves as a ski resort, hosted the snow events. Six non-competition venues, three each in Vancouver and Whistler, provided athlete housing, space for media, and locations for ceremonies associated with the Games.In its 2002 evaluation of Vancouver's bid during the bidding process for the 2010 Games, the Evaluation Commission of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) highlighted the number and quality of existing competition and training facilities as one of the bid's strengths. Of the competition venues that the bid proposed for use during the Games, six required new construction, with the remainder already built in Vancouver and Whistler. The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (VANOC), which is responsible for the construction and maintenance of facilities for the Games, pledged that all new construction of permanent facilities, whether on public or private land, would be funded by the government.According to CEO John Furlong, VANOC "started our venue construction as early as possible". Construction on Cypress Mountain, the first new competition venue to be completed, began in March 2006 and was completed only eight months later, three years ahead of the start of the Games. By December 2007, all three competition venues at Whistler were completed and open for training and testing. Final construction was completed in February 2009, and sporting events were scheduled at the venues to ensure that they would be adequately tested before hosting the Olympic events. In total, six new competition venues were constructed: Cypress Mountain, Richmond Olympic Oval, UBC Thunderbird Arena, Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, Whistler Olympic Park, and The Whistler Sliding Centre.The Whistler Sliding Centre was promoted as being one of the fastest sliding tracks in the world, which caused a number of concerns about safety. On February 12, 2010, hours before the opening ceremony, Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili suffered a fatal crash during a training run when he was thrown off his sled and collided with a steel pole. He was travelling 143.3 km/h (89.0 mph) at the time. His accident came after a series of incidents in the week and reignited concerns about the track's safety. Investigations were conducted the same day, concluding that the accident was not caused by deficiencies in the track. As a preventative measure, an extra 100 ft (30 m) of wall was added after the end of Turn 16, and the ice profile was changed.

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