The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010. The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired. The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.
of the United States
|Date taken||April 1, 2010|
|Most populous state||California (37,253,956)|
|Least populous state||Wyoming (563,826)|
As required by the United States Constitution, the U.S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U.S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U.S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code.
On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska. More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U.S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010. The number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today."
The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up" (NRFU).
The Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information. The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions:
The form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total.
Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey. The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, and no household will receive it more than once every five years.
In June 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option. When noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples (whether same-sex or opposite-sex) who were not married.
The 2010 census cost $13 billion, approximately $42 per capita; by comparison, the 2010 census per-capita cost for China was about US$1 and for India was US$0.40. Operational costs were $5.4 billion, significantly under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) noted that the cost of conducting the census has approximately doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, and at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency also has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be immediately reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U.S. households that did not reply by mail were based on such outside interviews, Groves said.
In 2005, Lockheed Martin won a six-year, $500 million contract to capture and standardize data for the census. The contract included systems, facilities, and staffing. The final value of that contract was in excess of one billion dollars. Information technology was about a quarter of the projected $11.3 billion cost of the decennial census. The use of high-speed document scanning technology, such as ImageTrac scanners developed by IBML, helped Lockheed Martin complete the project on schedule and under budget.
This was the first census to use hand-held computing devices with GPS capability, although they were only used for the address canvassing operation. Enumerators (information gatherers) that had operational problems with the device understandably made negative reports. During the 2009 Senate confirmation hearings for Robert Groves, President Obama's Census Director appointee, there was much mention of contracting problems but very little criticism of the units themselves. In rural areas there was a problem with transmission of data to and from the HHC. Since the units were updated nightly with important changes and reprogramming, operator implementation of proper procedure was imperative. Dramatic dysfunction and delays were caused if the units were not put into sleep mode overnight. The Census Bureau chose to conduct the primary operation, Non-Response Follow Up (NRFU), without using the handheld computing devices.
Due to allegations surrounding previous censuses that poor people and non-whites are routinely undercounted, for the 2010 census, the Census Bureau tried to avoid that bias by enlisting tens of thousands of intermediaries, such as churches, charities and firms, to explain to people the importance of being counted.
The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) was given a contract to help publicize the importance of the census count and to encourage individuals to fill out their forms. In September 2009, after controversial undercover videos showing four ACORN staffers giving tax advice to a man and a woman posing as a prostitute, the Bureau canceled ACORN's contract. Various American celebrities, including Demi Lovato and Eva Longoria, were used in public service announcements targeting younger people to fill out census forms. Wilmer Valderrama and Rosario Dawson have helped spread census awareness among young Hispanics, a historically low participating ethnicity in the U.S. Census. Rapper Ludacris also participated in efforts to spread awareness of the 2010 Census.
The Census Bureau hired about 635,000 people to find those U.S. residents who had not returned their forms by mail; as of May 28, 2010, 113 census workers had been victims of crime while conducting the census. As of June 29, there were 436 incidents involving assaults or threats against enumerators, more than double the 181 incidents in 2000; one enumerator, attempting to hand-deliver the census forms to a Hawaii County police officer, was arrested for trespassing – the officer's fellow policemen made the arrest.
Some political conservatives and libertarians questioned the validity of the questions and even encouraged people to refuse to answer questions for privacy and constitutional reasons. Michele Bachmann, a conservative Republican Representative from Minnesota, stated that she would not fill out her census form other than to indicate the number of people living in her household because "the Constitution doesn't require any information beyond that." Former Republican Representative and Libertarian presidential candidate Bob Barr stated that the census has become too intrusive, going beyond the mere enumeration (i.e., count) intended by the framers of the U.S. Constitution. According to political commentator Juan Williams, "Census participation rates have been declining since 1970, and if conservatives don't participate, doubts about its accuracy and credibility may become fatal."
As a result, the Census Bureau undertook an unprecedented advertising campaign targeted at encouraging white political conservatives to fill out their forms, in the hope of avoiding an undercount of this group. The 2010 U.S. Census was the primary sponsor at NASCAR races in Atlanta, Bristol, and Martinsville, and sponsored the No. 16 Ford Fusion driven by Greg Biffle for part of the season, because of a marketing survey that indicated most NASCAR fans lean politically conservative. It also ran an advertisement during the 2010 Super Bowl, and hired singer Marie Osmond, who is thought to have many conservative fans, to publicize the census.
The results of the 2010 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 2012 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 2012 presidential election.
Because of population changes, eighteen states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and ten states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 12 seats being switched.
|Gained four seats||Gained two seats||Gained one seat||Lost one seat||Lost two seats|
Some objected to the counting of persons who are in the United States illegally. Republican senators David Vitter and Bob Bennett tried unsuccessfully to add questions on immigration status to the census form.
Organizations such as the Prison Policy Initiative argued that the census counts of incarcerated men and women as residents of prisons, rather than of their pre-incarceration addresses, skewed political clout and resulted in misleading demographic and population data.
The term "Negro" was used in the questionnaire as one of the options for African Americans (Question 9. What is Person (number)'s race? ... Black, African Am., or Negro) as a choice to describe one's race. Census Bureau spokesman Jack Martin explained that "many older African-Americans identified themselves that way, and many still do. Those who identify themselves as Negroes need to be included." The word was also used in the 2000 Census, with over 56,000 people identifying themselves as "Negro".
The 2010 census contained ten questions about age, gender, ethnicity, home ownership, and household relationships. Six of the ten questions were to be answered for each individual in the household. Federal law has provisions for fining those who refuse to complete the census form.
Detroit Mayor Dave Bing held a press conference on March 22, 2011 to announce that the city would challenge its census results. The challenge, being led by the city's planning department, cited an inconsistency as an example showing a downtown census tract which lost only 60 housing units, but 1,400 people, implying that a downtown jail or dormitory was missed in canvassing.
NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg held a conference on March 27, 2011, to announce that the city would also challenge his city's census results, specifically the apparent undercounting in the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. Bloomberg said that the numbers for Queens and Brooklyn, the two most populous boroughs, are implausible. According to the Census, they grew by only 0.1% and 1.6%, respectively, while the other boroughs grew by between 3% and 5%. He also stated that the census showed improbably high numbers of vacant housing in vital neighborhoods such as Jackson Heights, Queens.
The District of Columbia announced in August 2011 that it would also challenge its census results. The Mayor's Office claimed that the detailed information provided for 549 census blocks is "nonsensical", listing examples of census data that show housing units located in the middle of a street that does not actually exist. However, officials do not believe the city's total population will drastically change as a result of the challenge.
A 2009 lawsuit, Clemons v. Department of Commerce (see also controversy and history of United States congressional apportionment), sought a court order for Congress to reapportion the House of Representatives with a greater number of members following the census, to rectify under- and over-representation of some states under the so-called 435 rule established by the Apportionment Act of 1911, which limits the number of U.S. Representatives to that number, meaning that some states are slightly underrepresented proportionate to their true population and that others are slightly overrepresented by the same standard. Had this occurred, it would have also affected Electoral College apportionment for the 2012–2020 presidential elections. After the court order was not granted, the plaintiffs appealed the case to the United States Supreme Court, and on December 13, 2010, the Supreme Court vacated and remanded with instructions to dismiss the complaint for lack of jurisdiction.
The state with the highest percentage rate of growth was Nevada, while the state with the largest population increase was Texas. Michigan, the 8th largest by population, was the only state to lose population (although Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, lost population as well), and the District of Columbia saw its first gain since the 1950s. Note that the resident populations listed below do not include people living overseas. For Congressional apportionment, the sum of a state's resident population and its population of military personnel and federal contractors living overseas (but not other citizens overseas, such as missionaries or expatriate workers) is used.
|Rank||State||Population as of
|Population as of
|—||District of Columbia||572,059||601,723||29,664||5.2%|
These are core metropolitan rankings versus combined statistical areas. For full list with current data, go to Metropolitan Statistics.
|Rank||Metropolitan Statistical Area||2010 Census||Encompassing Combined Statistical Area|
|1||New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area||19,567,410||New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area|
|2||Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area||12,828,837||Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area|
|3||Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area||9,461,105||Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area|
|4||Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area||6,426,214||Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK Combined Statistical Area|
|5||Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area||5,965,343||Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area|
|6||Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area||5,920,416||Houston-The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area|
|7||Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area||5,636,232||Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area|
|8||Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area||5,564,635||Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL Combined Statistical Area|
|9||Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area||5,286,728||Atlanta–Athens-Clarke County–Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area|
|10||Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area||4,552,402||Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area|
|11||San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area||4,335,391||San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area|
|12||Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area||4,296,250||Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area|
|13||Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area||4,224,851||Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area|
|14||Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area||4,192,887|
|15||Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area||3,439,809||Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area|
|16||Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area||3,348,859||Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Combined Statistical Area|
|17||San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area||3,095,313|
|18||St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,787,701||St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington, MO-IL Combined Statistical Area|
|19||Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,783,243|
|20||Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,710,489||Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area|
|21||Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,543,482||Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area|
|22||Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,356,285||Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area|
|23||Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,226,009||Portland-Vancouver-Salem, OR-WA Combined Statistical Area|
|24||Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,217,012||Charlotte-Concord, NC-SC Combined Statistical Area|
|25||San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,142,508|
(per square mile)
|1||New York||New York||8,175,133||302.6||27,016.3||Northeast|
|25||Washington||District of Columbia||601,723||61.0||9,864.3||South|
|46||San Juan||Puerto Rico||395,326||47.9||8,253.1|
|76||Jersey City||New Jersey||247,597||14.8||16,729.5||Northeast|
|94||North Las Vegas||Nevada||216,961||101.3||2,141.8||West|
The resident continued to refuse to take the Census, and [census worker Russell] Haas said he waited outside a chain-link fence while the resident called his co-workers at the Hawai‘i County Police Department. When police arrived, instead of asking the resident to accept the forms as required by federal law, the officers crumpled the papers into Haas' chest and handcuffed him, Haas said....Haas said he told officers that it was his duty to leave the Census forms with the resident, and that he would leave as soon as he did it. The officers were enforcing state law and had not been trained on the federal Census law, Hawaii County Police Maj. Sam Thomas said.
Allaire is an unincorporated community located within Wall Township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the ZIP Code Tabulation Area for ZIP Code 07727 had a population of 7,050.Allenwood, New Jersey
Allenwood is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) located within Wall Township, in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP's population was 925.Boyd County, Nebraska
Boyd County is a county in the State of Nebraska. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2,099. Its county seat is Butte. The county was formed in 1891 and named after James E. Boyd, the Nebraska Governor at the time.In the Nebraska license plate system, Boyd County is represented by the prefix 63 (it had the 63rd-largest number of vehicles registered in the county when the license plate system was established in 1922).
In the 2010 United States Census, three incorporated villages had populations of fewer than 10 people: Anoka, population 6, Gross, population 2, and Monowi, population 1. Monowi was the only incorporated city in the United States with only one resident at the 2010 census.Camino Tassajara, California
Camino Tassajara is a census-designated place in Contra Costa County, California. Camino Tassajara sits at an elevation of 814 feet (248 m). The 2010 United States census reported Camino Tassajara's population was 2,197.Fort Washington, California
Fort Washington is a census-designated place in Fresno County, California. Fort Washington sits at an elevation of 249 feet (76 m). The 2010 United States census reported Fort Washington's population was 233.Hamilton Square, New Jersey
Hamilton Square is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) located within Hamilton Township, in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that is the site of a historic colonial village. Until the 2000 Census the area was part of the Mercerville-Hamilton Square CDP, which was split into two CDPs as of 2010: Mercerville and Hamilton Square. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP's population was 12,784.Hamilton Square was established in 1692 and was named after Alexander Hamilton in a wave of anti-British feeling at the time of the War of 1812. It previously had been called Nottingham after the British town. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP's population was 12,784.Harrisburg–York–Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area
The Harrisburg–York–Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area (CSA) is made up of six counties in southern Pennsylvania. The United States Office of Management and Budget has recognized the Harrisburg and York areas along with several Metropolitan Statistical Areas to make a Combined Statistical Area, located in southern Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 United States Census the CSA had a population total of 1,219,422, and ranked 3rd most populous in the state of Pennsylvania and 43rd most populous in the United States.Hasley Canyon, California
Hasley Canyon is an affluent census-designated place in Los Angeles County, California. Hasley Canyon sits at an elevation of 1,765 feet (538 m). The 2010 United States census reported Hasley Canyon's population was 1,137.Homestead Valley, San Bernardino County, California
Homestead Valley is a census-designated place in San Bernardino County, California. Homestead Valley sits at an elevation of 3,022 feet (921 m). The 2010 United States census reported Homestead Valley's population was 3,032.Lanham, Maryland
Lanham is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Prince George's County, Maryland. As of the 2010 United States Census it had a population of 10,157. The New Carrollton station (the terminus of the Washington Metro's Orange Line) as well as an Amtrak station are across the Capital Beltway in New Carrollton, Maryland. Doctors Community Hospital is located in Lanham.List of cities in Connecticut
Connecticut is a state located in the Northeastern United States. City incorporation requires a Special Act by the Connecticut General Assembly. All cities in Connecticut are dependent municipalities, meaning they are located within and subordinate to a town. However, except for one, all currently existing cities in Connecticut are consolidated with their parent town. Former cities are listed in a separate table below.
Towns in Connecticut are allowed to adopt a city form of government without the need to re-incorporate as a city. Connecticut state law also makes no distinction between a consolidated town/city and a regular town. Bolded city names indicate the state's largest cities, with the most populated being Bridgeport. Population is from the 2010 United States Census where available. Currently, Windham County and Tolland County are the only counties in Connecticut without a single city in them.List of cities in Maine
Maine is a state located in Northeastern United States. According to the 2010 United States Census, Maine is the 9th least populous state, with 1,328,361 inhabitants, but the 12th smallest by land area spanning 30,842.92 square miles (79,882.8 km2) of land. Maine is divided into 16 counties and contains 488 incorporated municipalities consisting of cities, towns, and plantations.The list, for each city, shows the population in 2013, the population estimate of 2014, the growth/shrinking percentage between the three, and the date of incorporation as a city. Maine has 23 incorporated cities, listed in the below table. Towns in Maine with significantly large populations include Scarborough and Brunswick with populations of 19,524 and 20,441, respectively, as of 2014.Oasis, Riverside County, California
Oasis is a census-designated place in the California county of Riverside. Oasis sits at an elevation of 141 feet (43 m) below sea level. The 2010 United States census reported Oasis's population was 6,890.Robertsville, New Jersey
Robertsville is a census-designated place and unincorporated community located within Marlboro Township, in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP's population was 11,297.Rose Hills, California
Rose Hills (also known as North Whittier) is a census-designated place in Los Angeles County, California. Rose Hills sits at an elevation of 518 feet (158 m). The 2010 United States census reported Rose Hills's population was 2,803.
The CDP consists primarily of the Spy Glass Hill section of unincorporated Whittier, which is wholly surrounded by Rose Hills Memorial Park.Rosebud County, Montana
Rosebud County is a county in the state of Montana. It was established February 11, 1901, and has Montana vehicle license plate prefix 29. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 9,233. Its county seat is Forsyth.San Miguel, Contra Costa County, California
San Miguel is a census-designated place in Contra Costa County, California. San Miguel sits at an elevation of 249 feet (76 m). The 2010 United States census reported San Miguel's population was 3,392.South Monrovia Island, California
South Monrovia Island is a census-designated place in Los Angeles County, California. It sits at an elevation of 384 feet (117 m). It is bounded to the west and north by Monrovia, to the east by Duarte, and to the south by Irwindale. The 2010 United States census reported that South Monrovia Island's population was 6,777.Uniondale, New York
Uniondale is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP), as well as a suburb in Nassau County, New York, United States, on Long Island, in the Town of Hempstead. The ZIP Code is 11553. The population was 24,759 at the 2010 United States Census. Uniondale is home to Hofstra University's north campus.